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too steep, but I hit some loose gravel and start to slide downhill. What should I do?

A: If you feel your vehicle starting to slide side.ways, turn downhill. This should help straighten out the vehicle and prevent the side slipping. However, a much better way to prevent this is to get out and “walk the course” so you know what the surface is like before you drive it. Stalling on an Incline If your vehicle stalls when you’re crossing an incline, be sure you (and your passengers) get out on the uphill side, even if the door there is harder to open. If you get out on the downhill side and the vehicle starts to roll over, you’ll be right in its path. If you have to walk down the slope, stay out of the path the vehicle will take if it does roll over.


Getting out on the downhill (low) side of a vehicle stopped across an incline is dangerous. If the vehicle rolls over, you could be crushed or killed. Always get out on the uphill (high) side of the vehicle and stay well clear of the rollover path.


Driving in Mud, Sand, Snow or Ice When you drive in mud. snow or sand. your wheels won't get good traction. You can't accelerate as quickly, turning is more difficult. and you'll need longer braking distances. It's best to use a low gear when you're in mud -- the deeper the mud. the lower the gear. In really deep mud. the idea is to keep your vehicle moving so you don't b *et stuck. When you drive on sand, you'll sense a change in wheel traction. But it will depend upon how loosely packed the sand is. On loosely packed sand (as on beaches or sand dunes) your tires will tend to sink into the sand. This has an effect on steering. accelerating and braking. You may want to reduce the air pressure in your tires slightly when driving on sand. This will improve traction. Hard packed snow and ice offer the worst tire traction. On these surfaces, it's very easy to lose control. On wet ice, for example. the traction is so poor that you will have difficulty accelerating. And if you do get moving, poor steering and difficult braking can came you t o slide out of control.


Driving on frozen lakes, ponds or rivers can be dangerous. Underwater springs. currents under the ice, or sudden thaws can weaken the ice. Your vehicle could fall through the ice and you and your passengers could drown. Drive your vehicle on safe surfaces only.

Driving in Water Light rain causes no special off-road driving problems. But heavy rain can mean tlash flooding, and flood waters demand extreme caution. Find out how deep the water is before you drive through it. If it's deep enough to cover your wheel hubs, axles or exhaust pipe. don't try it -- you probably won't get through. Also. water that deep can damage your axle and other vehicle parts.


After Off-Road Driving Remove any brush or debris that has collected on the underbody, chassis or under the hood. These accumulations can be a fire hazard. After operation in mud or sand, have the brake linings cleaned and checked. These substances can cause glazing and uneven braking. Check the body structure. steering, suspension, wheels, tires and exhaust system for damage. Also, check the fuel lines and cooling system for any leakage. Your vehicle will require more frequent service due to off-road use. Refer to the Maintenance Schedule for additional information.

If the water isn’t too deep, then drive through it slowly. At fast speeds, water splashes on your ignition system and your vehicle can stall. Stalling can also occur if you b get your tailpipe under water. And, as long as your tailpipe is under water, you’ll never be able to start your engine. When you go through water, remember that when your brakes get wet, it may take you longer to stop.


Driving through rushing water can be dangerous. Deep water can sweep your vehicle downstream and you and your passengers could drown. If it’s only shallow water, it can still wash away the ground from under your tires, and you could lose traction and roll the vehicle over. Don’t drive through rushing water.

See “Driving Through Water” in the Index for more information on driving throwh water.

Driving at Night

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Night driving is more dangerous than day driving. One reason is that some drivers are likely to be impaired -- by alcohol or drugs. with night vision problems. or by htigue. Here are some tips on night driving. 0 Drive defensively.

Don't drink and drive


Adjust your inside rearview mirror to reduce the 3 olare from headlamps behind you. Since you can't see as well, you may need to sIow down and keep more space between you and other vehicles. Slow down, especially on higher speed roads. Your headlamps can light up only so much road ahead. In remote areas, watch for animals. If you're tired, pull off the road in a safe place and rest.

Night Vision No one can see as well at night as in the daytime. But as we get older these differences increase. A 50-year-old driver may require at least twice a s much light to see the same thing at night as a 20-year-old. What you do in the daytime can also affect your night vision. For example. if you spend the day in bright sunshine you are wise to wear sunglasses. Your eyes will have less trouble adjusting to night. But if you're driving, don't wear sunglasses at night. They may cut down on glare from headlamps, but they also make a lot of things invisible.

You can be temporarily blinded by approaching headlamps. It can take a second or two, or even several seconds, for your eyes to readjust to the dark. When you are faced with severe glare (as from a driver who doesn’t lower the high beams, or a vehicle with misaimed headlamps), slow down a little. Avoid staring directly into the approaching headlamps. Keep your windshield and all the glass on your vehicle clean -- inside and out. Glare at night is made much worse by dirt on the glass. Even the inside of the glass can build up a film caused by dust. Dirty glass makes lights dazzle and flash more than clean glass would, making the pupils of your eyes contract repeatedly. Remember that your headlamps light up far less of a roadway when you are in a turn or curve. Keep your eyes moving: that way, it’s easier to pick out dimly lighted objects. Just as your headlamps should be checked regularly for proper aim, so should your eyes be examined regularly. Some drivers suffer from night blindness -- the inability to see in dim light -- and aren‘t even aware of it.

Driving in Rain and on Wet Roads

Rain and wet roads can mean driving trouble. On a wet road, you can’t stop, accelerate or turn as well because your tire-to-road traction isn’t as good as on dry roads. And, if your tires don’t have much tread left, you’ll get even less traction. It’s always wise to go slower and be cautious if rain starts to fall while you are driving. The surface may get wet suddenly when your reflexes are tuned for driving on dry pavement.


The heavier the rain, the harder it is to see. Even if your windshield wiper blades are in good shape, a heavy rain can make it harder to see road signs and traffic sipals. pavement markings. the edge of the road and even people walking. It's wise to keep your wiping equipment in good shape and keep your windshield washer tank filled with washer fluid. Replace your windshield wiper inserts when they show signs of streaking or missing areas on the windshield, or when strips of rubber start to separate from the inserts.

Driving too fast through large water puddles or even going through some car washes can cause problems, too. The water may affect your brakes. Try to avoid puddles. But if you can't. try to slow down before you hit them.


Wet brakes can cause accidents. They won't work as well in a quick stop and may cause pulling to one side. You could lose control of the vehicle. After driving through a large puddle of water or a car wash, apply your brake pedal lightly until your brakes work normally.


Hydroplaning Hydroplaning is dangerous. So much water can build up under your tires that they can actually ride on the water. This can happen if the road is wet enough and you’re going fast enough. When your vehicle is hydroplaning, it has little or no contact with the road. Hydroplaning doesn’t happen often. But it can if your tires do not have much tread or if the pressure in one or more is low. It can happen if a lot of water is standing on the road. If you can see reflections from trees. telephone poles or other vehicles. and raindrops “dimple“ the water’s surface. there could be hydroplaning. Hydroplaning usually happens at higher speeds. There just isn‘t a hard and fast rule about hydroplaning. The best advice is to slow down when it is raining.

Driving Through Deep Standing Water


If you drive too quickly through deep puddles or standing water, water can come in through your engine’s air intake and badly damage your engine. Never drive through water that is slightly lower than the underbody of your vehicle. If you can’t avoid deep puddles or standing water, drive through them very slowly.

Some Other Rainy Weather Tips 0 Besides slowing down, allow some extra following distance. And be especially careful when you pass another vehicle. Allow yourself more clear room ahead, and be prepared to have your view restricted by road spray.

