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decrease treble. If a station is weak or noisy, you may want to decrease the treble.

Adjusting the Speakers BAL: Turn the control behind the upper knob to move the sound to the left or right speakers. The middle position balances the sound between the speakers. FADE: Turn the control behind the lower knob to move the sound to the front or rear speakers. The middle position balances the sound between the speakers.

Playing a Cassette Tape Your tape player is built to work best with tapes that are 30 to 45 minutes long on each side. Tapes longer than that are so thin they may not work well in this player. Once the tape is playing, use the PWR-VOL, BAL and FADE knobs just as you do for the radio. A lighted arrow will be displayed to show tape play direction. FORWARD: Press the arrow button in the direction that the lighted arrow points to advance quickly to another part of the tape. Press STOP-EJECT lightly to stop forwarding and play the tape. REVERSE: Press the arrow button in the opposite direction that the lighted arrow points to reverse quickly to another part of the tape. Press STOP-EJECT lightly to stop reversing and play the tape. PROG: Press this knob to go from one side of the tape to the other. STOP-EJECT Press this button to remove the tape or stop playing the tape in order to play the radio. If you leave a cassette tape in the player while listening to the radio, it may become warm.

AM-FM Stereo with Cassette Tape Player'*:'# and Equalizer (If Equipped)

Playing the Radio PWR-VOL: This knob turns the system on and off and controls the volume. To increase volume, turn the knob clockwise. Turn it counterclockwise to decrease volume. RCL: Display the time with the ignition off by pressing this knob. When the radio is playing, press this knob to recall station frequency.


AM-ST Press this button to tune an AM station that broadcasts in stereo. Your STEREO light will come on when you're receiving AM stereo. If you press AM-ST and there is no more noise, it means the station is weak. You'll hear the station better if you do not use AM-ST. Press the button again to turn off stereo.

Finding a Station AM-FM: Press the lower knob to switch between AM and FM. The display shows your selection. TUNE: Turn the lower knob to tune in radio stations. SEEK: Press this button to go to the next higher station and stay there. SCAN: Press this button to listen to each station for a few seconds. The radio will go to the next station, stop for a few seconds, then go to the next station. SCAN will appear on the display. Press SCAN again to stop scanning.

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the radio on. '

PUSHBUTTONS: The four numbered pushbuttons let you return to your favorite stations. You can set up to 14 stations (seven AM and seven FM). Just: 1. TLII-II 2. Press AM-FM to select the band. 3. Tune in the desired station. 4. Press SET. (SET will appear on the display.) 5. Press one of the four pushbuttons. within five

seconds. Whenever you press that numbered button, the station you set will return.

6. Repeat the steps for each pushbutton. In addition to the four stations already set. up to three more stations may be preset on each band by pressing two adjoining buttons at the same time. Just: I. Tune in the desired station. 2. Press SET. (SET will appear on the display.) 3. Press two adjoining pushbuttons at the same time. within five seconds. Whenever you press the same two buttons, the station you set will return.

4. Repeat the steps for each pair of pushbuttons.

Setting the Tone TONE ADJUSTMENT: Set the bass, midrange and treble by using the levers in the upper middle left corner to get the sound you want. The 60 and 250 levers adjust the bass, 1 K is midrange, and the levers 3.5K and 10K control the treble. We suggest you start with 1 K i n the midpoint position. Then move the other levers up until you get the amount of bass and treble you like.

Adjusting the Speakers BAL: Turn the control behind the upper knob to move the sound to the left or right speakers. The middle position balances the sound between the speakers. FADE: Turn the control behind the lower knob to move the sound to the front or rear speakers. The middle position balances the sound between the speakers.


Playing a Cassette Tape Your tape player is built to work best with tapes that are 30 to 45 minutes long on each side. Tapes longer than that are so thin they may not work well in this player. Once the tape is playing, use the PWR-VOL. BAL and FADE knobs just as you do for the radio. A lighted arrow will be'displayed to show tape play direction. REVERSE: Press the arrow button i n the opposite direction that the lighted arrow points t o reverse quickly to another part of the tape. Press STOP-EJECT lightly to stop reversing and play the tape. FORWARD: Press the arrow button i n the direction that the lilhted arrow points t o advance quickly to another part of the tape. Press STOP-EJECT lightly to stop forwarding and play the tape. SEARCH: Press this button to the recessed position. Press the lighted mow to skip to the next selection. Press the opposite direction an-ow that is n o t lighted to replay the current selection or skip to the previous selection.

CrO2: This button lets you set the system for the type of cassette being used. If you are using chrome or metal tapes. press the button in. PROG: Press this knob to go from one side o f the tape to the other. STOP-EJECT Press this button to remove the tape or stop playing the tape i n order to play the radio. If you leave a cassette tape i n the player while listening t o the radio. it may become warm. Your Delco system may be able to receive C-QljAM" stereo broadcasts. Many AM stations around the country use C-QUAM to produce stereo although some do not. C-QUAM is a registered trademark of ,Motorola, Inc. If vour Delco system can get C-QUAM signals, your STEREO light will come on when you are receiving stereo.


AM-FM Stereo with Compact Disc Player and Automatic Tone Control (If Equipped)

Playing the Radio PWR-VOL: Press this knob to turn the system on and off. To increase volume, turn the knob clockwise. Turn it counterclockwise to decrease volume. The knob is capable of rotating continuously. RECALL: Display the time with the ignition off by pressing this button. When the radio is playing, press this button to recall the station frequency. SCV Your system has a feature called Speed-Compensated-Volume (SCV j. With SCV, your audio system adjusts autornatically to make up for- road

and wind noise as you drive. Set the volume at the desired level. Move the control ring behind the upper knob clockwise to adjust the SCV. Then, as you drive, SCV automatically increases the volume, as necessary. to overcome noise at any particuiar speed. The volume level shouId always sound the same to you as you drive. I f you don't want to use SCV. turn the control all the way down. Each detent on the control ring allows for more volume compensation at a faster rate of speed.

Finding a Station AM-FM: Press this button to switch between AM, FM 1 and FM2. The display will show your selection. TUNE: Press this knob lightly so it extends. Turn it to choose radio stations. Push the knob back into its stored position when you're not using it. SEEK: Press the right m o w to tune to the next higher station and the left amow to tune to the next lower station and stay there. The sound will mute while seeking. SCAN: Press and hold SEEK for two seconds m t i l SCAN appears o n the display. SCAN allows you to listen to stations for a few seconds. The receiver will continue to scan and monxntarily stop at each station until you press the button again. The sound will mute while scanning.


PUSHBUTTONS: The six numbered pushbuttons let you return to your favorite stations. You can set up to 18 1. ? -. 3. 4. 5.

stations (six AM. six FM 1 and six FM2). Just: Turn the radio on. Press AM-FM t o select the band. Tune i n the desired station. Press AUTO TONE to select the setting yo^^ prefer. Press and hold one of the four pushbuttons. The sound will mute. When it returns. release the button Whenever you press that numbered button. the station you set will return and the tone you selected will be automatically selected for that button. Repeat the steps for each pushbutton.


P.SCAN: The preset scan button lets you scan through your favorite stations stored on your pushbuttons. Select either the AM. FM 1 or FM2 mode and then press P.SCAN. It will scan through each station stored on your pushbuttons and stop for a few seconds before continuing to scan through all of the pushbuttons. Press P.SCAN again or one of the pushbuttons to stop scanning to listen to ;1 specific stored station. P.SCAN w i l l light up on the display while in this mode. If one of the stations stored on a pushbutton is too weak for the location you are in, the radio will skip the preset station and the radio display will show the channel number (P1 through P6) for several seconds before advancing to the next preset station.


Setting the Tone BASS: Press lightly on this knob to release it froln its stored position. Turn the knob clockwise to increase bass and counterclockwise t o decrease bass. When the BASS control is rotated, the AUTO TONE setting will change to MAN. TREB: Press lightly on this knob to release it from its stored position. Turn the knob clockwise to increase treble and counterclockwise to decrease treble. When the TREB control is rotated, the AUTO TONE setting will change to MAN. If a station is weak or noisy. you may want to decrease the treble. Push these knobs back into their stored positions when you’re not using them. AUTO TONE: Press this button to select among the five preset equalization settings and tailor the sound to the music or voice being heard. Each time you press the button, the selection will switch to one of the preset settings of CLASSIC, NEWS. ROCK. POP or JAZZ. The display will show which mode the receiver is in. To return to the manual mode, press and release this button until MAN appears on the display. This will return the tone adjustment to the BASS and TREB controls. If a BASS or TREB control is rotated, the AUTO TONE setting will change to MAN.

Adjusting the Speakers BAL: Press lightly on this knob to release it from its stored position. Turn the control clockwise to adjust sound to the right speakers and counterclockwise to adjust sound to the left speakers. The middle position balances the sound between the speakers. FADE: Press lightly on this knob to release it from its stored position. Turn the control clockwise to adjust the sound to the front and counterclockwise for the rear speakers. The middle position balances the sound between the speakers. Push these knobs back into their stored positions when you’re not using them.

