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Periodic maintenance and tune-up helps to pre(cid:6) vent small problems from growing into larger ones lat(cid:6) er on. The repair manual outlines exactly what main(cid:6) tenance is required and clearly explains how to do the work yourself step-by-step.

Areas covered include such things as spark plug re(cid:6) placement, valve clearance adjustment and engine oil and filter replacement.

Where to obtain the

Repair Manual

The repair manual for 4Runner, written in Eng(cid:6) lish, may be purchased as applicable from any Toyota dealer. Pub. Name: 2002 4Runner Repair Manual Pub. No.: RM887U1 (Maintenance, Preparation, Service specifications and Diagnostics) RM887U2 (Engine, Chassis and Body)

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Toyota has made a special effort to encourage use of seat belts.

Toyota belts are:

(cid:1) Comfortable (cid:1) Easy to use (cid:1) Convenient

We encourage you to use your belts every time you drive.

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Welcome to the growing group of value–conscious people who drive Toyotas. We are proud of the advanced engineering and quality construction of each vehicle we build. This Owner’s Manual explains the operation of your new Toyota. Please read it thoroughly and have all the occupants follow the instructions carefully. Doing so will help you enjoy many years of safe and trouble–free motoring. For important information about this manual and your Toyota, read the following pages carefully. When it comes to service, remember that your Toyota dealer knows your vehicle best and is interested in your complete satisfaction. He will provide quality maintenance and any other assistance you may require. If there is not a Toyota dealer near you, or you need emergency assistance for any reason, please call the following number:

(cid:1) U.S. OWNERS: (cid:1) CANADIAN OWNERS: Toyota Canada Customer Interaction Centre

Toyota Customer Assistance Center

Toll–free:1–888–TOYOTA–8 (1–888–869–6828)

Please leave this Owner’s Manual in this vehicle at the time of resale. The next owner will need this information also. All information and specifications in this manual are current at the time of printing. However, because of Toyota’s policy of continual product improvement, we reserve the right to make changes at any time without notice. Please note that this manual applies to all models and explains all equipment, including options. Therefore, you may find some explanations for equipment not installed on your vehicle.

 2001 TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced or copied, in whole or in part, without the written permission of Toyota Motor Corporation.

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Important information about this manual

Safety and vehicle damage warnings

Safety symbol

Throughout this manual, you will see safety and vehicle dam- age warnings. You must follow these warnings carefully to avoid possible injury or damage. The types of warnings, what they look like, and how they are used in this manual are explained as follows:


This is a warning against something which may cause injury to people if the warning is ignored. You are informed about what you must or must not do in order to avoid or reduce the risk to yourself and other people.


This is a warning against something which may cause damage to the vehicle or its equipment if the warning is ignored. You are informed about what you must or must not do in order to avoid or reduce the risk of damage to your vehicle and its equipment.

the safety symbol When you see shown above, it means: “Do not...”; “Do not do this”; or “Do not let this happen”.


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INFORMATION BEFORE DRIVING YOUR TOYOTA Off–road vehicle precautions Break–in period Fuel Operation in foreign countries Three–way catalytic converter Engine exhaust cautions Facts about engine oil consumption Twin ground electrode spark plugs Brake system Brake pad wear limit indicators Luggage stowage precautions Your Toyota’s identification Theft prevention labels Suspension and chassis Types of tires

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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Off–road vehicle precautions

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This vehicle belongs to the utility ve- hicle class, which has higher ground clearance and narrower tread in relation to the height of its center of gravity to make it capable of performing in a wide variety of off–road applications. Specific design characteristics give it a higher center of gravity than ordinary passen- ger cars. This vehicle design feature causes this type of vehicle to be more likely to rollover. And, utility vehicles have a significantly higher rollover rate than other types of vehicles. An advan- tage of the higher ground clearance is a better view of the road allowing you is not de- to anticipate problems. signed the same speeds as ordinary passenger cars any more than low–slung sports cars de- signed to perform satisfactorily under off–road conditions. Therefore, sharp turns at excessive speeds may cause rollover.

It for cornering at


Always observe the following precau- tions to minimize the risk of serious personal injury or damage to your ve- hicle: (cid:1) In a rollover crash, an unbelted per- son is significantly more likely to die than a person wearing a seat belt. Therefore, the driver and all passengers should fasten their seat belts whenever the vehicle is mov- ing.

(cid:1) Avoid sharp turns or abrupt maneu- vers, if at all possible. Failure to operate this vehicle correctly may result in loss of control or vehicle rollover causing death or serious injury.

(cid:1) Avoid loading any items on the roof that will raise the vehicle’s center of gravity.

(cid:1) Always slow down in gusty cross- winds. Because of its profile and higher center of gravity, your ve- hicle to side winds than an ordinary passenger car. Slowing down will allow you to have better control.

is more sensitive


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jump, make sharp

(cid:1) When driving off–road or in rugged terrain, do not drive at excessive speeds, turns, strike objects, etc. This may cause loss of control or vehicle rollover causing death or serious injury. You are also risking expensive damage to your vehicle’s suspension and chassis.

(cid:1) Do not drive horizontally across steep slopes. Driving straight up or straight down is preferred. Your ve- hicle (or any similar off–road ve- hicle) can tip over sideways much more easily than forward or back- ward.

Break–in period Drive gently and avoid high speeds. Your vehicle does not need an elaborate break–in. But following a few simple tips for the first 1600 km (1000 miles) can add to the future economy and long life of your vehicle: (cid:1) Do not drive over 88 km/h (55 mph). (cid:1) Run the engine at moderate speed be-

tween 2000 and 4000 rpm.

(cid:1) Avoid full–throttle starts. (cid:1) Try to avoid hard stops during the first

300 km (200 miles).

(cid:1) Do not drive for a long time at any

single speed, either fast or slow.

(cid:1) Do not tow a trailer during the first

800km (500miles).

Fuel FUEL TYPE Your new vehicle must use only un- leaded gasoline. To help prevent gas station mix–ups, your Toyota has a smaller fuel tank opening. The special nozzle on pumps with un- leaded fuel will fit it, but the larger stan- dard nozzle on pumps with leaded gas will not. At a minimum, the gasoline you use should meet the specifications of ASTM D4814 in the U.S.A. and CGSB 3.5–M93
in Canada.