0 Have good tires with proper tread depth. (See

“Tires” in the Index.)

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One of the biggest problems with city streets is the amount of traffic on them. You'll want to watch out for what the other drivers are doing and pay attention to traffic sipals. Here are ways to increase your safety in city driving:

Know the best way to get to where you are going. Get a city map and plan your trip into an unknown part of the city just as you would for a cross-country trip. Try to use the freeways that rim and crisscross most large cities. You'll save time and energy. (See the next part. "Freeway Driving.") Treat a green light as a warning signal. A traffic light is there because the corner is busy enough to need it. When a light turns green. and just before you start to move. check both ways for vehicles that have not cleared the intersection or may be running the red light.

City Driving


Freeway Driving

Mile for mile, freeways (also called thruways, parkways, expressways, turnpikes or superhighways) are the safest of all roads. But they have their own special rules.

The most important advice on freeway driving is: Keep up with traffic and keep to the right. Drive at the same speed most of the other drivers are driving. Too-fast or too-slow driving breaks a smooth traffic flow. Treat the left lane on a freeway as a passing lane. At the entrance, there is usually a ramp that leads to the freeway. If you have a clear view of the freeway as you drive along the entrance ramp, you should begin to check traffic. Try to determine where you expect to blend with the flow. Try to merge into the gap at close to the prevailing speed. Switch on your turn signal, check your mirrors and glance over your shoulder as often as necessary. Try to blend smoothly with the traffic flow. Once you are on the freeway, adjust your speed to the posted limit or to the prevailing rate if it‘s slower. Stay in the right lane unless you want to pass. Before changing lanes, check your mirrors. Then use your turn signal. Just before you leave the lane, glance quickly over your shoulder to make sure there isn’t another vehicle in your “blind” spot.


Once you are moving on the freeway, make certain you allow a reasonable following distance. Expect to move slightly slower at night. When you want to leave the freeway, move to the proper lane well in advance. If you miss your exit, do not, under any circumstances, stop and back up. Drive on to the next exit. The exit ramp can be curved, sometimes quite sharply. The exit speed is usually posted. Reduce your speed according to your speedometer, not to your sense of motion. After driving for any distance at higher speeds, you may tend to think you are going slower than you actually are. Before Leaving on a Long Trip Make sure you're ready. Try to be well rested. If you must start when you're not fresh -- such as after a day's work -- don't plan t o make too many miles that first part of the journcv. Wear comfortable clothing and shoes you can easily drive i n .

Is your vehicle ready for a long trip? If you keep it serviced and maintained, it's ready to go. If it needs service, have it done before starting out. Of course, you'll find experienced and able service experts in GM dealerships all across North America. They'll be ready and willing to help if you need it. Here are some things you can check before a trip: 0 Windshield Washer Fluid: Is the reservoir full? Are

all windows clean inside and outside? Wiper Blades: Are they in good shape?

0 Fuel, Engine Oil, Other Fluids: Have you checked

all levels? Lurrzps: Are they all working? Are the lenses clean? Tires: They are vitally important to a safe, trouble-free trip. Is the tread good enough for long-distance driving? Are the tires all inflated to the recommended pressure'? Weather For-ecvrsts: What's the weather outlook along your route? Should you delay your trip a short time to avoid a major storm system? 0 Maps: Do you have up-to-date maps'!


Highway Hypnosis Is there actually such a condition as “highway hypnosis”? Or is it just plain falling asleep at the wheel? Call it highway hypnosis, lack of awareness, or whatever. There is something about an easy stretch of road with the same scenery, along with the hum of the tires on the road, the drone of the engine, and the rush of the wind against the vehicle that can make you sleepy. Don’t let it happen to you! If it does, your vehicle can leave the road in less than a secund, and you could crash and be injured. What can you do about highway hypnosis? First, be aware that it can happen. Then here are some tips:

Make sure your vehicle is well ventilated, with a comfortably cool interior. Keep your eyes moving. Scan the road ahead and to the sides. Check your mirrors and your instruments frequently. I f you Sct d w p y . pull off the road into a rest, service or parking xe;L and take a nap, get some exercise, or both. For safety. treat drowsiness on the highway as an emergency.

Hill and Mountain Roads

Driving on steep hills or mountains is different from driving in flat or rolling terrain. If you drive regularly in steep country, or if you’re planning to visit there, here are some tips that can make your trips safer and more enjoyable. (See “Off-Road Driving’’ in the Index for information about driving off-road.)


Keep your vehicle in good shape. Check all fluid levels and also the brakes, tires. cooling system and transmission. These parts can work hard on mountain roads. Know how to go down hills. The most important thing to know is this: let your engine do some of the slowing down. Shift to a lower gear when you go down a steep or long hill.


If you don’t shift down, your brakes could get so hot that they wouldn’t work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Shift down to let your engine assist your brakes on a steep downhill slope.



Coasting downhill in NEUTRAL (N) or with the ignition off is dangerous. Your brakes will have to do all the work of slowing down. They could get so hot that they wouldn’t work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Always have your engine running and your vehicle in gear when you go downhill.

Know how to go uphill. You may want to shift down to a lower gear. The lower gears help cool your engine and transmission. and you can climb the hill better. Stay in your own lane when driving on two-lane roads in hills o r mountains. Don‘t swing wide or cut across the center of the road. Drive at speeds that let you stay in your own lane. As you go over the top of a hill, be alert. There could be something in your lane. like a. stalled car or an accident. You may see hishway signs on mountains that warn of special problems. Examples are long grades, passing or no-passing zones. a falling rocks area or winding roads. Be alert to these and take appropriate action.

Winter Driving

Here are some tips for winter driving:

Have your vehicle in good shape for winter.

0 You may want to put winter emergency supplies in

your vehicle.

Include an ice scraper, a small brush or broom, a supply of windshield washer fluid, a rag, some winter outer clothing, a small shovel, a flashlight, a red cloth and reflective warning triangles. And, if you will be driving under severe conditions, include a small bag of sand, a piece of old carpet or a couple of burlap bags to help provide traction. Be sure you properly secure these items in your vehicle. Driving on Snow or Ice Most of the time, those places where your tires meet the road probably have good traction. However, if there is snow or ice between your tires and the road, you can have a very slippery situation. You’ll have a lot less traction or “grip” and will need to be very careful.


Whatever the condition -- smooth ice, packed, blowing or loose snow -- drive with caution. Accelerate gently. Try not to break the fragile traction. If you accelerate too fast. the drive wheels will spin and polish the surface under the tires even more. Your anti-lock brakes improve your vehicle’s stability when you make a hard stop on a slippery road. Even though you have an anti-lock braking system, you’ll want to begin stopping sooner than you would on dry pavement. See “Anti-Lock” in the Index.

Allow greater following distance on any slippery road. Watch for slippery spots. The road might be fine until you hit a spot that’s covered with ice. On an otherwise clear road, ice patches may appear in shaded areas where the sun can’t reach: around clumps of trees, behind buildings or under bridges. Sometimes the surface of a curve or an overpass may remain icy when the surrounding roads are clear. I f you see a patch of ice ahead of you, brake before you are on it. Try not to brake while you’re actually on the ice, and avoid sudden steering maneuvers.

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. . . . , . _ _ _ . _ _ . . _ _ _ . _ . _ . . _ . . .

. . . . .


What’s the worst time for this’? “Wet ice.“ Very cold snow or ice can be slick and hard to drive on. But wet ice can be even more trouble because it may offer the least traction of all. You can get wet ice when it’s about freezing (32°F; OOC) and freezing rain begins to fall. Try to avoid driving on wet ice until salt and sand crews can get there.