Playing a Compact Disc PWR: Press this knob to turn the system on. (Please note that you can also turn the system on when you insert a compact disc into the player with the ignition on.) Insert a disc partway into the slot. label side LIP. The player will pull it in. Wait a few seconds and the disc should play. CD and a CD symbol will also appear on the display. Anytime you are playing a CD. the letters CD will be next to the CD symbol.

REV (43: Press and ho16 REV to return rapidly to a favorite passage. YCXI will hear the disc selection pIay at high speed while you press the REV button. This allows you to listen and find out when the disc is at the desired selection. Release REV to resum playing. FWD (6): Press and hold this butron to advance rapidly within a track. You will hear the disc selection play at high speed while YCNI press the FWD button. This allows you to listen and find out when the disc is at the desired selection. Release FWD to resume playing. AM-FM: While i n the CD mode. press this burton to stop playing the CD and play the radio, The CD symbol w i l l still display but the word CD will be replaced with either A M . FM I or FM2. (If the radio is turned off, the disc stays i n the player and will res~~rne playing at the point where it stopped.) KECALI,: Press this button to see what track is playing. Press it again within five seconds t o se.e how long the CD has been playing that track. Elapsed titne is displayed in minutes and tenths of a second. The track number will also appear when ;I new track begins to play. Press RECALL again to return to the time display.


CD AUX: To switch between the player and the radio when a disc is playing, press the AM-FM button. To return to the player, press CD AUX. When a disc is playing, the letters CD and the CD symbol will appear on the display. (If the radio is turned off, the disc stays in the player and will resume playing at the point where it stopped.) EJECT: Press this button to eject the disc from the player and play the radio. When the same or a new disc is inserted, the disc wilI start playing on track one. If a compact disc is left sitting in the opening for more than a few seconds, the player will pull the CD back in. The radio will continue playing. When the ignition is off, press this button to load a CD. If you leave a compact disc in the player while listening to the radio. it may become warm.

Theft-Deterrent Feature THEFTLOCK” is designed to discourage theft of your radio. It works by using a secret code to disable all radio functions whenever battery power is removed. The THEFTLOCK feature for the radio may be used or ignored. If ignored, the system plays normally and the radio is not protected by the feature. If THEFTLOCK is activated, your radio will not operate if stolen. When THEFTLOCK is activated, the radio will display LOC to indicate a locked condition anytime battery power is removed. If your battery loses power for any reason, you must unlock the radio with the secret code before it will operate.

Activating the Theft-Deterrent Feature The instructions which follow explain how to enter your secret code to activate the THEFTLOCK system. It is recommended that you read through all nine steps before starting the procedure. NOTE: If you allow more than 15 seconds to elapse between any steps, the radio automatically reverts to time and you must start the procedure over at Step 4.


I . Write down any three or four-digit number from

000 to 1999 and keep it i n a safe place separate from the vehicle.

2. Turn the isnition to ACCESSORY or RUN. 3. Turn the radio off. 4. Press the 1 and 4 buttons together. Hold thcm dow~l until --- shows on the display. Next yo11 will use the secret code number which you have written down.

5. Press M N and 000 will appear o n the display. 6. Press M N again to make the last two digits agree

w i t h your code.

7. Press HR t o 111ake the first one or two digits agree

with your code.

8. Press AM-FM after- you have confirmed that the

code matches the secret code you ha\;e written down. The display will show REP to Ict you know that you need t o repeat Steps 5 through 7 t o confirm your secret code.


Unlocking the Theft-Deterrent Feature After a Power Loss Enter your secret code as follows: pause no more than I5 seconds between steps: 1. LOC appears when the ignition is on. 2. Press M N and 000 cvill appear on the display. 3. Press MN again to lnake the last two digits agree

with your code.

4. Press HR to make the first one or two digits agree

w i t h your code.

5. Press AM-FM after you have confirmed that the

code matches the secret code ~ O L I The display will show SEC, indicating the radio is now operable and secure.

have written down

enter the wrong code eight times, INOP w i l l If ~ O L I appear on the display. You will have to wait an hour with the ignition o n before yo11 can try apin. When you try asain. you w i l l only have three chances to enter the correct code before lNOP appears. I f you lose or forger your code. contact your dealer.

Disabling the Theft-Deterrent Feature Enter your secret code as follows; pause no more than 15 seconds between steps: 1. Turn the ignition to ACCESSORY or RUN. 2. Turn the radio off. 3. Press the 1 and 4 buttons together. Hold them down

until SEC shows on the display.

4. Press MN and 000 will appear on the display. 5 . Press MN again to make the last two digits agree

with your code.

6. Press HR to make the first one or two digits agree

with your code.

7. Press AM-FM after you have confirmed that the

code matches the secret code you have written down. The display will show ---, indicating that the radio is no longer secured.

If the code entered is incorrect, SEC will appear on the display. The radio will remain secured until the correct code is entered. When battery power is removed and later applied to a secured radio, the radio won’t turn on and LOC will appear on the display.

To unlock a secured radio, see “Unlocking the Theft-Deterrent Feature After a Power Loss” earlier in this section. Understanding Radio Reception FM Stereo FM stereo will give you the best sound. But FM signals will reach only about 10 to 40 miles (16 to 65 km). Tall buildings or hills can interfere with FM signals, causing the sound to come and go.

AM The range for most AM stations is greater than for FM, especially at night. The longer range, however, can cause stations to interfere with each other. AM can pick up noise from things like storms and power lines. Try reducing the treble to reduce this noise if you ever get it. Tips About Your Audio System Hearing damage from loud noise is almost undetectable until it is too late. Your hearing can adapt to higher volumes of sound. Sound that seems normal can be loud and harmful to your hearing. Take precautions by adjusting the volume control on your radio to a safe sound level before your hearing adapts to it.


Care of Your Cassette Tape Player A tape player that is not cleaned regularly can cause reduced sound quality, ruined cassettes or a damaged mechanism. Cassette tapes should be stored in their cases away from contaminants, direct sunlight and extreme heat. If they aren’t, they may not operate properly or may cause failure of the tape player. Your tape player should be cleaned regularly after every 50 hours of use. If you notice a reduction in sound quality, try a known good cassette to see if it is the tape or the tape player at fault. If this other cassette has no improvement in sound quality, clean the tape player. Cleaning may be done with a scrubbing action, non-abrasive cleaning cassette with pads which scrub the tape head as the hubs of the cleaner cassette turn. It is normal for the cassette to eject while cleaning. Insert the cassette at least three times to ensure thorough cleaning. A scrubbing action cleaning cassette is available through your GM dealership.

To help avoid hearing loss or damage:

Adjust the volume control to the lowest setting. Increase volume slowly until you hear comfortably and clearly.

1 NOTICE: Before you add any sound equipment to your vehicle -- like a tape player, CB radio, mobile telephone or two-way radio -- be sure you can add what you want. If you can, it’s very important to do it properly. Added sound equipment may interfere with the operation of your vehicle’s engine, Delco radio or other systems, and even damage them. Your vehicle’s systems may interfere with the operation of sound equipment that has been added improperly So, hefore adding sound equipment, check with your dealer and t w sure to check Federal rules covering mobile radio and telephone units.


You may also choose a non-scrubbing action, wet-type cleaner which uses a cassette with a fabric belt to clean the tape head. This type of cleaning cassette will not eject and, it may not clean as thoroughly as the scrubbing type cleaner. Cassettes are subject to wear and the sound quality may degrade over time. Always make sure the cassette tape is in good condition before you have your tape player serviced. Care of Your Compact Discs Handle discs carefully. Store them in their original cases or other protective cases and away from direct sunlight and dust. If the surface of a disc is soiled, dampen a clean, soft cloth in a mild, neutral detergent solution and clean it, wiping from the center to the edge.

Be sure never to touch the signal surface when handling discs. Pick up discs by grasping the outer edges or the edge of the hole and the outer edge. Fixed Mast Antenna The fixed mast antenna can withstand most car washes without being damaged. If the mast should ever become slightly bent, you can straighten it out by hand. If the mast is badly bent, as it might be by vandals, you should replace it. Check every once in a while to be sure the mast is still tightened to the fender.

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Section 4 Your Driving and the Road

Here you’ll find information about driving on different kinds of roads and in varying weather conditions. We’ve also included many other useful tips on driving.