Do not use leaded gasoline. Use of leaded gasoline will cause the three– way catalytic converter to lose its ef- fectiveness and the emission control system to function improperly. Also, this can increase maintenance costs.

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for quality

QUALITY GASOLINE Automotive manufacturers in the U.S., Europe and Japan have developed a specification fuel named World–Wide Fuel Charter (WWFC) that is expected to be applied world wide. The WWFC consists of three categories that depend on required emission lev- els. In the U.S., category 3 has been adopted. The WWFC improves air quali- ty by providing for better emissions in vehicle fleets, and customer satisfaction through better vehicle performance. CLEANER BURNING GASOLINE Cleaner burning gasoline, including re- formulated gasoline that contains oxy- genates such as ethanol or MTBE is available in many areas. Toyota recommends the use of cleaner burning gasoline and appropriately blended reformulated gasoline. These types of gas- oline provide excellent vehicle perfor- mance, reduce vehicle emissions, and im- prove air quality.

If you use gasohol

OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE Toyota allows the use of oxygenate blended gasoline where the oxygenate content is up to 10% ethanol or 15% MTBE. in your Toyota, be sure that it has an octane rating no lower than 87. Toyota does not recommend the use of gasoline containing methanol. GASOLINE CONTAINING MMT Some gasoline contain an octane en- hancing additive called MMT (Methylcy- clopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl). Toyota does not recommend the use of gasoline that contains MMT. If fuel con- taining MMT is used, your emission con- trol system may be adversely affected. The Malfunction Indicator Lamp on the in- strument cluster may come on. If this hap- pens, contact your Toyota dealer for ser- vice. GASOLINE QUALITY In a very few cases, you may experience driveability problems caused by the partic- ular gasoline that you are using. If you continue to have unacceptable driveability, try changing gasoline brands. If this does not rectify your problem, then consult your Toyota dealer.

fuel, or

the recommended

OCTANE RATING Select Octane Rating 87 (Research Oc- tane Number 91) or higher. Use of unleaded gasoline with an octane rating or research octane number lower than stated above will cause persistent heavy knocking. If it is severe, this will lead to engine damage. If your engine knocks... If you detect heavy knocking even when using if you hear steady knocking while holding a steady speed on level roads, consult your Toyota dealer. However, now and then, you may notice light knocking for a short time while accel- erating or driving up hills. This is no need of concern. GASOLINE CONTAINING DETERGENT ADDITIVES Toyota recommends the use of gasoline that contains detergent additives to avoid build–up of engine deposits. However, all gasoline sold the U.S. contains detergent additives to keep clean and/or clean intake systems.



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(cid:2) Do not use gasohol other than stated above. It will cause fuel sys- tem damage or vehicle performance problems.

(cid:2) If driveability problems occur (poor hot starting, vaporizing, engine knock, etc.), discontinue the use.

(cid:2) Take care not to spill gasohol dur- ing refueling. Gasohol may cause paint damage.


70 L (18.5 gal., 15.4 Imp. gal.)

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Three–way catalytic converter

Operation in foreign countries If you plan to drive your Toyota another country... First, comply with the vehicle registration laws. Second, confirm the availability of the cor- rect fuel (unleaded and minimum octane number).


The three–way catalytic converter is an emission control device installed in the exhaust system. The purpose is to reduce pollutants in the exhaust gas.


(cid:1) Keep people and combustible mate- rials away from the exhaust pipe while the engine is running. The exhaust gas is very hot.

(cid:1) Do not drive, idle or park your ve- hicle over anything that might burn easily such as grass, leaves, paper or rags.

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A large amount of unburned gases flowing into the three–way catalytic converter may cause it to overheat and create a fire hazard. To prevent this and other damage, observe the following precautions: (cid:2) Use only unleaded gasoline. (cid:2) Do not drive with an extremely low fuel level; running out of fuel could cause the engine to misfire, creat- ing an excessive load on the three– way catalytic converter.

(cid:2) Do not allow the engine to run at idle speed for more than 20 min- utes.

(cid:2) Avoid racing the engine. (cid:2) Do not push–start or pull–start your


(cid:2) Do not turn off the ignition while

the vehicle is moving.

(cid:2) Keep your engine in good running order. Malfunctions in the engine electrical system, electronic ignition system/distributor ignition system or fuel systems could cause an ex- tremely high three–way catalytic converter temperature.

(cid:2) If the engine becomes difficult to start or stalls frequently, take your vehicle in for a check–up as soon as possible. Remember, your Toyota dealer knows your vehicle and its three–way catalytic converter sys- tem best.

(cid:2) To ensure that the three–way cata- lytic converter and the entire emis- sion control system operate proper- ly, your vehicle must receive the periodic inspections required by the Toyota Maintenance Schedule. For scheduled maintenance information, refer to the “Scheduled Maintenance Guide” or “Owner’s Manual Supple- ment”.


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Engine exhaust cautions


(cid:1) Avoid inhaling the engine exhaust. It contains carbon monoxide, which is a colorless and odorless gas. It can cause unconsciousness or even death.

(cid:1) Make sure the exhaust system has no holes or loose connections. The system should be checked from time to time. If you hit something, or notice a change in the sound of the the system exhaust, have checked immediately.

(cid:1) Do not run the engine in a garage or enclosed area except the time needed to drive the vehicle in or out. The exhaust gases cannot escape, making this a particularly dangerous situation.


(cid:1) Do not remain for a long time in a parked vehicle with the engine run- ning. If it is unavoidable, however, do so only in an unconfined area and adjust the heating or cooling system to force outside air into the vehicle.

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(cid:1) Keep the back door and back win- dow closed while driving. An open or unsealed back door and back window, may cause exhaust gases to be drawn into the vehicle.

(cid:1) To allow proper operation of your vehicle’s ventilation system, keep the inlet grilles in front of the wind- shield clear of snow, leaves, or oth- er obstructions.

(cid:1) If you smell exhaust fumes in the the windows vehicle, drive with open and the back door and back window closed. Have the cause im- mediately located and corrected.