If You’re Caught in a Blizzard

Tie a red cloth to your vehicle to alert police that you’ve been stopped by the snow. Put on extra clothing or wrap a blanket around you. If you have no blankets or extra clothing, make body insuIators from newspapers, burlap bags, rags , floor mats -- anything you can wrap around yourself or tuck under your clothing to keep warm.

If you are stopped by heavy snow, you could be in a serious situation. You should probably stay with your vehicle unless you know for sure that you are near help and you can hike through the snow. Here are some things to do to summon help and keep yourself and your passengers safe: 0 Turn on your hazard flashers.

You can run the engine to keep warm, but be careful.



Snow can trap exhaust gases under your vehicle. This can cause deadly CO (carbon monoxide) gas to get inside. CO could overcome you and kill you. You can’t see it o r smell it, so you might not know it is in your vehicle. Clear away snow from around the base of your vehicle, especially any that is blocking your exhaust pipe. And check around again from time to time to be sure snow doesn’t collect there. Open a window just a little on the side of the vehicle that’s away from the wind. This will help keep CO out.

Run your engine only as long as you must. This saves fuel. When you run the engine, make it 90 a little faster than just idle. That is, push the accelerator slightly. This uses less fuel for the heat that you get and it keeps the battery charged. You will need a well-charged battery to restart the vehicle. and possibly for signaling later on with your headlamps. Let the heater run for a while. Then. shut the engine off and close the window almost all the way to preserve the heat. Start the engine again and repeat this only when you feel really uncomfortable from the cold. But do it as little as possible. Preserve the fuel as long as you can. To help keep warm. you can get out of the vehicle and do some fairly vigorous exercises every half hour or so until help comes.


Recreational Vehicle Towing (Four-wheel Drive With Manual Shift Transfer Case Only) 1. Set the parking brake firmly. 2. Place an automatic transmission in PARK (P) or a

manual transmission in FIRST ( 1 ).

3. Firmly attach the vehicle being towed to the tow

vehicle. Do not tow the vehicle by the rear bumper bar. Refer to the hitch manufacturer’s instructions.

4. Place the manual shift transfer case shift lever in



Shifting the transfer case into NEUTRAL (N) can cause your vehicle to roll even if the transmission is in PARK (P), for an automatic transmission, or if your vehicle is in gear, for a manual transmission. You or others could be injured. Make sure the parking brake is firmly set before you shift the transfer case into NEUTRAL (N).

5. Release the parking brake only after the vehicle

being towed is firmly attached to the tow vehicle. 6. Insert the ignition key into the ignition switch and

turn it one notch forward of the LOCK position. This places the key in the OFF position, which unlocks the steering column while preventing battery drain. Unlocking the steering column will allow for proper movement of the front wheelshires during towing.


Loading Your Vehicle

Recreational Vehicle Towing (Except Four-wheel Drive With Manual Shift Transfer Case) Vehicles with two-wheel drive or the optional electronic shift transfer case require special modifications before they can be towed in this manner. Please contact your dealer for the towing information that is appropriate for your particular vehicle. Vehicles with all-wheel drive (AWD) can not be towed in this manner.

The Certificationflire label is found on the driver’s door edge, above the door latch. The label shows the size of your original tires and the inflation pressures needed to obtain the gross weight capacity of your vehicle. This is called the GVWR (Gross Vehicle Weight Rating). The GVWR includes the weight of the vehicle. all occupants, fuel, cargo and trailer tongue weight, if pulling a trailer.


The Certificatioflire label also tells you the maximum weights for the front and rear axles, called Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR). To find out the actual loads on your front and rear axles, you need to go to a weigh station and weigh your vehicle. Your dealer can help you with this. Be sure to spread out your load equally on both sides of the centerline. Never exceed the GVWR for your vehicle, or the GAWR for either the front or rear axle. If you do have a heavy load, you should spread it out. Similar appearing vehicles may have different GVWRs and payloads. Please note your vehicle’s Certificationmire label or consult your dealer for additional details.


Using heavier suspension components to get added durability might not change your weight ratings. Ask your dealer to help you load your vehicle the right way.


Your warranty does not cover parts or components that fail because of overloading.

If you put things inside your vehicle -- like suitcases, tools, packages, or anything else -- they will go as fast as the vehicle goes. If you have to stop or turn quickly, or if there is a crash, they’ll keep going.

~ ~ ~ _ _ _ _


Do not load your vehicie any heavier than the GVWR, or either the maximum front or rear GAWR. If you do, parts on your vehicle can break, or it can change the way your vehicle handles. These could cause you to lose control. Also, overloading can shorten the life of your vehicle.

. .



Things you put inside your vehicle can strike and injure people in a sudden stop or turn, or in 1 a crash.

0 Put things in the cargo area of your vehicle.

Try to spread the weight


0 Never stack heavier things, like suitcases,

inside the vehicle so that some of them are above the tops of the seats.

0 Don't leave an unsecured child restraint in

your vehicle. When you carry something inside the vehicle, secure it whenever you can.

0 Don't leave a seat folded down unless you

need to.

There's also important loading information lor off-road driving in this manual. See "Loading Your Vehicle for Off-Road Driving" in the Index.


Payload The payload capacity is shown on the Certificationflire label. This is the maximum load capacity that your vehicle can carry. Be sure to include the weight of the occupants as part of your load. If you added any accessories or equipment after your vehicle left the factory, remember to subtract the weight of these things from the payload. Your dealer can help you with this. Add-on Equipment When you carry removable items, you may need to put a limit o n how many people you carry inside your vehicle. Be sure to weigh your vehicle before ~ O L I buy and install the new equipment.


Your warranty doesn't cover parts or components that fail because of overloading.

Towing a Trailer


If you don’t use the correct equipment and drive properly, you can lose control when you pull a brakes may not work well -- or even at all. You trailer. For example, if the trailer is too heavy, the and your passengers could be seriously injured. Pull a trailer only if you have followed all the steps in this section. Ask your GM dealer for advice and information about towing a trailer with your vehicle.


Pulling a trailer improperly can damage your i vehicle and result in costly repairs not covered by your warranty. To pull a trailer correctly, follow the advice in this part, and see your GM dealer for important information about towing a trailer with your vehicle.

Every vehicle is ready for $time trailer towing. If yours was built with trailering options, as many are, it’s ready for heavier trailers. But trailering is different than just driving your vehicle by itself. Trailering means changes in handling, durability and fuel economy. Successful. safe trailering takes correct equipment, and it has to be used properly. That’s the reason for this part. In it are many time-tested, important trailering tips and safety rules. Many of these are important for your safety and that of your passengers. So please read this section carefully before you pull a trailer.


If You Do Decide To Pull A Trailer If you do, here are some important points:

There are many different laws, including speed limit restrictions, having to do with trailering. Make sure your rig will be legal, not only where you live but also where you’ll be driving. A good source for this information can be state or provincial police. Consider using a sway control if your trailer will weigh 2,000 lbs. (900 kg) or less. You should always use a sway control if your trailer will weigh more than 2,000 lbs. (900 kg). You can ask a hitch dealer about sway controls. Don’t tow a trailer at all during the first 500 miles (800 km) your new vehicle is driven. Your engine, axle or other parts could be damaged. Then, during the first 500 miles (800 km) that you tow a trailer, don‘t drive over 50 mph (80 k m h ) and don’t make starts at full throttle. This helps your engine and other parts of your vehicle wear in at the heavier loads.