4- 2 4-3 4-6 4-6 4-9 4-1 1 4- 12 4-13 4- 14 4-28 4-29 4-32 4-3 3

Defensive Driving Drunken Driving Control of a Vehicle Braking Steering Off-Road Recovery Passing Loss of Control Driving Guidelines Driving at Night Driving in Rain and on Wet Roads City Driving Freeway Driving

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4-42 4-45

Before Leaving on a Long Trip Highway Hypnosis Hill and Mountain Roads Winter Driving Recreational Vehicle Towing (Four-wheel Drive with the Manual Shift Transfer Case Only) Recreational Vehicle Towing (Except Four-wheel Drive with the Manual Shift Transfer Case) Loading Your Vehicle Towing a Trailer

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Defensive Driving The best advice anyone can give about driving is: Drive defensively. Please start with a very important safety device in your vehicle: Buckle LIP. (See "Safety Belts" in the Index.) Defensive driving really means "be ready for anything." On city streets, rural roads or freeways. it nleans "always expect the unexpected." Assume that pedestrians or other drivers are going to be careless and make mistakes. Anticipate what they might do. Be ready for their mistakes. Rear-end collisions are about the most preventable o f accidents. Yet they are common. Allow enough follonring distance. It's the best defensive driving mmeuver. i n both city and rural driving. You never know when the vehicle in front of you is going to brake or turn suddenly.


Drunken Driving Death and injury associated with drinking and driving is a national tragedy. It’s the number one contributor to the highway death toll, claiming thousands of victims every year. Alcohol affects four things that anyone needs to drive a vehicle: 0 Judgment 0 Muscular Coordination 0 Vision 0 Attentiveness. Police records show that almost half of all motor vehicle-related deaths involve alcohol. In most cases, these deaths are the result of someone who was drinking and driving. In recent years, some 17,000 annual motor vehicle-related deaths have been associated with the use of alcohol, with more than 300,000 people injured. Many adults -- by some estimates, nearly half the adult population -- choose never to drink alcohol, so they never drive after drinking. For persons under 2 1, it’s against the law in every U.S. state to drink alcohol. There are good medical, psychological and developmental reasons for these laws.

The obvious way to solve this highway safety problem is for people never to drink alcohol and then drive. But what if people do? How much is “too much” if the driver plans to drive? It’s a lot less than many might think. Although it depends on each person and situation, here is some general information on the problem. The Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of someone who is drinking depends upon four things:

The amount of alcohol consumed

0 The drinker’s body weight 0 The amount of food that is consumed before and

during drinking

0 The length of time it has taken the drinker to

consume the alcohol.

According to the American Medical Association, a 180-lb. (82 kg) person who drinks three 12-ounce (355 ml) bottles of beer in an hour will end up with a BAC of about 0.06 percent. The person would reach the same BAC by drinking three 4-ounce ( 120 ml) glasses of wine or three mixed drinks if each had 1 - 1/2 ounces (45 ml) of a liquor like whiskey, gin or vodka.


Since alcohol is carried in body water. this means that a woman generally will reach a higher BAC level than a man of her same body weight when each has the same number of drinks. The law in many U.S. states sets the legal limit at a BAC of 0.10 percent. In a growing number of U.S. states. and throughout Canada. the limit is 0.08 percent. In some other countries. it's even lower. The BAC limit for all comnlercial drivers i n the United States is 0.04 percent. The BAC will be over 0.10 percent after three to six drinks (in one hour). Of course. as we've seen. it depends on how much alcohol is in the drinks. and how quickly the person drinks them. But the ability to drive is affected well below a BAC of 0.10 percent. Research shows that the driving skills of many people are impaired at a BAC approaching 0.05 percent, and that the effects are worse at night. All drivers are impaired at BAC levels above 0.05 percent. Statistics show that the chance of being in a collision increases sharply for drivers who have a BAC of 0.05 percent or above. A driver with a BAC level of 0.06 percent has doubled his or her chance of having a collision. At a BAC level of 0. IO percent. the chance of this driver having a collision is 12 times greater: at a level of 0.15 percent. the chance is 35 times greater!

It's the amount of alcohol that counts. For example. if the same person drank three double martinis (3 ounces or 90 In1 of liquor each) within an hour. the person's BAC would be close to 0.12 percent. A person who consumes food just before or during drinking w i l l have a somewhat lower BAC level. There is a gender difference. too. Women generally have a lower relative percentage of body water than men.


The body takes about an hour to rid itself of the alcohol in one drink. No amount of coffee or number of cold showers will speed that up. “I’ll be careful” isn’t the right answer. What if there’s an emergency, a need to take sudden action, as when a child darts into the street’? A person with even a moderate BAC might not be able to react quickly enough to avoid the collision. There’s something else about drinking and driving that many people don’t know. Medical research shows that alcohol in a person’s system can make crash injuries worse, especially injuries to the brain, spinal cord or heart. This means that when anyone who has been drinking -- driver or passenger -- is in a crash, that person’s chance of being killed or permanently disabled is higher than if the person had not been drinking.


Drinking and then driving is very dangerous. Your reflexes, perceptions, attentiveness and of alcohol. You can have a serious -- or even judgment can be affected by even a small amount fatal -- collision if you drive after drinking.

Please don’t drink and drive or ride with a driver who has been drinking. Ride home in a cab; or if you’re with a group, designate a driver who will not drink.


Control of a Vehicle You have three systems that make your vehicle go where you want it to go. They are the brakes, the steering and the accelerator. All three systems have to do their work at the places where the tires meet the road.

Sometimes, as when you’re driving on snow or ice, it’s easy to ask more of those control systems than the tires and road can provide. That means you can lose control of your vehicle. 4-6

Braking Braking action involves perception time and reaction time. First, you have to decide to push on the brake pedal. That’s perception time. Then you have to bring up your foot and do it. That’s reaction time. Average reaction time is about 3/4 of a second. But that’s only an average. It might be less with one driver and as long as two or three seconds or more with another. Age, physical condition, alertness, coordination and eyesight all play a part. So do alcohol, drugs and frustration. But even in 314 of a second, a vehicle moving at 60 mph (100 km/h) travels 66 feet (20 m). That could be a lot of distance in an emergency, so keeping enough space between your vehicle and others is important. And, of course, actual stopping distances vary greatly with the surface of the road (whether it’s pavement or gravel); the condition of the road (wet, dry, icy); tire tread; the condition of your brakes; the weight of the vehicle and the amount of brake force applied.

Avoid needless heavy braking. Some people drive in spurts -- heavy acceleration followed by heavy braking -- rather than keeping pace with traffic. This is a mistake. Your brakes may not have time to cool between hard stops. Your brakes will wear out much faster if you do a lot of heavy braking. If you keep pace with the traffic and allow realistic following distances, you will eliminate a lot of unnecessary braking. That means better braking and longer brake life. If your engine ever stops while you‘re driving, brake normally but don’t pump your brakes. If you do, the pedal may get harder to push down. If your engine stops, you will still have some power brake assist. But you will use it when you brake. Once the power assist is used up, it may take longer to stop and the brake pedal will be harder to push.

Anti-Lock Brakes (ABS) Your vehicle has anti-lock brakes (ABS). ABS is an advanced electronic braking system that will help prevent a braking skid. When you start your engine and begin to drive away, your anti-lock brake system will check itself. You may hear a momentary motor or clicking noise while this test is going on. This is normal.


If there’s a problem with the anti-lock brake system, this warning light will stay on. See “Anti-Lock Brake System Warning Light” in the Index.


The anti-lock system can change the brake pressure lister than any driver could. The computer is programmed to make the most of available tire and road conditions.

Here's how anti-lock works. Let's say the road is wet. You're driving safely. Suddenly an animal jumps out i n front of you. You slam on the brakes. Here's what happens with ABS. A computer senses that wheels are slowing down. If one of the wheels is about to stop rolling. the computer will separately work the brakes at each front wheel and at the rear wheels.


You can steer around the obstacle while braking hard. As you brake. your computer keeps receiving updates on wheel speed and controls braking pressure accordingly.

Remember: Anti-lock doesn’t change the time you need to get your foot up to the brake pedal or always decrease stopping distance. If you get too close to the vehicle in front of you‘ you won’t have time to apply your brakes if that vehicle suddenly slows or stops. Always leave enough room up ahead to stop, even though you have anti-lock brakes.

Using Anti-Lock Don’t pump the brakes. Just hold the brake pedal down and let anti-lock work for you. You may feel the brakes vibrate, or you may notice some noise, but this is normal. On vehicles with four-wheel drive, your anti-lock brakes work at all times -- whether you are in two-wheel drive or four-wheel drive. Braking in Emergencies With anti-lock, you can steer and brake at the same time. In many emergencies, steering can help you more than even the very best braking.

Steering Power Steering If you lose power steering assist because the engine stops or the system is not functioning, you can steer but it will take much more effort. Steering Tips Driving on Curves It’s important to take curves at a reasonable speed. A lot of the “driver lost control” accidents mentioned on the news happen on curves. Here’s why: Experienced driver or beginner, each of us is subject to the same laws of physics when driving on curves. The traction of the tires against the road surface makes it possible for the vehicle to change its path when you turn the front wheels. If there’s no traction, inertia will keep the vehicle going in the same direction. If you’ve ever tried to steer a vehicle on wet ice, you‘ll understand this. The traction you can get in a curve depends on the condition of your tires and the road surface, the angle at which the curve is banked, and your speed. While you’re in a curve, speed is the one factor you can control.