Facts about engine oil consumption FUNCTIONS OF ENGINE OIL Engine oil has the primary functions of lubricating and cooling the inside of the engine, and plays a major role in main- taining the engine in proper working order. ENGINE OIL CONSUMPTION It is normal that an engine should con- sume some engine oil during normal engine operation. The causes of oil consumption in a normal engine are as follows. (cid:1) Oil is used to lubricate pistons, piston rings and cylinders. A thin film of oil is left on the cylinder wall when a pis- ton moves downwards in the cylinder. High negative pressure generated when the vehicle is decelerating sucks some of this oil into the combustion chamber. This oil as well as some part of the oil film left on the cylinder wall is burned by temperature combustion gases during the combustion process.

the high

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(cid:1) Oil is also used to lubricate the stems of the intake valves. Some of this oil is sucked into the combustion chamber together with is burned along with the fuel. High tem- perature exhaust gases also burn the oil used to lubricate the exhaust valve stems.

intake air and


The amount of engine oil consumed de- pends on the viscosity of the oil, the quality of the oil and the conditions the vehicle is driven under. More oil is consumed by high–speed driv- ing and frequent acceleration and decel- eration. A new engine consumes more oil, since its pistons, piston rings and cylinder walls have not become conditioned. When judging the amount of oil con- sumption, note that the oil may become diluted and make it difficult to judge the true level accurately. As an example, if a vehicle is used for repeated short trips, and consumes a nor- mal amount of oil, the dipstick may not show any drop in the oil level at all, even after 1000 km (600 miles) or more. This is because the oil is gradually becoming diluted with fuel or moisture, making it appear that the oil level has not changed. 199

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The diluting ingredients evaporate out when the vehicle is then driven at high speeds, as on an expressway, making it appear that oil is excessively consumed after driving at high speeds. IMPORTANCE OF ENGINE OIL LEVEL CHECK One of the most important points in prop- er vehicle maintenance is to keep the en- gine oil at the optimum level so that oil function will not be impaired. Therefore, it is essential that the oil level be checked regularly. Toyota recommends that the oil level be checked every time you refuel the vehicle.

Twin ground electrode spark plugs

Your engine is fitted with twin ground electrode spark plugs.



Failure to check the oil level regularly could lead to serious engine trouble due to insufficient oil.

Use only twin ground electrode spark plugs and do not adjust gaps for your engine performance.

For detailed information on oil level check, see “Checking the engine oil level” in Sec- tion 7–2.


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Brake system This brake system has 2 independent hy- draulic circuits. If either circuit should fail, the other will still work. However, the ped- al will be harder to press, and your stop- ping distance will be the brake system warning light may come on.

longer. Also,


Do not drive your vehicle with only a single brake system. Have your brakes fixed immediately.

the brake system warning

BRAKE BOOSTER The brake booster uses brake fluid pres- surized by the pump to power–assist the brakes. If the brake booster fails during driving, light comes on and buzzer sounds continuous- ly. In this case, the brakes may not work properly. If they do not work well, depress the brake pedal firmly. If the brake system warning light comes on, immediately stop your vehicle and contact your Toyota deal- er. The brake system warning light may stay on for about 60 seconds after the ignition key is turned to the “ON” position. It is normal if the light turns off after a while.

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the brake pedal

repeatedly Depressing may turn on the brake system warning light and buzzer. It is normal if the light turns off and the buzzer stops sounding after a few seconds. You may hear a small sound in the engine compartment after the engine is started or the brake pedal is depressed repeatedly. This is a pump pulsating sound of the brake system, and it is not a malfunction.


(cid:1) Do not pump the brake pedal if the the fluid

engine stalls. Each push on pedal uses up your brake pressure reserve.


(cid:1) Even if the power assist

is com- pletely the brakes will still work. But you will have to push the pedal hard, much harder than nor- mal. And your braking distance will be longer.

ANTI–LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (with “ABS” warning light) The anti–lock brake system is designed to help prevent lock–up of the wheels during a sudden braking or braking on slippery road surfaces. This assists in providing directional stability and steer- ing performance of the vehicle under these circumstances.

this situation,

Effective way to press the ABS brake pedal: When the anti–lock brake system function is in action, you may feel the brake pedal pulsating and hear a noise. In the anti–lock brake system work for you, just hold the brake pedal down more firmly. Do not pump the brake in a panic stop. This will result in reduced braking performan- ce.



The anti–lock brake system becomes op- erative after the vehicle has accelerated to a speed in excess of approximately 10
km/h (6 mph). It stops operating when the vehicle decelerates to a speed below approximately 5 km/h (3 mph).

Depressing the brake pedal on slippery road surfaces such as on the manhole cover, the steel plate under the construc- tion, joints in the bridge, etc. on a rainy day tends to activate the anti–lock brake system. You may hear a click or motor sound in the engine compartment for a few seconds when the engine is started or just after the vehicle is started. This means that the anti–lock brake system the self– check mode, and does not indicate a mal- function. When the anti–lock brake system is ac- tivated, the following conditions may occur. They do not indicate a malfunc- tion of the system: (cid:1) You may hear the anti–lock brake sys- tem operating and feel the brake pedal pulsating and the vibrations of the ve- hicle body and steering wheel. You may also hear the motor sound in the engine compartment even after the ve- hicle is stopped.



(cid:1) At the end of the anti–lock brake sys- the brake pedal may

tem activation, move a little forward.

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(cid:1) Driving with tire chains installed. (cid:1) Driving over the steps such as the

joints on the road.

(cid:1) Driving on roads where the road surface is pitted or has other differ- ences in surface height.