If you have an automatic transmission, you can use DRIVE (D) (or. as you need to, a lower gear) when towing a trailer. Operating your vehicle in DRIVE (D) when towing a trailer will minimize heat buildup and extend the life of your transmission. If you have a manual transmission and you are towing a trailer, it’s better not to use FIFTH ( 5 ) gear. Just drive in FOURTH (4) gear (or, as you need to, a lower gear).

Three important considerations have to do with weight:

the weight of the trailer, the weight of the trailer tongue and the weight on your vehicle’s tires.

Weight of the Trailer How heavy can a trailer safely be? It depends on how you plan to use your rig. For example, speed. altitude, road grades. outside temperature and how much your vehicle is used to pull a trailer are all important. And, it can also depend on any special equipment that you have on your vehicle. The following chart shows how much your trailer can weigh, based upon your vehicle model and options.


Vehicle 2-Wheel Drive, Auto. Trans. 2-Wheel Drive, Manual Trans. 4-Wheel Drive & All-Wheel Drive, Auto. Trans. 4-Wheel Drive & All-Wheel Drive, Manual Trans.

Axle Ratio Trailer Wt.

3 .OS 3.42 3.42 4,500

4,500 lbs. (2 04 1 kg) 5,500 lbs. (2 495 kg) lbs. (2 04 1 kg)

3.08 3.42 3.73 3.42

4,000 lbs. (1 8 14 kg) 5,000 lbs. (2 268 kg) 5,000’1bs. (2 268 kg) 4,000 lbs. (1 8 14 kg)

Maximum trailer weight is calculated assuming the driver and one passenger are in the tow vehicle and it has all the required trailering equipment. The weight of additional optional equipment, passengers and cargo in the tow vehicle must be subtracted from the maximum trailer weight.

You can ask your dealer for our trailering information or advice, or you can write us at the address listed in your Warranty and Owner Assistance Information Booklet. In Canada, write to:

General Motors of Canada Limited Customer Communication Centre 1908 Colonel Sam Drive Oshawa, Ontario L 1 H 8P7

Weight of the Trailer Tongue The tongue load (A) of any trailer is an important weight to measure because it affects the total or gross weight of your vehicle. The Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) includes the curb weight of the vehicle, any cargo you may carry in it, and the people who will be riding in the vehicle. And if you will tow a trailer, you must add the tongue load to the GVW because your vehicle will be carrying that weight, too. See “Loading Your Vehicle” in the Index for more information about your vehicle’s maximum load capacity.


Total Weight on Your Vehicle’s Tires Be sure your vehicle‘s tires are inflated to the upper limit for cold tires. You’ll find these numbers on the CertificationRire label on the driver’s door edge, above the door latch, or see ‘.Tire Loading” in the Index. Then be sure you don’t go over the GVW limit for your vehicle, including the weight of the trailer tongue. Hitches It’s important to have the correct hitch equipment. Crosswinds, large trucks going by and rough roads are a few reasons why you’ll need the right hitch. Here are some rules to follow:

If you‘ll be pulling a trailer that, when loaded, will weigh more than 2,000 lbs. (900 kg), be sure to use a properly mounted, weight-distributing hitch and sway control of the proper size. This equipment is very important for proper vehicle loading and good handling when you’re driving.

If you’re using a weight-carrying hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 10 percent of the total loaded trailer weight (B). If you’re using a weight-distributing hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 12 percent of the total loaded trailer weight (B). After you’ve loaded your trailer, weigh the trailer and then the tongue, separately, to see if the weights are proper. If they aren‘t, you may be able t o get them right simply by moving some items around in the trailer.


0 Will you have to make any holes in the body of your

vehicle when you install a trailer hitch? If you do, then be sure to seal the holes later when you remove the hitch. If you don’t seal them, deadly carbon monoxide (CO) from your exhaust can get into your vehicle (see “Carbon Monoxide” in the Index). Dirt and water can, too.

Safety Chains You should always attach chains between your vehicle and your trailer. Cross the safety chains under the tongue of the trailer so that the tongue will not drop to the road if it becomes separated from the hitch. instructions about safety chains may be provided by the hitch manufacturer or by the trailer manufacturer. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendation for attaching safety chains and do not attach them to the bumper. Always leave just enough slack so you can turn with your rig. And, never allow safety chains to drag on the ground.

Trailer Brakes If your trailer weighs more than 1,000 Ibs. (450 kg) loaded, then it needs its own brakes -- and they must be adequate. Be sure to read and follow the instructions for the trailer brakes so you’ll be able to install, adjust and maintain them properly. Your trailer’s brake system can tap into the vehicle’s hydraulic brake system only i f

The trailer parts can withstand 3,000 psi (20 650 kPa) of pressure. The trailer’s brake system will use less than 0.02 cubic inch (0.3 cc) of fluid from your vehicle’s master cylinder. Otherwise, both braking systems won’t work well. You could even lose your brakes. If everything checks out this far, then make the brake fluid tap at the port on the master cylinder that sends fluid to the rear brakes. But don’t use copper tubing for this. if you do, it will bend and finally break off. Use steel brake tubing.

Towing a trailer requires a certain amount of experience. Before setting out for the open road. you‘ll want to get to know your rig. Acquaint yourself with the feel of handling and braking with the added weight of the trailer. And always keep in mind that the vehicle you are driving is now a good deal longer and not nearly as responsive as your vehicle is by itself. Before you start, check the trailer hitch and platform (and attachments). safety chains. electrical connector, lamps, tires and mirror adjustment. If the trailer has electric brakes. start your vehicle and trailer moving and then apply the trailer brake controller by hand to be sure the brakes are working. This lets you check your electrical connection at the same time. During your trip. check occasionally to be sure that the load is secure. and that the lamps and any trailer brakes are still working.

Driving with a Trailer

If you have a rear-most window open and you pull a trailer with your vehicle, carbon monoxide (CO) could come into your vehicle. You can’t see or smell CO. It can cause unconsciousness or death. (See “Engine Exhaust” in the Index.) To maximize your safety when towing a trailer: Have your exhaust system inspected for leaks, and make necessary repairs before starting on your trip.

0 Keep the rear-most windows closed.

If exhaust does come into your vehicle through a window in the rear or another opening, drive with your front, main heating or cooling system on and with the fan on any speed. This will bring fresh, outside air into your vehicle. Do not use MAX A/C because it only recirculates the air inside your vehicle. (See b‘ Comfort Controls” in the Index.)


Following Distance Stay at least twice as far behind the vehicle ahead as you would when driving your vehicle without a trailer. This can help you avoid situations that require heavy braking and sudden turns. Passing You’ll need more passing distance up ahead when you‘re towing a trailer. And, because you’re a good deal longer, you’ll need to go much farther beyond the passed vehicle before you can return to your lane. Backing Up Hold the bottom of the steering wheel with one hand. Then, to move the trailer to the left, just move that hand to the left. To move the trailer to the right, move your hand to the right. Always back up slowly and, if possible, have someone guide you.

Making Turns


Making very sharp turns while trailering could cause the trailer to come in contact with the vehicle. Your vehicle could be damaged. Avoid making very sharp turns while trailering.

When you’re turning with a trailer, make wider turns than normal. Do this so your trailer won’t strike soft shoulders, curbs, road signs, trees or other objects. Avoid jerky or sudden maneuvers. Signal well in advance. I’urn Signals When Towing a Trailer When you tow a trailer, your vehicle has to have extra wiring and a heavy-duty turn signal flasher (included in the optional trailering package). The arrows on your instrument panel will flash whenever you signal a turn or lane change. Properly hooked up, the trailer lamps will also flash, telling other drivers you‘re about to turn, change lanes or stop.