Suppose you‘re steering through a sharp curve. Then you suddenly accelerate. Both control systems -- steering and acceleration -- have to do their work where the tires meet the road. Adding the sudden acceleration can demand too much of those places. You can lose control. What should YOLI do if this ever happens‘? Ease up on the accelerator pedal. steer the vehicle the way you want it to go. and slow down. Speed limit signs near curves warn that you should adjust your speed. Of course. the posted speeds are based on good weather and road conditions. Under less favorable conditions you’ll want to go slower. If you need t o reduce your speed as you approach it curve. do it befhre you enter the curve, while your front wheels are straight ahead. Try t o adjust your speed so you can “drive” through the CLII-ut. klaintain ;I reasonable, steady speed. Wait to acwlcrate llntil > . o u are out of the curve. and then accclcrate gcntlv i n t o the straightaway.

Steering in Emergencies There are times when steering can be more effective than braking. For example, you come over a hill and find a truck stopped in your lane, or a car suddenly pulls out from nowhere. or a child darts out from between parked cars and stops right in front of you. You can avoid these problems by braking -- if you can stop in time. But sometimes you can’t: there isn’t room. That’s the time for evasive action -- steering around the problem. Your vehicle can perform very well in emergencies like these. First apply your brakes. (See ”Braking in Emergencies” earlier in this section.) It is better to remove as much speed as you can from a possible collision. Then steer around the problem. to the left or right depending on the space available.

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Off-Road Recovery You may find sometime that your right wheels have dropped off the edge of a road onto the shoulder while you're driving.


An emergency like this requires close attention and a quick decision. If you are holding the steering wheel at the recommended 9 and 3 o'clock positions, you can turn it a tull 180 degrees very quickly without removing either hand. Bur you hrt\*e to act fast, steer quickly, and just a h quickly straighten the wheel once you have avoided the ob-jcct. The fact t h a t wch clncrgcncy situations are always possible i h ;I good reason t o practice defensive driving at all times and NYN satety belts properly.


edge of paved surface

If the level of the shoulder is only slightly below the pavement, recovery should be fairly easy. Ease off the accelerator and then, if there is nothing in the way, steer so that your vehicle straddles the edge of the pavement. You can turn the steering wheel up to one-quarter turn until the right front tire contacts the pavement edge. Then turn your steering wheel to go straight down the roadway.


Passing The driver of a vehicle about to pass another on a two-lane highway waits for just the right moment. accelerates, moves around the vehicle ahead. then goes back into the right lane again. A simple maneuver? Not necessarily! Passing another vehicle on a two-lane highway is a potentially dangerous move, since the passing vehicle occupies the same lane as oncoming traffic for several seconds. A miscalculation. an error i n judgment. or a brief surrender to frustration or anger can suddenly put the passing driver face to face with the worst of all traffic accidents -- the head-on collision. So here are some tips for passing:

"Drive ahead." Look down the road. to the sides and to crossroads for situations that might affect your passing patterns. If you have any doubt whatsoever about malung a successful pass. wait for a better time. Watch for traffic signs, pavement markings and lines. If you can see a sign up ahead that might indicate a turn or an intersection. delay your pass. A broken center line usually indicates it's all right to pass (providing the road ahead is clexj. Never cross a solid line on your side of the lane or a double solid line. even if the road seems empty of approaching traffic.


Do not get too close to the vehicle you want to pass while you're awaiting an opportunity. For one thing, following too closely reduces your area of vision. especially if you're following a larger vehicle. Also, you won't have adequate space if the vehicle ahead suddenly slows or stops. Keep back a reasonable distance. When it looks like a chance to pass is coming up, start to accelerate but stay in the right lane and don't get too close. Time your move so you will be increasing speed as the time comes to move into the other lane. If the way is clear to pass. you will have a "running start" that more than makes up for the distance you would lose by dropping back. And if something happens to cause you to cancel your pass. you need only slow down and drop back again and wait for another opportunity. If other cars are lined up to pass a slow vehicle, wait your turn. But take care that someone isn't trying to pass you as you pull out to pass the slow vehicle. Remember to glance over your shoulder and check the blind spot.

Check your mirrors, glance over your shoulder and start your left lane change signal before moving out of the right lane to pass. When you are far enough ahead of the passed vehicle to see its front in your inside mirror, activate your right lane change signal and move back into the right lane. (Remember that your right outside mirror is convex. The vehicle you just passed may seem to be farther away from you than it really is.) Try not to pass more than one vehicle at a time on two-lane roads. Reconsider before passing the next vehicle. Don’t overtake a slowly moving vehicle too rapidly. Even though the brake lamps are not flashing, it may be slowing down or starting to turn. If you’re being passed, make it easy for the following driver to get ahead of you. Perhaps you can ease a little to the right.

Loss of Control Let’s review what driving experts say about what happens when the three control systems (brakes, steering and accelerationj don’t have enough friction where the tires meet the road to do what the driver has asked. In any emergency, don‘t give up. Keep trying to steer and constantly seek an escape route or area of less danger. Skidding In a skid, a driver can lose control of the vehicle. Defensive drivers avoid most skids by taking reasonable care suited to existing conditions, and by not “overdriving” those conditions. But skids are always possible. The three types of skids correspond to your vehicle‘s three control systems. In the braking skid, your wheels aren’t rolling. In the steering or cornering skid, too much speed or steering in a curve causes tires to slip and lose cornering force. And in the acceleration skid, too much throttle causes the driving wheels to spin. A cornering skid and an acceleration skid are best handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal.


If your vehicle starts to slide. ease your foot off the accelerator pedal and quickly steer the way you want the vehicle to go. If you start steering quickly enough. your vehicle may straighten out. Always be ready for a second skid if it occurs. Of course, traction is reduced when water, snow. ice. gravel or other material is on the road. For safety. you’ll want to slow down and adjust your driving to these conditions. It is important to slow down on slippery surfaces because stopping distance will be longer and vehicle control more limited. While driving on a surface with reduced traction. try your best to avoid sudden steering, acceleration or braking (including engine braking by shifting to a lower t oear). Any sudden changes could cause the tires to slide. You may not realize the surface is slippery until your vehicle is skidding. Learn to recognize warning clues -- such as enough water. ice or packed snow on the road to make a “mirrored surface“ -- and slow down when you have any doubt. Remember: Any anti-lock brake system (ABS) helps avoid only the braking skid.

Driving Guidelines This multipurpose passenger vehicle is defined as a utility vehicle in Consumer Information Regulations issued by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the United States Department of Transportation. Utility vehicles have higher ground clearance and a nmower track to make them capable of perfolming in a wide variety of off-road applications. Specific design characteristics give them a higher center of gravity than ordinary cars. An advantage of the higher 2 oround clearance is a better view of the road allowing you to anticipate problems. They are not designed for cornering at the same speeds as conventional two-wheel-drive vehicles any more than low-slung sports cars are designed to perform satisfactorily under off-road conditions. If at all possible, avoid sharp turns or abrupt maneuvers. As with other vehicles of this type, failure to operate this vehicle correctly may result in loss of control or vehicle rollover.


Off-Road Driving with Your Four-Wheel-Drive Vehicle This off-road guide is for vehicles that have four-wheel drive. Also, see “Anti-Lock Brakes” in the Index. If your vehicle doesn‘t have four-wheel drive, you shouldn‘t drive off-road unless you‘re on a level, solid surface. Off-road driving can be great fun. But it does have some definite hazards. The greatest of these is the terrain itself. “Off-roading” means you’ve left the great North American road system behind. Traffic lanes aren‘t marked. Curves aren’t banked. There are no road signs. Surfaces can be slippery. rough, uphill or downhill. In short. you’ve gone right back to nature. Off-road driving involves some new skills. And that’s why it’s very important that you read this guide. You’ll find many driving tips and suggestions. These will help make your off-road driving safer and more enjoyable.

Before You Go Off-Roading There are sutfre things to do before you go out. For example, be sure to have all necessary maintenance and service work done. Check to make sure all underbody shields (if so equipped) are properly attached. Be sure you read all the information about your four-wheel-drive vehicle in this manual. Is there enough fuel? Is the spare tire fully inflated? Are the fluid levels up where they should be? What are the local laws that apply to off-roading where you’ll be driving? If you don’t know, you should check with law enforcement people in the area. Will you be on someone’s private land? If so, be sure to get the necessary permission. Loading Your Vehicle for Off-Road Driving There are some important things to remember about how to load your vehicle.

The heaviest things should be on the load floor and forward of your rear axle. Put heavier items as far forward as you can. Be sure the load is secured properly, so driving on the off-road terrain doesn’t toss things around.