Install all 4 tires of specified size at appropriate pressure: The anti–lock brake system detects vehicle speeds using the speed sensors for respec- tive wheels’ turning speeds. The use of tires other than specified may fail to detect the accurate turning speed resulting longer stopping dis- tance.

in a

Type A

Type B


Do not overestimate the anti–lock brake system: Although the anti–lock brake system assists in providing ve- hicle control, it is still important to drive with all due care and maintain a moderate speed and safe distance from the vehicle in front of you, be- cause there are limits to the vehicle stability and effectiveness of steering wheel operation even with the anti– lock brake system on. If tires grip performance exceeds its capability, or if hydroplaning occurs during high speed driving in the rain, the anti–lock brake system does not provide vehicle control. Anti–lock brake system is not de- signed to shorten the stopping dis- tance: Always drive at the moderate speed and maintain a safe distance from front of you. Compared with vehicles without an anti–lock brake system, your vehicle may require a longer stopping dis- tance in the following cases: (cid:1) Driving on rough, gravel or snow–

the vehicle


covered roads.


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the systems malfunctions,

“ABS” warning light The light comes on when the ignition key is turned to the “ON” position. If the anti– lock brake system and the brake assist system work properly, the light turns off after a few seconds. Thereafter, if either of light comes on again. When the “ABS” warning light is on (and the brake system warning light is off), the anti–lock brake system, the brake assist system, the traction control system (two– wheel drive vehicles), the active traction control system (four–wheel drive vehicles) and the vehicle skid control system do not operate, but the brake system still oper- ates conventionally. When the “ABS” warning light is on (and the brake system warning light is off), the anti–lock brake system does not operate so that the wheels could lock up during a sudden braking or braking on slippery road surfaces. “VSC TRAC” warning light may come on with the “ABS” warning light (brake assist system warning light) when there is a mal- function somewhere in the anti–lock brake system (brake assist system).

If either of the following conditions oc- curs, this indicates a malfunction some- where in the parts monitored by the warning light system. Contact your To- yota dealer as soon as possible to ser- vice the vehicle. (cid:1) The light does not come on when the ignition key is turned to the “ON” posi- tion, or remains on.

(cid:1) The light comes on while you are dri-


A warning light turning on briefly during operation does not indicate a problem.


If the “ABS” warning light remains on together with the brake system warn- ing light, immediately stop your ve- hicle at a safe place and contact your Toyota dealer. In this case, not only the anti–lock brake system will fail but also the vehicle will become extremely unsta- ble during braking.

Either of the following conditions do not indicate the malfunction. (cid:1) The light may stay on for about 60
seconds after the ignition key is turned to the “ON” position. It is normal if it turns off after a while.

(cid:1) Depressing the brake pedal repeatedly may turn on the light. It is normal if it turns off after a few seconds.

the brakes on,

BRAKE ASSIST SYSTEM When you slam the brake assist system judges as an emer- gency stop and provides more powerful braking for a driver who cannot hold down the brake pedal firmly. When you slam the brakes on, more pow- erful braking will be applied. At this time, you may hear a sound the engine compartment and feel the vibrations of the brake pedal. This does not indicate a mal- function. The brake assist system becomes opera- tive after the vehicle has accelerated to a speed in excess of approximately 10
km/h (6 mph). It stops operating when the vehicle decelerates to a speed below approximately 5 km/h (3 mph).


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For an explanation of this system’s warn- ing light, see “Service reminder indicators and warning buzzers” in Section 1–5.

Brake pad wear limit indicators

luggage or cargo

Luggage stowage precautions When stowing vehicle, observe the following: (cid:1) Put luggage or cargo in the luggage compartment when at all possible. Be sure all items are secured in place.



(cid:1) Be careful

to keep

the vehicle bal- anced. Locating the weight as far for- ward as possible helps maintain bal- ance.

The brake pad wear limit indicators on your disc brakes give a warning noise when the brake pads are worn to where replacement is required. If you hear a squealing or scraping noise while driving, have the brake pads checked and replaced by your Toyota dealer as soon as possible. Expensive ro- tor damage can result if the pads are not replaced when necessary.

(cid:1) For better fuel economy, do not carry

unneeded weight.


(cid:1) To prevent

luggage or packages from sliding forward during braking, do not stack anything in the lug- gage compartment higher than the seatbacks. Keep luggage or pack- ages low, as close to the floor as possible.

(cid:1) Do not place anything on the flat- tened seat or it may slide forward during braking.


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Your Toyota’s identification— —Vehicle identification number

(cid:1) Never allow anyone to ride in the luggage compartment. It is not de- signed for passengers. They should ride in their seats with their seat belts properly fastened. Otherwise, they are much more likely to suffer serious bodily injury, in the event of sudden braking or a collision.

(cid:1) Do not place anything on the lug- items may be gage cover. Such thrown about and possibly injure people in the vehicle during sudden braking or an accident. Secure all items in a safe place.

(cid:1) Do not drive with objects left on top of the instrument panel. They may interfere with the driver’s field of view. Or they may move during sharp vehicle acceleration or turn- ing, and impair the driver’s control of the vehicle. In an accident they may injure the vehicle occupants.


Do not load the vehicle beyond the vehicle capacity weight specified in Section 8.

The vehicle identification number (VIN) is also on the Certification Label.

The vehicle identification number (VIN) is the legal identifier for your vehicle. This number is on the left top of the instrument panel, and can be seen through the windshield from outside. This is the primary identification number for your Toyota. It is used in registering the ownership of your vehicle.

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Suspension and chassis


Do not modify the suspension/chassis with lift kits, spacers, springs, etc. It can cause dangerous handling charac- teristics resulting in loss of control.

Theft prevention labels (except for Canada) Your new vehicle carries theft preven- tion labels which are approximately 56
mm (2.20 in.) by 16 mm (0.63 in.). The purpose of these labels is to reduce the incidence of vehicle thefts by facilitat- ing the tracing and recovery of parts from stolen vehicles. The label is designed so that once it is applied to a surface, any attempt to remove it will result in destroy- ing the integrity of the label. Transferring these labels intact from one part to anoth- er, will be impossible.


You should not attempt to remove the theft prevention labels as it may vio- late certain state or federal laws.

—Engine number

The engine number is stamped on the engine block as shown.


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(cid:1) Do not mix summer and all season tires on your vehicle as this can cause dangerous handling charac- teristics, resulting in loss of con- trol.

(cid:1) Do not use

tire other

the manufacturer’s designated tires, and never mix tires or wheels of the sizes different from the originals.