When towing at high altitude on steep uphill grades. consider the following: Engine coolant will boil at a lower temperature than at normal altitudes. If you turn your engine off immediately after towing at high altitude on steep uphill grades, your vehicle may show signs similar to engine overheating. To avoid this. let the engine run while parked (preferably on level ground) w i t h the automatic transmission in PARK (P) (or the rnanual transmission out of gear and the parking brake applied) for a few minutes before turning the engine off. If you do get the overheat warning, see "Engine Overheating" in the Index. Parking on Hills You really should not park your vehicle. with a trailer attached. on ;I hill. I f something goes wrong, your ris could start to move. People can be injured, and both your vehicle and the trailer can be damaged.

When towing a trailer, the arrows on your instrument panel will flash for turns even if the bulbs on the trailer are burned out. Thus, you may think drivers behind you are seeing your signal when they are not. It's important to check occasionally to be sure the trailer bulbs are still working. Driving On Grades Reduce speed and shift to a lower gear byfilw you start down a long or steep downgrade. If you don't shift down. you might have to use your brakes so much that they would get hot and no longer work well. On a long uphill grade. shift down and reduce your speed to around 45 mph (70 km/h) to reduce the possibility of engine and transmission overheating. if you have an automatic transmission. you should use DRIVE (D) when towing a trailer. Operating your vehicle in DRIVE (D) when towing a trailer will minimize heat buildup and extend the life of your transmission. Or. if you have a manual transmission. it's better not to use FIFTH ( 5 j gear. just drive i n FOURTH (4) gear (or. as you need to. a lower gear).



It can be dangerous to get out of your vehicle if the shift lever is not fully in PARK (P) with the parking brake firmly set. Your vehicle can roll. If you have left the engine running, the vehicle can move suddenly. You or others could be injured. To be sure your vehicle won’t move, even when you’re on fairly level ground, use the steps that follow. I If you have four-wheel drive with a manual transfer case shift lever and your transfer case is in NEUTRAL (N), your vehicle will be free to sure the transfer case is in a drive gear -- not in roll, even if your shift lever is in PARK (P). So, be NEUTRAL (N).

When You Are Ready to Leave After Parking on a Hill 1. Apply your regular brakes and hold the pedal down

whiie you:

Start your engine: Shift into a gear: and Release the parking brake.

3,. Let up on the brake pedal. 3. Drive slowly until the trailer is clear of the chocks. 4. Stop and have someone pick up and store the chocks.

Maintenance When Trailer Towing Your vehicle will need service more often when you’re pulling a trailer. See the Maintenance Schedule for more on this. Things that are especially important in trailer operation are automatic transmission fluid (don’t overfill), engine oil, axle lubricant, belt. cooling system and brake adjustment. Each of these is covered in this manual. and the Index will help you find them quickly. If you’re trailering, it‘s a good idea to review these sections before you start your trip. Check periodically to see that all hitch nuts and bolts are tight.


Trailer Wiring Harness The light duty trailer wiring is a six-wire harness assembly. The optional heavy-duty trailer wiring is an eight-wire harness assembly. The harnesses are stored under the vehicle, along the passenger-side frame crossmember on two-door vehicles or on the driver’s side corner frame crossmember on four-door vehicles. The heavy-duty trailer wiring has a 30-amp feed wire with an inline fuse located by the junction block. See “Fuses and Circuit Breakers” in the Index. Both harnesses have no connector and should be wired by a qualified electrical technician. The technician can use the following color code chart when connecting the wiring harness to your trailer.

Dark Blue: Use for electric trailer brakes or auxiliary wiring.

0 Red: Use for battery charging; it connects to the

starter solenoid (eight-wire harness only).

0 Light Green: Back-up lamps (eight-wire

harness only). Brown: Taillamps and parking lamps. 0 Yellow: Left stoplamp and turn signal. 0 Dark Green: Right stoplamp and turn signal. 0 White (Heavy Gage): Ground wire. 0 White (Light Gage): Auxiliary stoplamp. Securely attach the harness to the trailer, then tape or strap it to your vehicle’s frame rail. Be sure you leave it loose enough so the wiring doesn‘t bend or break, but not so loose that it drags on the ground. Store the harness in its original place. Wrap the harness together and tie it neatly so it won’t be damaged.




Section 5 Problems on the Road

Here you'll find what to do about some problems that can occur on the road.

5 -2 5-2 5-3 5 -7 5-12

Hazard Warning Flashers Other Warning Devices Jump Starting Towing Your Vehicle Engine Overheating

5-22 5 -22 5-23 5-35 5-36

Engine Fan Noise If a Tire Goes Flat Changing a Flat Tire Compact Spare Tire (If Equipped) If You're Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow


Hazard Warning Flashers

Press the button on top of the steering column all the way down to make your front and rear turn signal lamps flash on and off.

Your hazard warning flashers work no matter what position your key is in, and even if the key isn’t in. To turn off the flashers, press the button until the first click and release. When the hazard warning flashers are on, your turn signals won’t work. Other Warning Devices If you carry reflective triangles, you can set one up at the side of the road about 300 feet (100 m) behind your vehicle.

Your hazard warning flashers let you warn others. They also let police know you have a problem. Your front and rear turn signal lamps will flash on and off.


Jump Starting If your battery has run down, you may want to use another vehicle and some jumper cables to start your vehicle. But please use the following steps to do it safely.


Ignoring these steps could result in costly damage to your vehicle that wouldn’t be covered by your warranty. Do not try to start your vehicle by pushing or pulling it. This could damage your vehicle, even if you have a manual transmission. And if you have an automatic transmission, it won’t start that way.


Batteries can hurt you. They can be dangerous

1 because:

0 They contain acid that can burn you.

They contain gas that can explode or ignite.

0 They contain enough electricity to

burn you.

If you don’t follow these steps exactly, some or all of these things can hurt you.

1. Check the other vehicle. It must have a 12-volt

battery with a negative ground system.


If the other system isn’t a 12-volt system with a negative ground, both vehicles can be damaged.


2. Get the vehicles close enough so the jumper cabIes can reach. but be sure the vehicles aren't touching each other. If they are, it could cause a ground connection you don't want. You wouldn't be able to start your vehicle. and the bad grounding could damage the electrical systems. You could be injured if the vehicles roll. Set the parking brake firmly on each vehicle. Put an automatic transmission in PARK (Pj or a manual transmission i n NEUTRAL (N). If you have a four-wheel-drive vehicle with a manual transfer case shift lever. be sure the transfer case is not in NEUTRAL (N).


An electric fan can start up even when the engine is not running and can injure you. Keep hands, clothing and tools away from any underhood electric Fan.

3. Turn off the ignition on both vehicles. Unplug

unnecessary accessories plugged into the cigarette lighter. or accessory power outlets, if you have this option. Turn off all lamps that aren't needed as well as radios. This will avoid sparks and help save both batteries. In addition, it could save your radio!


If you leave your radio on, it could be badly damaged. The repair wouldn't be covered by your warranty.


If your vehicle has air conditioning, the auxiliary electric fan under the hood can start up even when the engine is not running and can injure you. Keep hands, clothing and tools away from any underhood electric fan.

5. Check that the jumper cables don’t have loose or

missing insulation. If they do, you could get a shock. The vehicles could be damaged too. Before you connect the cables, here are some basic things you should know. Positive (+) will go to positive (+) and negative (-) will go to a metal engine part. Don’t connect positive (+) to negative (-) or you’ll get a short that would damage the battery and maybe other parts too.

of the vehicle with the dead battery.