4- 15



Cargo on the load floor piled higher than the seatbacks can be thrown forward during a sudden stop. You or your passengers could be injured. Keep cargo below the top of the seatbacks. Unsecured cargo on the load floor can tossed about when driving over rough terrain. You or your passengers can be struck by flying objects. Secure the cargo properly. Heavy loads on the roof raise the vehicle's center of gravity, making it more likely to roll over. You can be seriously or fatally in.jured if the vehicle rolls over. Put heavy loads inside the cargo area, not on the roof. Keep cargo in the cargo area as far forward and low as possible.

You'll find other important information in this manual. See "Vehicle Loading." "Luggage Carrier" and "Tires" in the Index.


Environmental Concerns Off-road driving can provide whoIesome and satisfying recreation. However. it also raises environmental concerns. GM recognizes these concerns and urges every off-roader to follow these basic rules for protectins the environment:

Always use established trails, roads and areas that have been specially set aside for public off-road recreational drivihg; obey all posted regulations. 0 Avoid any driving practice that could damage the environment -- shrubs. flowers. trees, grasses -- or disturb wildlife (this includes wheel-spinning, breaking down trees or unnecessary driving through streams or over soft ground).

0 Always carry a litter bag . . . make sure all refuse is

removed from any campsite before leaving. Take extreme care with open fires (where permitted). camp stoves and lanterns.

0 Never park your vehicle over dry grass or other

cotnbustible materials that could catch fire f1-0~11 the heat of the vehicle's exhaust system.

Traveling to Remote Areas It makes sense to plan your trip, especially when going to a remote area. Know the terrain and plan your route. You are much less likely to get bad surprises. Get accurate maps of trails and terrain. Try to learn of any blocked or closed roads. It’s also a good idea to travel with at least one other vehicle. If something happens to one of them, the other can help quickly. Does your vehicle have a winch? If so. be sure to read the winch instructions. In a remote area, a winch can be handy if you get stuck. But you’ll want to know how to use it properly. Getting Familiar with Off-Road Driving It’s a good idea to practice in an area that’s safe and close to home before you go into the wilderness. Off-road driving does require some new and different driving skills. Here’s what we mean. Tune your senses to different kinds of signals. Your eyes. for example, need to constantly sweep the terrain for unexpected obstacles. Your ears need to listen for unusual tire or engine sounds. With your arms, hands, feet and body, you’ll need to respond to vibrations and vehicle bounce.

Controlling your vehicle is the key to successful off-road driving. One of the best ways to control your vehicle is to control your speed. Here are some things to keep in mind. At higher speeds:

you approach things faster and you have less time to scan the terrain for obstacles. you have less time to react. you have more vehicle bounce when you drive over obstacles. you’ll need more distance for braking, especially since you’re on an unpaved surface.


When you’re driving off-road, bouncing and quick changes in direction can easily throw you out of position. This could cause you to lose control and crash. So, whether you’re driving on or off the road, you and your passengers should wear safety belts.

Scanning the Terrain Off-road driving can take you over mLmy different kinds of terrain. You need to be fatniliar with the terrain and its many different features. Here are some things to consider. Surface Cmditiom. Off-roading can take you over hard-packed dirt, gravel. rocks. grass. sand, mud, snow or ice. Each of these surfaces affects the steering, acceleration and brakinz of your vehicle i n different ways. Depending upon the kind of surfxe you are on. you may experience slipping. sliding. wheel spinning. delayed acceieration, poor traction and longer braking distances. Sru-fnce 0hstcrcle.v. Unseen or hidden obstacles can be hazardous. A rock. log hole. rut or bump CUI startle you if you're not prepared for them. Often these obstacles are hidden by grass, bushes. snow or even the rise and fall of the terrain itself. Here are some things to consider:

Is the path ahead clear'?

0 Will the surface texture change abruptly up ahead'?

Does the travel take you uphill or downhill'? (There's more discussion of these sub-jects later.) Will you have to stop suddenly or change direction quicklv'?

When you drive over obstacles or rough terrain, keep a firm grip on the steering wheel. Ruts, troughs or other surface features can jerk the wheel out of your hands if you're not prepared. When you drive over bumps. rocks, or other obstacles, your wheels can leave the ground. If this happens. even with one or two wheels, you can't control the vehicle as well or at all. Because you will be on an unpaved surface. it's especially important to avoid sudden acceleration. sudden turns or sudden braking. In a way, off-road driving requires a different kind of alertness from driving on paved roads and highways. There are no road signs. posted speed limits or signal lights. You have to use your own good judgment about what is safe and what isn't. Drinking and driving can be very dangerous on any road. And this is certainty true for off-road driving. At the very time you need special alertness and driving skills, your reflexes. perceptions and judgment can be affected by even z1 small amount of alcohol. You could have a serious -- or even fatal -- accident if you drink and drive or ride with a driver who has been drinking. See "Drunken Driving" in the index.


Driving on Off-Road Hills Off-road driving often takes you up, down or across a hill. Driving safely on hills requires good judgment and an understanding of what your vehicle can and can’t do. There are some hills that simply can’t be driven, no matter how well built the vehicle.


Many hills are simply too steep for any vehicle. If you drive up them, you will stall. If you drive down them, you can’t control your speed. If you drive across them, you will roll over. You could be seriously injured or killed. If you have any doubt about the steepness, don’t drive the hill.

Approaching a Hill When you approach a hill, you need to decide if it’s one of those hills that’s just too steep to climb, descend or cross. Steepness can be hard to judge. On a very small hill, for example, there may be a smooth. constant incline with only a small change in elevation where you can easily see all the way to the top. On a large hill, the

incline may get steeper as you near the top, but you may not see this because the crest of the hill is hidden by bushes, grass or shrubs. Here are some other things to consider as you approach a hill.

Is there a constant incline, or does the hill get sharply steeper in places? Is there good traction on the hillside, or will the surface cause tire slipping? Is there a straight path up or down the hill so you won’t have to make turning maneuvers? Are there obstructions on the hill that can block your path (boulders. trees, logs or ruts)? What’s beyond the hill? Is there a cliff, an embankment. a drop-off, a fence? Get out and walk the hill if you don’t know. It’s the smart way to find out. Is the hill simply too rough? Steep hills often have ruts, gullies, troughs and exposed rocks because they are more susceptible to the effects of erosion.



Ease LIP on your speed as you approach the top of the hill. Attach a flag to the vehicle to make you more visible to approaching traffic on trails or hills. Sound the horn as you approach the top of the hill to let opposing traffic know you.1-e there. Use your headlamps even during the day. They make you more 1:isible to oncoming traffic.


Driving to the top (crest) of a hill at full speed can cause a n accident. There could be a drop-off, embankment, cliff, or even another vehicle. You could be seriously injured or killed. As you near the top of a hill, slow down and stay alert.

Driving Uphill Once you decide you can safely drive up the hill, you need to take some special steps.

Use a low gear and get a firm grip or1 the steering wheel. Get a smooth start up the hill and try to maintain your speed. Don't use more power than you need. because you don't want your wheels to start spinning or sliding. Try to drive straight up the hill if at all possible. If the path twists and turns, you might want to find another route.


Turning or driving across steep hills can be dangerous. You could lose traction, slide sideways, and possibly roll over. You could be seriously injured or killed. When driving up hills, always try to go straight up.


@ What should I do if my vehicle stalls, or is about

to stall, and I can’t make it up the hill?

A: If this happens, there are some things you should do. and there are some things you must not do. First, here’s what you should do:

0 Push the brake pedal to stop the vehicle and keep it

from rolling backwards. Also, apply the parking brake. 0 If your engine is still running, shift the transmission

to REVERSE (R), release the parking brake, and slowly back down the hill in REVERSE (R).

0 If your engine has stopped running, you’ll need to restart it. With the brake pedal depressed and the parking brake still applied, shift the transmission to PARK (P) (or, shift to NEUTRAL (N) if your vehicle has a manual transmission) and restart the engine. Then, shift to REVERSE (R), release the parking brake, and slowly back down the hill as straight as possible in REVERSE (R).

As you are backing down the hill, put your left hand on the steering wheel at the 12 o’clock position. This way, you’ll be able to tell if your wheels are straight and maneuver as you back down. It’s best that you back down the hill with your wheels straight rather than in the left or right direction. Turning the wheel too far to the left or right will increase the possibility of a rollover.

Here are some things you must not do if you stall, or are about to stall, when going up a hill. 0 Never attempt to prevent a stall by shifting into NEUTRAL (N) (or depressing the clutch, if you have a manual transmission) to “rev-up” the engine and regain forward momentum. This won’t work. Your vehicle will roll backwards very quickly and you could go out of control. Instead, apply the regular brake to stop the vehicle. Then apply the parking brake. Shift to REVERSE (R), release the parking brake, and slowly back straight down.

0 Never attempt to turn around if you are about to stall

when going up a hill. If the hill is steep enough to stall your vehicle, it’s steep enough to cause you to roll over if you turn around. If you can’t make it up the hill, you must back straight down the hill.