Types of tires Determine what kind of tires your ve- hicle is originally equipped with. 1. Summer tires Summer tires are high–speed capability tires best suited to highway driving under dry conditions. Since summer tires do not have the same traction performance as snow tires, sum- mer tires are inadequate for driving on snow–covered or icy roads. For driving on snow–covered or icy roads, we recom- mend using snow tires. If installing snow tires, be sure to replace all four tires. 2. All season tires All season tires are designed to provide better traction in snow and to be adequate for driving in most winter conditions, as well as for use all year round. All season tires, however, do not have adequate traction performance compared with snow tires in heavy or loose snow. Also, all season tires fall short in accel- eration performance compared with summer tires in highway driving.



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Important information about your Toyota

New vehicle warranty

Your new vehicle is covered by the following Toyota limited warranties:

(cid:1) New vehicle warranty (cid:1) Emission control systems warranty (cid:1) Others further

information, please refer

Information Booklet” or

For Warranty Supplement”.

to the “Owner’s “Owner’s Manual

Your responsibility for


It is the owner’s responsibility to make sure that the speci- fied maintenance is performed. Section 6 gives details of these maintenance requirements. Also included in Section 6 is general maintenance. For scheduled maintenance in- formation, please refer to the “Scheduled Maintenance Guide” or “Owner’s Manual Supplement”.

Accessories, spare parts and modification of your Toyota

A wide variety of non–genuine spare parts and accessories for Toyota vehicles are currently available in the market. You should know that Toyota does not warrant these prod- ucts and is not responsible for their performance, repair, or replacement, or for any damage they may cause to, or adverse effect they may have on, your Toyota vehicle.

This vehicle should not be modified with non–genuine Toyota products. Modification with non–genuine Toyota products could affect its performance, safety or durability, and may even violate governmental regulations. In addi- tion, damage or performance problems resulting from the modification may not be covered under warranty.


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Spark ignition system of your


Installation of a mobile two–way radio system

The spark ignition system in your Toyota meets all require- ments of the Canadian Interference–Causing Equipment Standard.

As the installation of a mobile two–way radio system in your vehicle could affect electronic systems such as multi- port fuel injection system/sequential multiport fuel injection system, traction control system (two–wheel drive mod- els)/active traction control system (four–wheel drive mod- els), vehicle skid control system, cruise control system, anti–lock brake system, electronic throttle control system, SRS airbag system and seat belt pretensioner system, be sure to check with your Toyota dealer for precautionary measures or special instructions regarding installation.


2002 MY 4RUNNER_U (OM35787U)

Scrapping of your Toyota


The SRS airbag and seat belt pretensioner devices in your Toyota contain explosive chemicals. is scrapped with the airbags and pretensioners left as they are, it may cause an accident such as fire. Be sure to have the systems of the SRS airbag and seat belt preten- sioner removed and disposed of by a qualified service shop or by your Toyota dealer before you dispose of your vehicle.

the vehicle

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On–pavement and off–road

driving tips

This vehicle belongs to the utility vehicle class. Utility ve- hicles have a significantly higher rollover rate than other types of vehicles. This vehicle will handle and maneuver differently from an ordinary passenger car because it is designed for off–road use also. In addition, this vehicle has a higher ground clearance and center of gravity than that of an ordinary passenger car. This vehicle design fea- ture causes this type of vehicle to be more likely to rol- lover. Failure to operate this vehicle correctly may result in loss of control, accidents or vehicle rollover causing death or serious injury. Be sure to read “Off–road vehicle precau- tions” in Section 2 and “Off–road driving precautions” in Section 3.

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2002 MY 4RUNNER_U (OM35787U)

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STARTING AND DRIVING Before starting the engine How to start the engine Tips for driving in various conditions Off–road driving precautions Winter driving tips Dinghy towing Trailer towing How to save fuel and make your vehicle last longer

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2002 MY 4RUNNER_U (OM35787U)


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Before starting the engine 1. Check the area around the vehicle be-

fore entering it.

2. Adjust seat position, seatback angle, restraint

seat cushion angle, head height and steering wheel angle.

3. Adjust the inside and outside rear view


4. Lock all doors. 5. Fasten seat belts.

How to start the engine— (a) Before cranking 1. Apply the parking brake firmly. 2. Turn off unnecessary lights and acces-


3. Put the selector lever in “P”. If you need to restart the engine while the vehicle is moving, put the selector le- ver in “N”. A starter safety device will prevent the starter from operating if the selector lever is in any drive position. 4. Depress the brake pedal and hold it to

the floor until driving off.

(b) Starting the engine Before starting the engine, be sure to fol- low the instructions in “(a) Before crank- ing”. Normal starting procedure The multiport fuel injection system/sequen- tial multiport fuel injection system in your engine automatically controls the proper air–fuel mixture for starting. You can start a cold or hot engine as follows: 1. With your foot off the accelerator ped- al, crank the engine by turning the key to “START”. Release it when the en- gine starts.

2. After the engine runs for about 10 se-

conds, you are ready to drive.

If the weather is below freezing, let the engine warm up for a few minutes before driving. If the engine stalls... Simply restart it, using the correct proce- dure given in normal starting. If the engine will not start... See “If your vehicle will not start” in Sec- tion 4.


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(cid:3) Do not crank for more than 30 se- conds at a time. This may overheat the starter and wiring systems.

(cid:3) Do not race a cold engine. (cid:3) If the engine becomes difficult to start or stalls frequently, have the engine checked immediately.

Tips for driving in various conditions (cid:1) Always slow down in gusty crosswinds. This will allow you much better control. (cid:1) Drive slowly onto curbs and, if pos- sible, at a right angle. Avoid driving onto high, sharp–edged objects and other road hazards. Failure to do so can lead to severe tire damage result- ing in tire bursts. Drive slowly when passing over bumps or travelling on a bumpy road. Other- wise, the impact could cause severe damage to the tires and/or wheels.


(cid:1) When parking on a hill, turn the front wheels until touch the curb so that the vehicle will not roll. Apply the parking brake, and place the transmis- sion the wheels.

If necessary, block

in “P”.