4. Open both hoods and locate the batteries. Find the positive (+) and negative (-) terminals on each battery.


Using a match near a battery can cause battery gas to explode. People have been hurt doing this, and some have been blinded. Use a flashlight if you need more light. Be sure the battery has enough water. You don’t need to add water to the Delco Freedom@ battery installed in every new GM vehicle. But if a battery has filler caps, be sure the right amount of fluid is there. If it is low, add water to take care of that first. If you don’t, explosive gas could be present. Battery fluid contains acid that can burn you. Don’t get it on ~ o u . If you accidentally get it in your eyes or on your skin, flush the place with water and get medical help immediately.


7. Don‘t let the other end

touch metal. Connect it to the positive (+) tennitla1 of the good battery.

8. Now connect the

black negative (-) cable to the good battery’s negative (-) terminal. Don’t let the other end touch anything until the next step. The other end of the negative cable doesn’t $0 to the dead battery. It goes to a hewy unpainted metal part on the engine of the vehicle with the dead battery.


9. Attach the cable at least 18 inches (45 cm) away from the dead battery, but not near engine parts that move. The electrical connection is just as b wod there, but the chance of sparks getting back to the battery is much less.

10. Now start the vehicle with the good battery and run

the engine for a while.

1 1 . Try to start the vehicle with the dead battery. If it

won‘t start after a few tries make sure all connections are good. If it still won’t start, it probably needs service.


Fans or other moving engine parts can injure you badly. Keep your hands away from moving parts once the engines are running.

12. Remove the cables in reverse order to prevent

electrical shorting. Take care that they don’t touch each other or any other metal.


A. Heavy Metal Engine Part B. Good Battery C. Dead Battery

Towing Your Vehicle Try to have a GM dealer or a professional towing service tow your vehicle. See “Roadside Assistance” in the index. If your vehicle has been changed since it was factory-new by adding things like fog lamps, aero skirting, or special tires and wheels, these instructions may not be correct. Before you do anything, turn on the hazard warning flashers. When you call, tell the towing service: e Whether your vehicle has rear-wheel drive,

four-wheel drive or all-wheel drive. The make, model and year of your vehicle. Whether you can move the shift lever for the transmission and shift the transfer case, if you have one. If there was an accident, what was damaged.

When the towing service arrives, let the tow operator know that this manual contains these towing instructions. The operator may want to see them.



A vehicle can fall from a car carrier if it isn’t adequately secured. This can cause a collision, serious personal injury and vehicle damage. The vehicle should be tightly secured with chains or steel cables before it is transported. Don’t use substitutes (ropes, leather straps, canvas webbing, etc.) that can be cut by sharp edges underneath the towed vehicle. Always use T-hooks inserted in the T-hook slots. Never use ,J-hooks. They will damage drivetrain and suspension components.


To help avoid injury to you or others:

Never let passengers ride in a vehicle that is being towed. Never tow faster than safe or posted speeds. Never tow with damaged parts not fully secured. Never get under your vehicle after it has been lifted by the tow truck. Always use separate safety chains on each side when towing a vehicle. Never use J-hooks. Use T-hooks instead.


When your vehicle is being towed, have the ignition key turned to the OFF position. The steering wheel should be clamped in a straight-ahead position with a clamping device designed for towing service. Do not use the vehicle's steering column lock for this. The transmission should be in NEUTRAL (N) and the transfer case, if you have one, should be in 2HI. The parking brake should be released. If your vehicie has a floor mounted shifter and no electrical power, the electrical solenoid lock must be overridden to shift from PARK (P) to NEUTRAL (N). Follow these steps: 1. Push the base of the shift lever boot forward with

your thumb.

2. Lift the boot and find the white solenoid lever.




Move the solenoid lever toward the driver's side to unlock it. While holding the solenoid lever in the unlock position, press the shift lever button and shift into NEUTRAL (N). Release the solenoid lever and snap the boot back into place.

Don't have your vehicle towed on the drive wheels unless you must. If the vehicle must be towed on the drive wheels, be sure to follow the speed and distance restrictions later in this section or your transmission will be damaged. If these limitations must be exceeded, then the drive wheels have to be supported on a dolly.



Do not tow with sling-type equipment o r fascia/fog lamp damage will occur. Use wheel-lift or car carrier equipment. Additional ramping may be required for car-carrier equipment. Use safety chains and wheel straps. Towing a vehicle over rough surfaces could damage a vehicle. Damage can occur from vehicle to ground or vehicle to wheel-lift equipment. To help avoid damage, install a towing dolly and raise the vehicle until adequate clearance is obtained between the ground and/or wheel-lift equipment. Do not attach winch cables or J-hooks to suspension components when using car-carrier equipment. Always use T-hooks inserted in the T-hook slots.


Tow Limits -- 35 mph (56 k d ) , 30 miles@3O krn) '*Vehicles with all- wheel-drive or four-wheel-drive and the electrbni'c transfer case DptibMmlasritse'a iowing dully undwthefront wheels &hen towing from the reay:


Do not tow with sling-type equipment or rea bumper valance damage will occur. Use whee or car-carrier equipment. Additional ramping may be required for car-carrier equipment. safety chains and wheel straps. Towing a vehicle over rough surfaces could damage a vehicle. Damage can occur from vehicle to ground or vehicle to wheel-lift equipment. Unless you have all-wheel drive, to help avoid damage, install a towing dolly and raise the vehicle until adequate clearance is obtained between the ground and/or wheel-lift equi Do not attach winch cables or J-hooks to suspension components when using car-carrier equipment. Aiways use T-hooks inserted in .

.I ., . +y2zL.

.r I > -

Engine Overheating You will find a coolant temperature gage on your vehicle’s instrument panel. If Steam Is Coming From Your Engine



Steam from an overheated engine can burn you badly, even if you just open the hood. Stay away from the engine if you see or hear steam coming from it. Just turn it off and get everyone away from the vehicle until it cools down. Wait until there is no sign of steam or coolant before you open the hood. If you keep driving when your engine is overheated, the liquids in it can catch fire. You or others could be badly burned. Stop your engine if it overheats, and get out of the vehicle until the engine is cool.


If your engine catches fire because you keep driving with no coolant, your vehicle can be badly damaged. The costly repairs would not be covered by your warranty.

If No Steam Is Coming From Your Engine If you get the overheat warning but see or hear no steam, the problem may not be too serious. Sometimes the engine can get a little too hot when you:

Climb a long hill on a hot day. 0 Stop after high-speed driving. Idle for long periods in traffic. Tow a trailer. See “Driving on Grades” in the Index. If you get the overheat warning with no sign of steam, try this for a minute or so: 1. Turn off your air conditioner. 2. Turn on your heater to full hot at the highest fan

speed and open the window as necessary.

3. If you’re in a traffic jam, shift to NEUTRAL (N);

otherwise, shift to the highest gear while driving -- AUTOMATIC OVERDRIVE (@) or DRIVE (D) for automatic transmissions.

If you no longer have the overheat warning, you can drive. Just to be safe, drive slower for about 10 minutes. If the warning doesn’t come back on, you can drive normally. If the warning continues, pull over, stop, and park your vehicle right away. If there’s still no sign of steam, push the accelerator until the engine speed is about twice as fast as normal idle speed. Bring the engine speed back to normal idle speed after two or three minutes. Now see if the warning stops. But then, if you still have the warning, turn ofthe engine and get everyone out of the vehicle until it cools down. You may decide not to lift the hood but to get service help right away.