Suppose, after stalling, I try to back down the hill and decide I just can’t do it. What should I do?

A: Set the parking brake, put your transmission in

PARK (P) (or the manual transmission in FIRST ( I ) ) and turn off the engine. Leave the vehicle and go get some help. Exit on the uphill side and stay clear of the path the vehicle would take if it rolled downhill. Do not shift the transfer case to NEUTRAL (N) when you leave the vehicle. Leave it i n some gear-.


If you have a manual transfer case shift lever, shifting the transfer case to NEUTRAL (Nj can cause your vehicle to roll even if the transmission is in PARK (P) (or, if you have the manual transmission, even if you’re in gear). This is because the NEUTRAL (N) position on the transfer case overrides the transmission. If you are going to leave your vehicle, set the parking brake and shift the transmission to PARK (P) (or, put your manual transmission in FIRST (I)). But do not shift the transfer case to the NEUTRAL (N) position. Leave the transfer case in the 2HI,4HI or 4LO position.


Driving Downhill When off-roading takes you downhill, you’ll want to consider a number of things: 0 How steep is the downhill? Will I be able to maintain

vehicle control?

0 What’s the surface like? Smooth? Rough‘? Slippery‘?

Hard-pac ked dirt ‘? Gravel?

0 Are there hidden surface obstacles? Ruts’?

Logs? Boulders’?

0 What’s at the bottom of the hill? Is there a hidden

creek bank or even a river bottom with large rocks? If you decide you can go down a hill safely, then try to keep your vehicle headed straight down, and use a low gear. This way. engine drag can help your brakes and they won‘t have t o do all the work. Descend slowly, keeping y ) u r \rehick under control at all times.

I A CAUTION: 1 I Heavy braking when going aown a hill can cause your brakes to overheat and fade. This could cause loss of control and a serious accident. Apply the brakes lightly when descending a hill and use a low gear to keep vehicle speed under control. &= Are there some things I should not do when A: Yes! These are important because

driving down a hill?

if you ignore them

you could lose control and have a serious accident.

0 When driving downhill, avoid turns that take you across the incline of the hill. A hill that’s not too steep to drive down may be too steep to drive across. You could roll over if you don’t drive straight down.

0 Never go downhill with the transmission in

NEUTRAL (N). or with the clutch pedal depressed in a manual shift. This is called “free-wheeling.” Your brakes will have to do all the work and could overheat and fade.


Q: Am I likely to stall when going downhill? A: It’s much more likely to happen going uphill. But if

it happens going downhill, here’s what to do.

0 Stop your vehicle by applying the regular brakes.

Apply the parking brake. Shift to PARK (P) (or to NEUTRAL (N) with the nlanual transmission) and, while still brakin,, 0 restart the engine. Shift back to a low gear. release the parking brake, and drive straight down. If the engine won’t start, get out and get help.

Driving Across an Incline Sooner or later, an off-road trail will probably go across the incline of a hill. If this happens, you have to decide whether to try to drive across the incline. Here are some things to consider: 0 A hill that can be driven straight up or down may be too steep to drive across. When you go straight up or down a hill. the length of the wheel base (the distance from the front wheels to the rear wheels) reduces the likelihood the vehicle will tumble end over end. But when you drive across an incline, the much more narrow track width (the distance between the left and right wheels) may not prevent the vehicle


from tilting and rolling over. Also, driving across an incline puts more weight on the downhill wheels. This could cause a downhill slide or a rollover. Surface conditions can be a problem when you drive across a hill. Loose gravel. muddy spots, or even wet 2 orass can cause your tires to slip sideways. downhill. If the vehicle slips sideways. it can hit something that will trip it (a rock. a rut, etc.) and roIl over. Hidden obstacles can make the steepness of the incline even worse. If you drive across a rock with the uphill wheels, or if the downhill wheels drop into a rut or depression, your vehicle can tilt even more. For reasons like these, you need to decide carefully whether to try to drive across 31 incline. Just because the trail goes ;lcross the incline doesn’t mean you have to drive it. The last vehcle to try it might have rolled over.


Driving across an incline that’s too steep will make your vehicle roll over. You could be seriously injured or killed. If you have any doubt about the steepness of the incline, don’t drive across it. Find another route instead.

e: What if I’m driving across an incline that’s not

too steep, but I hit some loose gravel and start to slide downhill. What should I do?

A: If you feel your vehicle starting to slide side.ways, turn downhill. This should help straighten out the vehicle and prevent the side slipping. However, a much better way to prevent this is to get out and “walk the course” so you know what the surface is like before you drive it. Stalling on an Incline If your vehicle stalls when you’re crossing an incline, be sure you (and your passengers) get out on the uphill side, even if the door there is harder to open. If you get out on the downhill side and the vehicle starts to roll over, you’ll be right in its path. If you have to walk down the slope, stay out of the path the vehicle will take if it does roll over.


Getting out on the downhill (low) side of a vehicle stopped across an incline is dangerous. If the vehicle rolls over, you could be crushed or killed. Always get out on the uphill (high) side of the vehicle and stay well clear of the rollover path.


Driving in Mud, Sand, Snow or Ice When you drive in mud. snow or sand. your wheels won't get good traction. You can't accelerate as quickly, turning is more difficult. and you'll need longer braking distances. It's best to use a low gear when you're in mud -- the deeper the mud. the lower the gear. In really deep mud. the idea is to keep your vehicle moving so you don't b *et stuck. When you drive on sand, you'll sense a change in wheel traction. But it will depend upon how loosely packed the sand is. On loosely packed sand (as on beaches or sand dunes) your tires will tend to sink into the sand. This has an effect on steering. accelerating and braking. You may want to reduce the air pressure in your tires slightly when driving on sand. This will improve traction. Hard packed snow and ice offer the worst tire traction. On these surfaces, it's very easy to lose control. On wet ice, for example. the traction is so poor that you will have difficulty accelerating. And if you do get moving, poor steering and difficult braking can came you t o slide out of control.


Driving on frozen lakes, ponds or rivers can be dangerous. Underwater springs. currents under the ice, or sudden thaws can weaken the ice. Your vehicle could fall through the ice and you and your passengers could drown. Drive your vehicle on safe surfaces only.

Driving in Water Light rain causes no special off-road driving problems. But heavy rain can mean tlash flooding, and flood waters demand extreme caution. Find out how deep the water is before you drive through it. If it's deep enough to cover your wheel hubs, axles or exhaust pipe. don't try it -- you probably won't get through. Also. water that deep can damage your axle and other vehicle parts.


After Off-Road Driving Remove any brush or debris that has collected on the underbody, chassis or under the hood. These accumulations can be a fire hazard. After operation in mud or sand, have the brake linings cleaned and checked. These substances can cause glazing and uneven braking. Check the body structure. steering, suspension, wheels, tires and exhaust system for damage. Also, check the fuel lines and cooling system for any leakage. Your vehicle will require more frequent service due to off-road use. Refer to the Maintenance Schedule for additional information.

If the water isn’t too deep, then drive through it slowly. At fast speeds, water splashes on your ignition system and your vehicle can stall. Stalling can also occur if you b get your tailpipe under water. And, as long as your tailpipe is under water, you’ll never be able to start your engine. When you go through water, remember that when your brakes get wet, it may take you longer to stop.


Driving through rushing water can be dangerous. Deep water can sweep your vehicle downstream and you and your passengers could drown. If it’s only shallow water, it can still wash away the ground from under your tires, and you could lose traction and roll the vehicle over. Don’t drive through rushing water.

See “Driving Through Water” in the Index for more information on driving throwh water.

Driving at Night

k- ---I

Night driving is more dangerous than day driving. One reason is that some drivers are likely to be impaired -- by alcohol or drugs. with night vision problems. or by htigue. Here are some tips on night driving. 0 Drive defensively.

Don't drink and drive


Adjust your inside rearview mirror to reduce the 3 olare from headlamps behind you. Since you can't see as well, you may need to sIow down and keep more space between you and other vehicles. Slow down, especially on higher speed roads. Your headlamps can light up only so much road ahead. In remote areas, watch for animals. If you're tired, pull off the road in a safe place and rest.

Night Vision No one can see as well at night as in the daytime. But as we get older these differences increase. A 50-year-old driver may require at least twice a s much light to see the same thing at night as a 20-year-old. What you do in the daytime can also affect your night vision. For example. if you spend the day in bright sunshine you are wise to wear sunglasses. Your eyes will have less trouble adjusting to night. But if you're driving, don't wear sunglasses at night. They may cut down on glare from headlamps, but they also make a lot of things invisible.