(cid:1) Washing your vehicle or driving through deep water may get the brakes wet. To see whether they are wet, check that there is no traffic near you, and then press the pedal lightly. If you do not feel a normal braking force, the brakes are probably wet. To dry them, drive the vehicle cautiously while lightly pressing the brake pedal with the park- ing brake applied. If they still do not work safely, pull to the side of the road and call a Toyota dealer for assistance.

2002 MY 4RUNNER_U (OM35787U)

(cid:1) Four–wheel drive models—Toyota rec- ommends not using four–wheel drive on dry hard–surfaced roads, because four– wheel driving will cause unnecessary noise and wear, and poor fuel econo- my.

(cid:1) Four–wheel drive models—In cold tem- peratures, noise may occur when driv- ing in two–wheel drive before the trans- fer is warmed up. Therefore, first drive in four–wheel drive until the transfer is warmed up.


(cid:1) Before driving off, make sure that the parking brake is fully released and reminder light is off.

the parking brake

(cid:1) Do not

leave your vehicle unat- tended while the engine is running. (cid:1) Do not rest your foot on the brake pedal while driving. It can cause dangerous overheating, needless wear, and poor fuel economy.


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(cid:1) Do not continue normal driving when the brakes are wet. If they are wet, your vehicle will require a it longer stopping distance, and may pull the brakes are applied. Also, the park- ing brake will not hold the vehicle securely.

to one side when

(cid:1) To drive down a long or steep hill, reduce your speed and downshift. Remember, if you ride the brakes excessively, they may overheat and not work properly.

(cid:1) Be careful when accelerating, up- shifting, downshifting or braking on a slippery surface. Sudden accelera- tion or engine braking, could cause the vehicle to spin or skid.

(cid:1) Do not drive in excess of the speed limit. Even if the legal speed limit permits it, do not drive over 140
km/h (85 mph) unless your vehicle has high–speed capability tires. Driving over 140 km/h (85 mph) may result in tire failure, loss of control and possible injury. Be sure to con- sult a to determine whether the tires on your vehicle are high–speed capability tires or not before driving at such speeds.

tire dealer


2002 MY 4RUNNER_U (OM35787U)

Off–road driving precautions When driving your vehicle off–road, please observe the following precautions to en- sure your driving enjoyment and to help prevent the closure of areas to off–road vehicles. a. Drive your vehicle only in areas where off–road vehicles are permitted to trav- el.

b. Respect private property. Get owner’s permission before entering private prop- erty.

c. Do not enter areas

that are closed. Honor gates, barriers and signs that re- strict travel.

d. Stay on established roads. When condi- tions are wet, driving techniques should be changed or travel delayed to pre- vent damage to roads.

For owners in U.S. mainland, Hawaii and Puerto Rico: To obtain additional information pertaining to driving your vehicle off–road, consult the following organizations. (cid:1) State and Local Parks and Recreation


(cid:1) State Motor Vehicle Bureau

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(cid:1) Recreational Vehicle Clubs (cid:1) U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of

Land Management


Always observe the following precau- tions to minimize the risk of serious personal injury or damage to your ve- hicle: (cid:1) Drive carefully when off the road. Do not take unnecessary risks by driving in dangerous places.

(cid:1) Do not grip

the steering wheel spokes when driving off–road. A bad bump could jerk the wheel and injure your hands. Keep both hands and especially your thumbs on the outside of the rim.

(cid:1) Always check your brakes for effec- tiveness immediately after driving in sand, mud, water or snow.

(cid:1) After driving


tall grass, mud, rock, sand, rivers, etc., check that there is no grass, bush, paper, rags, stone, sand, etc. adhering or trapped on the underbody. Clear off any such matter from the under- body. If the vehicle is used with these materials trapped or adhering to the underbody, a breakdown or fire could occur.

(cid:1) In a rollover crash, an unbelted per- son is significantly more likely to die than a person wearing a seat belt. Therefore, the driver and all passengers should fasten their seat belts whenever the vehicle is mov- ing.

jump, make sharp

(cid:1) When driving off–road or in rugged terrain, do not drive at excessive speeds, turns, strike objects, etc. This may cause loss of control or vehicle rollover causing death or serious injury. You are also risking expensive damage to your vehicle’s suspension and chassis.


(cid:3) If driving through water, such as when crossing shallow streams, first check the depth of the water and the bottom of the river bed for firmness. Drive slowly and avoid deep water.

(cid:3) Take all necessary safety measures to ensure that water damage to the engine or other components does not occur. Water entering the engine air intake will cause severe engine damage. Water can wash the grease from wheel bearings, causing rusting and premature failure, and may also en- ter the differentials, transmission and transfer case, reducing the gear oil’s lubricating qualities.

(cid:3) Sand and mud that has accumulated in brake drums and around brake discs may affect braking efficiency and may damage brake system com- ponents.

2002 MY 4RUNNER_U (OM35787U)


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(cid:3) Always perform a maintenance in- spection after each day of off–road driving that has taken you through rough terrain, sand, mud, or water. For scheduled maintenance informa- tion, refer to the “Scheduled Main- tenance Guide” or “Owner’s Manual Supplement”.

Winter driving tips Make sure you have a proper freeze protection of engine coolant. Your coolant must contain ethylene–glycol type corrosion protection of aluminum components. Use “TOYOTA Long Life Coolant” or equivalent. See Section 7–2 for details about coolant type selection.

for a proper



Do not use alcohol type antifreeze or plain water alone.

When it is extremely cold, we recommend to use 60% solution for your Toyota, to provide protection down to about –50(cid:2)C (–58(cid:2)F). Do not use more than 70% solu- tion for better coolant performance. Check the condition of the battery and cables. Cold temperatures reduce the capacity of any battery, so it must be in top shape to provide enough power for winter start- ing. Section 7–3 tells you how to visually inspect the battery. Your Toyota dealer and most service stations will be pleased to check the level of charge.


2002 MY 4RUNNER_U (OM35787U)

Make sure the engine oil viscosity is suitable for the cold weather. See Section 7–2 for recommended viscos- ity. Leaving a heavy summer oil in your vehicle during winter months may cause harder starting. If you are not sure about which oil to use, call your Toyota dealer— he will be pleased to help. Keep the door locks from freezing. Squirt lock de–icer or glycerine into the locks to keep them from freezing. Use a washer fluid containing an anti- freeze solution. This product is available at your Toyota dealer and most auto parts stores. Follow the manufacturer’s directions for how much to mix with water.