When you decide it's safe to lift the hood. here's what you'll see:


If your vehicle has air conditioning, the auxiliary electric fan under the hood can start up even when the engine is not running and can injure you. Keep hands, clothing and tools away from any underhood electric fan.

h i

If the coolant inside the coolant recovery tank is boiling, don't do anything else until it cools down.

A. Coolant Recovery Tank B. Radiator Pressure Cap C. Engine Fan




Heater and radiator hoses, and other engine parts, can be very hot. Don’t touch them. If you do, you can’be burned. Don’t run the engine if there is a leak. If you run the engine, it could lose all coolant. That could cause an engine fire, and you could be burned. Get any leak fixed before you drive the vehicle.

The coolant level should be at the ADD mark. If it isn’t, you may have a leak in the radiator h heater hoses, radiator, water pump or somewhere else lr


In cold weather, water can freeze and crack the engine, radiator, heater core and other parts. Use the recommended coolant and the proper coolant mix.

How to Add Coolant to the Coolant Recovery Tank If you haven‘t found a problem yet, but the coolant level isn‘t at the ADD mark, add a SO/SO mixture of clenrz w t e r (preferably distilled) and DEX-COOL” (silicate-free) antifreeze at the coolant recovery tank. (See ”Engine Coolant” in the Index for more information.)


Adding only plain water to your cooling system can be dangerous. Plain water, or some other liquid like alcohol, can boil before the proper coolant mix will. Your vehicle’s coolant warning system is set for the proper coolant mix. With plain water or the wrong mix, your engine could get too hot but >‘ou wouldn’t get the overheat warning. k‘our engine could catch fire and you or others could he hurned. Use a 50/50 mix of clean water and DKX-CWOL” coolant.




You can be burned if you spill coolant on hot engine parts. Coolant contains ethylene glycol and it will burn if the engine parts are hot enough. Don’t spill coolant on a hot engine.

When the coolant in the coolant recovery tank is at the ADD mark, start your vehicle. If the overheat warning continues, there’s one more thing you can try. You can add the proper coolant mix directly to the radiator, but be sure the cooling system is cool before you do it.



Steam and scalding liquids from a hot cooling system can blow out and burn you badly. They pressure cap -- even a little -- they can come out are under pressure, and if you turn the radiator at high speed. Never turn the cap when the cooling system, including the radiator pressure cap, is hot. Wait for the cooling system and radiator pressure cap to cool if you ever have to turn the pressure cap.


How to Add Coolant to the Radiator

2. Then keep turning the pressure cap, but now push

down as you turn it. Remove the pressure cap.

1. You can remove the pressure cap when the cooling

system, including the pressure cap and upper radiator hose, is no longer hot. Turn the pressure cap slowly counterclockwise until it first stops. (Don't press down while turning the pressure cap.) If you hear a hiss. wait for that to stop. A hiss means there is still some pressure left.



3. Fill the radiator with the proper DEX-COOL"

coolant mixture. up t o the base of the filler neck.

3. Then fill the coolant recovery tank to the ,4DD mark. 5. Put the cap back o n the coolant recovery tank. but

leave the pressure cap off.



6. Start the engine and let it run until you can feel the upper radiator hose getting hot. Watch out for the engine fan.

7 . By this time, the coolant level inside the filler neck may be lower. If the Ievel is lower. add more of the proper DEX-COOL@ coolant mixture through the filler neck until the level reaches the base of the filler neck.

8. Then replace the pressure cap. At any time during this procedure if coolant begins to flow out of the filler neck, reinstall the pressure cap. Be sure the arrows on the pressure cap line up like this.


Engine Fan Noise This vehicle has a clutched engine cooling fan. When the clutch is engaged, the fan spins faster to provide more air to cool the engine. In most everyday driving conditions, the clutch is not engaged. This improves fuel economy and reduces fan noise. Under heavy vehicle loading, trailer towing and/or high outside temperatures. the fan speed increases when the clutch engages. So you may hear an increase in fan noise. This is normal and should not be mistaken as the transmission slipping or making extra shifts. It is merely the cooling system functioning properly. The fa11 will slow down when additional cooling is not required and the clutch disengages. You may also hear this fan noise when you start the engine. It will go away as the fan clutch disengages.

If a Tire Goes Flat It's unusual for a tire to "blow out" while you're driving. especially if you maintain your tires properly. If air goes out of a tire, it's much Inore likely to leak out slowly. But if you should ever have ;I "blowout." here are a few tips about what to expect and what to do: If a front tire fails. the flat tire w i l l create a drag that pulls the vehicle toward that side. Take your foot off the accelerator pedal and grip the steering wheel firmly. Steer to maintain lane position. and then gently brake to a stop well out of the traffic lane. A rear blowout. particularly on a curve. acts much like a skid and may require the same correction you'd use in a skid. I n any rear blowout. remove your foot from the xcelerator pedal. Get the \,chicle under control by steering the way you want the vehicle to go. It may be \.cry bunlpy and noisy. but you can still steer. Gently brake to a stop -- well off the road if possible.


Changing a Flat Tire If a tire goes flat, avoid further tire and wheel damage by driving slowly to a level place. Turn on your hazard warning flashers.


Changing a tire can cause an injury. The vehicle can slip off the jack and roll over you or other people. You and they could be badly injured. Find a level place to change your tire. To help prevent the vehicle from moving:

1. Set the parking brake firmly. 2. Put an automatic transmission shift lever in PARK (P) or shift a manual transmission to FIRST (1) or REVERSE (R).

CAUTION: (Continued)

CAUTION: (Continued)

3. If you have a four-wheel-drive vehicle with a manual transfer case shift lever, be sure the transfer case is in a drive

gear -- not in NEUTRAL (N).

4. l b r n off the engine. 5. Put the wheel blocks at the front and rear of the tire farthest away from the one being changed. That would be the tire on the other side of the vehicle, at the opposite end.



To remove your jack cover, pull up on the latch at the end of the cover, near the endgate and the latch on the top of the cover. Remove the wheel blocks, jack and wheel wrench.

The following steps will tell you how to use the jack and change a tire. Removing the Spare Tire and Tools The jacking equipment you'll need is stored along the driver's rear wall. In some cases. you may have to remove the spare tire in order to reach the jack. Your vehicle is also equipped with work gloves and a plastic ground mat to assist in the changing of a flat tire.

The following instructions explain how to remove the spare tire, depending on where it is mounted on your vehicle.


Never remove or restow a tire frodto a stowage position under the vehicle while the vehicle is supported by a jack. Always tighten the tire fully against the underside of the vehicle when restowing.


To remove the underbody-mounted spare, insert the chisel end of the wheel wrench, on an angle, into the hole in the rear bumper. Be sure the chisel end of the wheel wrench connects into the hoist shaft.

Turn the wheel wrench counterclockwise to lower the spare tire. Keep turning the wheel wrench until the spare tire can be pulled out from under the vehicle. When the tire has been completely lowered, tilt the retainer at the end of the cable and pull it through the wheel opening. Pull the tire out from under the vehicle.


To help avoid vehicle damage, do not drive the vehicle before the cable is restored.

If you have an inside-mounted spare tire, the tire must be removed in order to have access to the jack storage. To remove an inside-mounted spare tire, reach into your tire's cover and unscrew the wing nut at the center of the wheel. Remove it and the retainer. Unhook the tire from the mounting bracket and remove the cover. To remove a rear-mounted spare tire, first make sure that the carrier arm is fully latched to the endgate. Then remove the spare tire cover.

I The locking wheel nut can be removed by snapping the rubber weather cover off the face of the lock case.

Insert the key and pull the lock case straight off. It is not necessary to turn the key.