You can be temporarily blinded by approaching headlamps. It can take a second or two, or even several seconds, for your eyes to readjust to the dark. When you are faced with severe glare (as from a driver who doesn’t lower the high beams, or a vehicle with misaimed headlamps), slow down a little. Avoid staring directly into the approaching headlamps. Keep your windshield and all the glass on your vehicle clean -- inside and out. Glare at night is made much worse by dirt on the glass. Even the inside of the glass can build up a film caused by dust. Dirty glass makes lights dazzle and flash more than clean glass would, making the pupils of your eyes contract repeatedly. Remember that your headlamps light up far less of a roadway when you are in a turn or curve. Keep your eyes moving: that way, it’s easier to pick out dimly lighted objects. Just as your headlamps should be checked regularly for proper aim, so should your eyes be examined regularly. Some drivers suffer from night blindness -- the inability to see in dim light -- and aren‘t even aware of it.

Driving in Rain and on Wet Roads

Rain and wet roads can mean driving trouble. On a wet road, you can’t stop, accelerate or turn as well because your tire-to-road traction isn’t as good as on dry roads. And, if your tires don’t have much tread left, you’ll get even less traction. It’s always wise to go slower and be cautious if rain starts to fall while you are driving. The surface may get wet suddenly when your reflexes are tuned for driving on dry pavement.


The heavier the rain, the harder it is to see. Even if your windshield wiper blades are in good shape, a heavy rain can make it harder to see road signs and traffic sipals. pavement markings. the edge of the road and even people walking. It's wise to keep your wiping equipment in good shape and keep your windshield washer tank filled with washer fluid. Replace your windshield wiper inserts when they show signs of streaking or missing areas on the windshield, or when strips of rubber start to separate from the inserts.

Driving too fast through large water puddles or even going through some car washes can cause problems, too. The water may affect your brakes. Try to avoid puddles. But if you can't. try to slow down before you hit them.


Wet brakes can cause accidents. They won't work as well in a quick stop and may cause pulling to one side. You could lose control of the vehicle. After driving through a large puddle of water or a car wash, apply your brake pedal lightly until your brakes work normally.


Hydroplaning Hydroplaning is dangerous. So much water can build up under your tires that they can actually ride on the water. This can happen if the road is wet enough and you’re going fast enough. When your vehicle is hydroplaning, it has little or no contact with the road. Hydroplaning doesn’t happen often. But it can if your tires do not have much tread or if the pressure in one or more is low. It can happen if a lot of water is standing on the road. If you can see reflections from trees. telephone poles or other vehicles. and raindrops “dimple“ the water’s surface. there could be hydroplaning. Hydroplaning usually happens at higher speeds. There just isn‘t a hard and fast rule about hydroplaning. The best advice is to slow down when it is raining.

Driving Through Deep Standing Water


If you drive too quickly through deep puddles or standing water, water can come in through your engine’s air intake and badly damage your engine. Never drive through water that is slightly lower than the underbody of your vehicle. If you can’t avoid deep puddles or standing water, drive through them very slowly.

Some Other Rainy Weather Tips 0 Besides slowing down, allow some extra following distance. And be especially careful when you pass another vehicle. Allow yourself more clear room ahead, and be prepared to have your view restricted by road spray.

0 Have good tires with proper tread depth. (See

“Tires” in the Index.)

4-3 1

One of the biggest problems with city streets is the amount of traffic on them. You'll want to watch out for what the other drivers are doing and pay attention to traffic sipals. Here are ways to increase your safety in city driving:

Know the best way to get to where you are going. Get a city map and plan your trip into an unknown part of the city just as you would for a cross-country trip. Try to use the freeways that rim and crisscross most large cities. You'll save time and energy. (See the next part. "Freeway Driving.") Treat a green light as a warning signal. A traffic light is there because the corner is busy enough to need it. When a light turns green. and just before you start to move. check both ways for vehicles that have not cleared the intersection or may be running the red light.

City Driving


Freeway Driving

Mile for mile, freeways (also called thruways, parkways, expressways, turnpikes or superhighways) are the safest of all roads. But they have their own special rules.

The most important advice on freeway driving is: Keep up with traffic and keep to the right. Drive at the same speed most of the other drivers are driving. Too-fast or too-slow driving breaks a smooth traffic flow. Treat the left lane on a freeway as a passing lane. At the entrance, there is usually a ramp that leads to the freeway. If you have a clear view of the freeway as you drive along the entrance ramp, you should begin to check traffic. Try to determine where you expect to blend with the flow. Try to merge into the gap at close to the prevailing speed. Switch on your turn signal, check your mirrors and glance over your shoulder as often as necessary. Try to blend smoothly with the traffic flow. Once you are on the freeway, adjust your speed to the posted limit or to the prevailing rate if it‘s slower. Stay in the right lane unless you want to pass. Before changing lanes, check your mirrors. Then use your turn signal. Just before you leave the lane, glance quickly over your shoulder to make sure there isn’t another vehicle in your “blind” spot.


Once you are moving on the freeway, make certain you allow a reasonable following distance. Expect to move slightly slower at night. When you want to leave the freeway, move to the proper lane well in advance. If you miss your exit, do not, under any circumstances, stop and back up. Drive on to the next exit. The exit ramp can be curved, sometimes quite sharply. The exit speed is usually posted. Reduce your speed according to your speedometer, not to your sense of motion. After driving for any distance at higher speeds, you may tend to think you are going slower than you actually are. Before Leaving on a Long Trip Make sure you're ready. Try to be well rested. If you must start when you're not fresh -- such as after a day's work -- don't plan t o make too many miles that first part of the journcv. Wear comfortable clothing and shoes you can easily drive i n .

Is your vehicle ready for a long trip? If you keep it serviced and maintained, it's ready to go. If it needs service, have it done before starting out. Of course, you'll find experienced and able service experts in GM dealerships all across North America. They'll be ready and willing to help if you need it. Here are some things you can check before a trip: 0 Windshield Washer Fluid: Is the reservoir full? Are

all windows clean inside and outside? Wiper Blades: Are they in good shape?

0 Fuel, Engine Oil, Other Fluids: Have you checked

all levels? Lurrzps: Are they all working? Are the lenses clean? Tires: They are vitally important to a safe, trouble-free trip. Is the tread good enough for long-distance driving? Are the tires all inflated to the recommended pressure'? Weather For-ecvrsts: What's the weather outlook along your route? Should you delay your trip a short time to avoid a major storm system? 0 Maps: Do you have up-to-date maps'!


Highway Hypnosis Is there actually such a condition as “highway hypnosis”? Or is it just plain falling asleep at the wheel? Call it highway hypnosis, lack of awareness, or whatever. There is something about an easy stretch of road with the same scenery, along with the hum of the tires on the road, the drone of the engine, and the rush of the wind against the vehicle that can make you sleepy. Don’t let it happen to you! If it does, your vehicle can leave the road in less than a secund, and you could crash and be injured. What can you do about highway hypnosis? First, be aware that it can happen. Then here are some tips:

Make sure your vehicle is well ventilated, with a comfortably cool interior. Keep your eyes moving. Scan the road ahead and to the sides. Check your mirrors and your instruments frequently. I f you Sct d w p y . pull off the road into a rest, service or parking xe;L and take a nap, get some exercise, or both. For safety. treat drowsiness on the highway as an emergency.

Hill and Mountain Roads

Driving on steep hills or mountains is different from driving in flat or rolling terrain. If you drive regularly in steep country, or if you’re planning to visit there, here are some tips that can make your trips safer and more enjoyable. (See “Off-Road Driving’’ in the Index for information about driving off-road.)


Keep your vehicle in good shape. Check all fluid levels and also the brakes, tires. cooling system and transmission. These parts can work hard on mountain roads. Know how to go down hills. The most important thing to know is this: let your engine do some of the slowing down. Shift to a lower gear when you go down a steep or long hill.


If you don’t shift down, your brakes could get so hot that they wouldn’t work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Shift down to let your engine assist your brakes on a steep downhill slope.



Coasting downhill in NEUTRAL (N) or with the ignition off is dangerous. Your brakes will have to do all the work of slowing down. They could get so hot that they wouldn’t work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Always have your engine running and your vehicle in gear when you go downhill.

Know how to go uphill. You may want to shift down to a lower gear. The lower gears help cool your engine and transmission. and you can climb the hill better. Stay in your own lane when driving on two-lane roads in hills o r mountains. Don‘t swing wide or cut across the center of the road. Drive at speeds that let you stay in your own lane. As you go over the top of a hill, be alert. There could be something in your lane. like a. stalled car or an accident. You may see hishway signs on mountains that warn of special problems. Examples are long grades, passing or no-passing zones. a falling rocks area or winding roads. Be alert to these and take appropriate action.

Winter Driving

Here are some tips for winter driving:

Have your vehicle in good shape for winter.

0 You may want to put winter emergency supplies in

your vehicle.