Do not use engine antifreeze or any other substitute because it may dam- age your vehicle’s paint.

’02 4Runner_U (L/O 0108)

in and around

Do not use your parking brake when there is a possibility it could freeze. When parking, put the transmission into “P” and block the front wheels. Do not use the parking brake, or snow or water accumulated the parking brake mechanism may freeze, making it hard to release. Keep ice and snow from accumulating under the fenders. Ice and snow built up under your fenders can make steering difficult. During bad winter driving, stop and check under the fenders occasionally. Depending on where you are driving, we recommend you carry some emer- gency equipment. Some of the things you might put in the vehicle are tire chains, window scraper, bag of sand or salt, flares, small shovel, jumper cables, etc.

Dinghy towing

Your vehicle to be dinghy towed (with four wheels on the ground) behind a motorhome.

is not designed


Do not tow your vehicle with four wheels on the ground. This may cause serious damage to your vehicle.

Trailer towing Your vehicle is designed primarily as a passenger–and–load–carrying vehicle. Tow- ing a trailer will have an adverse effect on handling, performance, braking, durability and driving economy (fuel consumption, etc.). Your safety and satisfaction depend on the proper use of correct equipment and cautious driving habits. For your safe- ty and the safety of others, you must not overload your vehicle or trailer. Ask your local Toyota dealer for further details be- fore towing. WEIGHT LIMITS Before towing, make sure the total trail- er weight, gross combination weight, gross vehicle weight, gross axle weight and trailer tongue load are all within the limits. The total trailer weight and tongue load can be measured with platform scales found at a highway weighing station, build- ing supply company, trucking company, junk yard, etc.

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(cid:1) The maximum gross trailer weight (trailer weight plus cargo weight) must never exceed 2267 kg (5000
lb.). If towing a trailer and cargo weigh- ing over 907 kg is necessary to use a sway control device with sufficient capacity. The combination of trailer weight added to the total weight of the vehicle, occupants and vehicle cargo must never exceed a total of the following.

the gross

(2000 lb.),


Two–wheel drive models

3992 kg (8800 lb.)

Four–wheel drive models

4173 kg (9200 lb.)

Exceeding the maximum weight of the trailer, the vehicle, or the ve- hicle and trailer combination, can cause an accident resulting in seri- ous personal injuries.

indicated on

(cid:1) The gross vehicle weight must not exceed the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) the Certification Label. The gross vehi- cle weight is the sum of weights of the unloaded vehicle, driver, pas- sengers, luggage, hitch and trailer tongue includes the weight of any special equipment installed on your vehicle.

It also


(cid:1) The load on either the front or rear axle resulting from distribution of the gross vehicle weight on both axles must not exceed the Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) listed on the Certification Label.

(cid:1) Trailer hitch assemblies have differ- ent weight capacities established by the hitch manufacturer. Even though the vehicle may be physically capa- ble of towing a higher weight, the operator must determine the maxi- mum weight rating of the particular hitch assembly and never exceed the maximum weight rating speci- fied for the trailer–hitch. Exceeding the maximum weight rating set by the trailer hitch manufacturer can cause an accident resulting in seri- ous personal injuries.


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Total trailer weight

Tongue load

Tongue load

Total trailer weight

(cid:1) 100 (* 2)

15% (* 1) or to 11%

(cid:1) The trailer cargo

load should be distributed so that the tongue load is 15% for weight distributing hitch (* 1) or 9 to 11% for weight carrying hitch (* 2) of the total trailer weight, not exceeding the maximum of 226
kg (500 lb.). Never load the trailer with more weight in the back than in the front. About 60% of the trail- er load should be in the front half of the trailer and the remaining 40% in the rear.

HITCHES (cid:1) Use only a hitch recommended by the hitch manufacturer and the one which conforms trailer weight requirement.




(cid:1) The hitch must be bolted securely to the vehicle frame and installed accord- ing to the hitch manufacturer’s instruc- tions.

(cid:1) The hitch ball and king pin should have

a light coat of grease.

(cid:1) Toyota recommends removing the hitch when not towing to prevent injury and/ or damage due to the hitch in event of a rear end collision. After removal of the hitch, seal the installation area to prevent entry of exhaust fumes and mud.


Do not use an axle–mounting hitch as it may cause damage to the axle housing, wheel bearings, wheels and or tires.



trailers with brakes that conform to any applica- ble federal and state/provincial regu- lations.

(cid:1) A safety chain must always be used between the towing vehicle and the trailer. Leave sufficient slack in the chain for turns. The chain should cross under to prevent the tongue from dropping to the ground in case it becomes dam- aged or separated. For correct safety chain procedures, follow the hitch or trailer manufacturer’s recommenda- tions.





(cid:1) If the total trailer weight exceeds 453 kg (1000 lb.), trailer brakes are required.

(cid:1) Never tap

into your vehicle’s hy- draulic system as it would lower its braking effectiveness.

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BREAK–IN SCHEDULE (cid:1) Toyota recommends

that you do not tow a trailer with a new vehicle or a vehicle with any new power train com- ponent (engine, transmission, differen- tial, wheel bearing, etc.) for the first 800 km (500 miles) of driving.

MAINTENANCE (cid:1) If you tow a trailer, your vehicle will require more frequent maintenance due to the additional load. For this informa- tion, please the scheduled maintenance information in the “Sched- uled Maintenance Guide” or “Owner’s Manual Supplement”.



(cid:1) Retighten all fixing bolts of the towing ball and bracket after approximately 1000 km (600 miles) of trailer driving.

(cid:1) Never tow a trailer without using a safety chain securely attached to both the trailer and the vehicle. If damage occurs to the coupling unit or hitch ball, there is danger of the trailer wandering over into another lane.

TIRES (cid:1) Ensure

that your vehicle’s

tires are properly inflated. See Section 7–2 for instructions.