Include an ice scraper, a small brush or broom, a supply of windshield washer fluid, a rag, some winter outer clothing, a small shovel, a flashlight, a red cloth and reflective warning triangles. And, if you will be driving under severe conditions, include a small bag of sand, a piece of old carpet or a couple of burlap bags to help provide traction. Be sure you properly secure these items in your vehicle. Driving on Snow or Ice Most of the time, those places where your tires meet the road probably have good traction. However, if there is snow or ice between your tires and the road, you can have a very slippery situation. You’ll have a lot less traction or “grip” and will need to be very careful.


Whatever the condition -- smooth ice, packed, blowing or loose snow -- drive with caution. Accelerate gently. Try not to break the fragile traction. If you accelerate too fast. the drive wheels will spin and polish the surface under the tires even more. Your anti-lock brakes improve your vehicle’s stability when you make a hard stop on a slippery road. Even though you have an anti-lock braking system, you’ll want to begin stopping sooner than you would on dry pavement. See “Anti-Lock” in the Index.

Allow greater following distance on any slippery road. Watch for slippery spots. The road might be fine until you hit a spot that’s covered with ice. On an otherwise clear road, ice patches may appear in shaded areas where the sun can’t reach: around clumps of trees, behind buildings or under bridges. Sometimes the surface of a curve or an overpass may remain icy when the surrounding roads are clear. I f you see a patch of ice ahead of you, brake before you are on it. Try not to brake while you’re actually on the ice, and avoid sudden steering maneuvers.

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What’s the worst time for this’? “Wet ice.“ Very cold snow or ice can be slick and hard to drive on. But wet ice can be even more trouble because it may offer the least traction of all. You can get wet ice when it’s about freezing (32°F; OOC) and freezing rain begins to fall. Try to avoid driving on wet ice until salt and sand crews can get there.


If You’re Caught in a Blizzard

Tie a red cloth to your vehicle to alert police that you’ve been stopped by the snow. Put on extra clothing or wrap a blanket around you. If you have no blankets or extra clothing, make body insuIators from newspapers, burlap bags, rags , floor mats -- anything you can wrap around yourself or tuck under your clothing to keep warm.

If you are stopped by heavy snow, you could be in a serious situation. You should probably stay with your vehicle unless you know for sure that you are near help and you can hike through the snow. Here are some things to do to summon help and keep yourself and your passengers safe: 0 Turn on your hazard flashers.

You can run the engine to keep warm, but be careful.



Snow can trap exhaust gases under your vehicle. This can cause deadly CO (carbon monoxide) gas to get inside. CO could overcome you and kill you. You can’t see it o r smell it, so you might not know it is in your vehicle. Clear away snow from around the base of your vehicle, especially any that is blocking your exhaust pipe. And check around again from time to time to be sure snow doesn’t collect there. Open a window just a little on the side of the vehicle that’s away from the wind. This will help keep CO out.

Run your engine only as long as you must. This saves fuel. When you run the engine, make it 90 a little faster than just idle. That is, push the accelerator slightly. This uses less fuel for the heat that you get and it keeps the battery charged. You will need a well-charged battery to restart the vehicle. and possibly for signaling later on with your headlamps. Let the heater run for a while. Then. shut the engine off and close the window almost all the way to preserve the heat. Start the engine again and repeat this only when you feel really uncomfortable from the cold. But do it as little as possible. Preserve the fuel as long as you can. To help keep warm. you can get out of the vehicle and do some fairly vigorous exercises every half hour or so until help comes.


Recreational Vehicle Towing (Four-wheel Drive With Manual Shift Transfer Case Only) 1. Set the parking brake firmly. 2. Place an automatic transmission in PARK (P) or a

manual transmission in FIRST ( 1 ).

3. Firmly attach the vehicle being towed to the tow

vehicle. Do not tow the vehicle by the rear bumper bar. Refer to the hitch manufacturer’s instructions.

4. Place the manual shift transfer case shift lever in



Shifting the transfer case into NEUTRAL (N) can cause your vehicle to roll even if the transmission is in PARK (P), for an automatic transmission, or if your vehicle is in gear, for a manual transmission. You or others could be injured. Make sure the parking brake is firmly set before you shift the transfer case into NEUTRAL (N).

5. Release the parking brake only after the vehicle

being towed is firmly attached to the tow vehicle. 6. Insert the ignition key into the ignition switch and

turn it one notch forward of the LOCK position. This places the key in the OFF position, which unlocks the steering column while preventing battery drain. Unlocking the steering column will allow for proper movement of the front wheelshires during towing.


Loading Your Vehicle

Recreational Vehicle Towing (Except Four-wheel Drive With Manual Shift Transfer Case) Vehicles with two-wheel drive or the optional electronic shift transfer case require special modifications before they can be towed in this manner. Please contact your dealer for the towing information that is appropriate for your particular vehicle. Vehicles with all-wheel drive (AWD) can not be towed in this manner.

The Certificationflire label is found on the driver’s door edge, above the door latch. The label shows the size of your original tires and the inflation pressures needed to obtain the gross weight capacity of your vehicle. This is called the GVWR (Gross Vehicle Weight Rating). The GVWR includes the weight of the vehicle. all occupants, fuel, cargo and trailer tongue weight, if pulling a trailer.


The Certificatioflire label also tells you the maximum weights for the front and rear axles, called Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR). To find out the actual loads on your front and rear axles, you need to go to a weigh station and weigh your vehicle. Your dealer can help you with this. Be sure to spread out your load equally on both sides of the centerline. Never exceed the GVWR for your vehicle, or the GAWR for either the front or rear axle. If you do have a heavy load, you should spread it out. Similar appearing vehicles may have different GVWRs and payloads. Please note your vehicle’s Certificationmire label or consult your dealer for additional details.


Using heavier suspension components to get added durability might not change your weight ratings. Ask your dealer to help you load your vehicle the right way.


Your warranty does not cover parts or components that fail because of overloading.

If you put things inside your vehicle -- like suitcases, tools, packages, or anything else -- they will go as fast as the vehicle goes. If you have to stop or turn quickly, or if there is a crash, they’ll keep going.

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Do not load your vehicie any heavier than the GVWR, or either the maximum front or rear GAWR. If you do, parts on your vehicle can break, or it can change the way your vehicle handles. These could cause you to lose control. Also, overloading can shorten the life of your vehicle.

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Things you put inside your vehicle can strike and injure people in a sudden stop or turn, or in 1 a crash.

0 Put things in the cargo area of your vehicle.

Try to spread the weight


0 Never stack heavier things, like suitcases,

inside the vehicle so that some of them are above the tops of the seats.

0 Don't leave an unsecured child restraint in

your vehicle. When you carry something inside the vehicle, secure it whenever you can.

0 Don't leave a seat folded down unless you

need to.

There's also important loading information lor off-road driving in this manual. See "Loading Your Vehicle for Off-Road Driving" in the Index.


Payload The payload capacity is shown on the Certificationflire label. This is the maximum load capacity that your vehicle can carry. Be sure to include the weight of the occupants as part of your load. If you added any accessories or equipment after your vehicle left the factory, remember to subtract the weight of these things from the payload. Your dealer can help you with this. Add-on Equipment When you carry removable items, you may need to put a limit o n how many people you carry inside your vehicle. Be sure to weigh your vehicle before ~ O L I buy and install the new equipment.


Your warranty doesn't cover parts or components that fail because of overloading.

Towing a Trailer


If you don’t use the correct equipment and drive properly, you can lose control when you pull a brakes may not work well -- or even at all. You trailer. For example, if the trailer is too heavy, the and your passengers could be seriously injured. Pull a trailer only if you have followed all the steps in this section. Ask your GM dealer for advice and information about towing a trailer with your vehicle.


Pulling a trailer improperly can damage your i vehicle and result in costly repairs not covered by your warranty. To pull a trailer correctly, follow the advice in this part, and see your GM dealer for important information about towing a trailer with your vehicle.

Every vehicle is ready for $time trailer towing. If yours was built with trailering options, as many are, it’s ready for heavier trailers. But trailering is different than just driving your vehicle by itself. Trailering means changes in handling, durability and fuel economy. Successful. safe trailering takes correct equipment, and it has to be used properly. That’s the reason for this part. In it are many time-tested, important trailering tips and safety rules. Many of these are important for your safety and that of your passengers. So please read this section carefully before you pull a trailer.


If You Do Decide To Pull A Trailer If you do, here are some important points:

There are many different laws, including speed limit restrictions, having to do with trailering. Make sure your rig will be legal, not only where you live but also where you’ll be driving. A good source for this information can be state or provincial police. Consider using a sway control if your trailer will weigh 2,000 lbs. (900 kg) or less. You should always use a sway control if your trailer will weigh more than 2,000 lbs. (900 kg). You can ask a hitch dealer about sway controls. Don’t tow a trailer at all during the first 500 miles (800 km) your new vehicle is driven. Your engine, axle or other parts could be damaged. Then, during the first 500 miles (800 km) that you tow a trailer, don‘t drive over 50 mph (80 k m h ) and don’t make starts at full throttle. This helps your engine and other parts of your vehicle wear in at the heavier loads.