(cid:1) The trailer tires should be inflated to the pressure recommended by the trail- er manufacturer in respect to the total trailer weight.


TRAILER LIGHTS (cid:1) Your vehicle is equipped with a wire harness stored in the rear end under body. Some models are fitted with a socket for trailer lights under the rear bumper. Use either of them to connect and operate the trailer lights. However, the trailer lights must comply with fed- eral, state/provincial and local regula- tions. See your local recreational ve- hicle dealer or rental agency for the correct type of wiring and relays for your trailer. Check for correct operation of the turn signals and stop lights each time you hitch up. Direct splicing may damage your vehicle’s electrical system and cause a malfunction of your lights.

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PRE–TOWING SAFETY CHECK (cid:1) Check that your vehicle remains level when a loaded or unloaded trailer is hitched. Do not drive if the vehicle has an abnormal nose–up or nose–down condition, and check improper tongue load, overload, worn suspension or other possible causes.


(cid:1) Make sure the trailer cargo is securely

loaded so that it cannot shift.

(cid:1) Check that your rear view mirrors con- form to any applicable federal, state/ provincial or local regulations. If not, install the rear view mirrors required for towing purpose.

TRAILER TOWING TIPS When towing a trailer, your vehicle will handle differently than when not tow- ing. The three main causes of vehicle– trailer accidents are driver error, exces- sive speed and improper trailer loading. Keep these in mind when towing: (cid:1) Before starting out, check operation of the lights and all vehicle–trailer connec- tions. After driving a short distance, stop and recheck the lights and con- nections. Before actually towing a trail- er, practice turning, stopping and back- ing with a trailer in an area away from traffic until you learn the feel.

(cid:1) Backing with a trailer is difficult and requires practice. Grip the bottom of the steering wheel and move your hand to the left to move the trailer to the left. Move your hand to the right to move the trailer to the right. (This pro- cedure that when backing without a trailer). Also, just turn the steering wheel a little at time, avoiding sharp or prolonged turning. Have someone guide you when backing to reduce the risk of an acci- dent.

is generally opposite


increased when

(cid:1) Because stopping distance may be in- vehicle–to–vehicle distance creased, should be towing a trailer. For each 16 km/h (10 mph) of speed, allow at least one vehicle and trailer length between you and the ve- hicle ahead. Avoid sudden braking as you may skid, resulting in jackknifing and loss of control. This is especially true on wet or slippery surfaces.

(cid:1) Avoid jerky starts or sudden accelera-


(cid:1) Avoid jerky steering and sharp turns. The trailer could hit your vehicle in a tight turn. Slow down before making a turn to avoid the necessity of sudden braking.

(cid:1) Remember that when making a turn, the trailer wheels will be closer than the vehicle wheels to the inside of the turn. Therefore, compensate for this by making a turning radius with your vehicle.

than normal


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(cid:1) Crosswinds and rough roads will ad- versely affect handling of your vehicle and trailer, causing sway. Pay attention to the rear from time to time to pre- pare yourself for being passed by large trucks or buses, which may cause your vehicle and trailer to sway. If swaying happens, firmly grip the steering wheel and immediately but gradually. Never increase speed. Steer straight ahead. If you make no extreme correction with the steering or brakes, the vehicle and trailer will stabilize.

reduce speed

(cid:1) Be careful when passing other ve- hicles. Passing requires considerable distance. After passing a vehicle, do not forget the length of your trailer and be sure you have plenty of room befo- re changing lanes.

(cid:1) In order to maintain engine braking effi-

ciency, do not use overdrive.

(cid:1) Always place wheel blocks under both the vehicle and trailer wheels when parking. Apply the parking brake firmly. Put the transmission in “P”. Avoid park- ing on a slope with a trailer, but if it cannot be avoided, do so only after performing the following:

1. Apply the brakes and hold. 2. Have someone place wheel blocks un- der both the vehicle and trailer wheels. 3. When the wheel blocks are in place, the

release your brakes slowly until blocks absorb the load.

4. Apply the parking brake firmly. 5. Shift into “P” and turn off the engine.


(cid:1) Because of the added load of the trail- er, your vehicle’s engine may overheat on hot days temperatures over 30(cid:2)C [85(cid:2)F]) when going up a long or steep grade with a trailer. If the engine coolant indicates overheating, immediately turn off the air conditioning (if in use), pull off the road and stop in a safe spot. Refer to “If your vehicle overheats” in Section 4.

temperature gauge


2002 MY 4RUNNER_U (OM35787U)

When restarting out after parking on a slope: 1. With the transmission in “P” position, start the engine. Be sure to keep the brake pedal depressed.

2. Shift into gear. 3. Release the parking brake and brake pedal and slowly pull or back away from the wheel blocks. Stop and apply your brakes.

4. Have someone retrieve the blocks.


towing speed

(cid:1) Do not exceed 72 km/h (45 mph) or the posted limit, whichever is lower. Because insta- bility (swaying) of a towing vehicle– trailer in- creases as the speed increases, ex- ceeding 72 km/h (45 mph) may cause loss of control.



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(cid:1) Slow down and downshift before descending steep or long downhill grades. Do not make sudden down- shifts.

long or

(cid:1) Avoid holding the brake pedal down too frequently. This could cause the brakes to overheat and result in reduced braking effi- ciency.


How to save fuel and make your vehicle last longer Improving fuel economy is easy—just take it easy. It will help make your vehicle last longer, too. Here are some specific tips on how to save money on both fuel and repairs: (cid:1) Keep your tires inflated at the cor- rect pressure. Underinflation causes tire wear and wastes fuel. See Section 7–2 for instructions.

(cid:1) Do not carry unneeded weight

in your vehicle. Excess weight puts a heavier the engine, causing greater fuel consumption.

load on

(cid:1) Avoid lengthy warm–up idling. Once the engine is running smoothly, begin driving—but gently. Remember, howev- er, that on cold winter days this may take a little longer.

(cid:1) Keep

the automatic

transmission overdrive turned on when engine braking is not required. Driving with the overdrive off will reduce the fuel economy. (For details, see “Automatic transmission” in Section 1–6.)

(cid:1) Accelerate