The tools you'll be using include the jack (A) and wheel wrench (B). Your vehicle may also have an optional hub cap removal tool.

Put the spare tire near the flat tire.

The optional hub cap removal tool is stowed with

Position the hub cap removal tool in the notch and pull straight away from the wheel to avoid potential damage to the hub cap and wheel surface.

Remove the hub cap. If you have an aluminum or plastic molded hub cap, pry it off with the chisel end of your wheel wrench. Some of the molded plastic hub caps have imitation wheel nuts molded into them. The wheel wrench won’t fit these imitation nuts, so don’t try to remove them with the socket end of the wheel wrench.

If you have individual wheel nut caps that cover each nut, they must be removed in order to get to the wheel nuts. Use the socket end of the wheel wrench to remove the wheel nut caps. Your wheel nut caps may attach your hub cap to the wheel. Remove these wheel nut caps before you take off the hub cap.


Removing the Flat Tire and Installing the Spare Tire

3. Fit the jack into the appropriate hole nearest the

tlat tire.

& E

A. Front Frame Hole B. Rear Frame Hole (2-Door) or Spring Hanger Hole

(4- Door)


Getting under a vehicle when it dangerous. If the vehicle slips off the jack, you could be badly injured or killed. Never get under a vehicle when it is supported only by a jack.

is jacked up is


Raising your vehicle with the jack improperly positioned can damage the vehicle and even make the vehicle to fall. To help avoid personal injury and vehicle damage, be sure to fit the jack lift head into the proper location before raising the vehicle.

4. Raise the vehicle by turning the jack handle

clockwise. Raise the vehicle far enough off the ground so there is enough room for the spare tire to fit.

5. Remove all the wheel nuts and take off the flat tire.

6. Remove' any rust or dirt

from the wheel bolts, mounting surfaces and spare wheel.


Never use oil or grease on studs or nuts. If you do, the nuts might come loose. Your wheel could fall off, causing a serious accident.


7. Place the spare on the wheel mounting surface.


Rust or dirt on the wheel, or on the parts to which it is fastened, can make the wheel nuts become loose after a time. The wheel could come off and cause an accident. When you change a wheel, remove any rust or dirt from the places where the wheel attaches to the vehicle. In an emergency, you can use a cloth or a paper towel to do this; but be sure to use a scraper or wire brush later, if you need to, to get all the rust or dirt off.


8. Put the nuts on by

hand. Make sure the cone-shaped end is toward the wheel. Tighten each nut by hand until the wheel is held against the hub. If a nut can't be turned by hand. use the wheel wrench and see your dealer as soon as possible.


9. Lower the vehicle by turning the jack handle

counterclockwise. Lower the jack completely.

10. Use the wrench to tighten the wheel nuts firmly in a

crisscross sequence as shown.



Incorrect wheel nuts or improperly tightened wheel nuts can cause the wheel to become loose and even come off. This could lead to an accident. Be sure to use the correct wheel nuts. If you have to replace them, be sure to get new GNI original equipment wheel nuts. Stop somewhere as soon as you can and have the nuts tightened with a torque wrench to 95 lb-ft (130 Nom).


Improperly tightened wheel nuts can lead to brake pulsation and rotor damage. To avoid expensive brake repairs, evenly tighten the wheel nuts in the proper sequence and to the proper torque specification.

Storing a Flat or Spare Tire and Tools


Storing a jack, a tire or other equipment passenger compartment of the vehicle could cause injury. In a sudden stop or collision, loose equipment could strike someone. Store all these in the proper place.

in the


An aluminum wheel with a flat tire should always be stored under the vehicle with the hoist. However, storing it that way for an extended period could damage the wheel. To avoid this, have the wheel repaired as soon as possible.

Follow this diagram to store the underbody-mounted spare.

A. Retainer B. Valve Stem

(Pointed Down) C. Spare or Flat Tire D. Spring E. Wheel Wrench E Lower G. Raise H. Hoist Arm



1. Put the tire on the ground at the rear of the vehicle,

with the valve stem pointed down and to the rear.

2. Pull the retainer through the wheel. 3. Put the chisel end of the wheel wrench, on an angle, through the hole in the rear bumper and into the hoist shaft. Turn the wheel wrench clockwise until the tire is raised against the underside of the vehicle. You will hear two “clicks“ when the tire is secure, but pull on the tire to make sure.


Follow this diagram for the inside-mounted spare.

Follow this diagram for the rear-mounted spare.

D i

A. Spare or Flat Tire B. Retainer (Two-Wheel Drive) C . Nut D. Retainer (Four-wheel Drive) E. Wheel Carrier E Hook

C 7 - i,

A. Wheel Carrier B. Spare Tire C. Wheel Nut and Locking Nut Cylinder Reinstall the locking wheel nut using the wheel wrench. Then push the lock case onto the lug nut until it stops. The key does not have to be inserted into the lock. Push the lock case to be sure it is secured. The special lug nut and lock case is not intended to be used on any road wheel. only on the spare wheel carrier. Tighten the nuts on the wheel carrier to 22 to 32 Ib-ft (30 to 40 N-m).

Return the jack, wheel wrench and wheel blocks to the proper location in your vehicle’s rear area. Secure the items and replace the jack cover.

A. Retainer B. Rubber Band

(Some Models j

C . Work Gloves D. Mat E. Jack Storage Cover

E Wheel Blocks G . Hub Cap Removal

Tool (‘Some Models)

H. Wheel Wrench I. Jack J. Jacking Instructions


Make sure the tire and carrier are secure. Driving with the tire or carrier unlatched could injure pedestrians or damage the vehicle.

Compact Spare Tire (If Equipped) Although the compact spare tire was fully inflated when your vehicle was new, it can lose air after a time. Check the inflation pressure regularly. It should be 60 psi (420 kPa). After installing the compact spare on your vehicle, you should stop as soon as possible and make sure your spare tire is correctly inflated. The compact spare is made to perform well at speeds up to 65 mph (105 km/h) for distances up to 3,000 miles (5 000 km), so you can finish your trip and have your full-size tire repaired or replaced where you want. Of course, it’s best to replace your spare with a full-size tire as soon as you can. Your spare will last longer and be in good shape in case you need it again.



When the compact spare is installed, don’t take your vehicle through an automatic car wash with guide rails. The compact spare can get caught on the rails. That can damage the tire and wheel, and maybe other parts of your vehicle.

Don‘t use your compact spare on other vehicles And don’t mix your compact spare tire or wheel with other wheels or tires. They won‘t fit. Keep your spare tire and its wheel together.


Tire chains won’t tit your compact spare. Using them can damage your vehicle and can damage the chains too. Don’t use tire chains on your compact spare.

If You’re Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow What you don‘t want to do when your vehicle is stuck is to spin your wheels too fast. The method known as “rocking“ can help you get out when you’re stuck, but you must use caution.


If you let your tires spin at high speed, they can explode, and you or others could be injured. And, the transmission or other parts of the vehicle can overheat. That could cause an engine compartment fire or other damage. When you’re stuck, spin the wheels as little as possible. Don’t spin the wheels above 35 mph (55 k m h ) as shown on the speedometer.



Using the Recovery Hooks

Spinning your wheels can destroy parts of your vehicle as well as the tires. If you spin the wheels too fast while shifting your transmission back and forth, you can destroy your transmission.

For information about using tire chains on your vehicle, see “Tire Chains” in the Index. Rocking Your Vehicle To Get It Out First, turn your steering wheel left and right. That will clear the area around your front wheels. Then shift back and forth between REVERSE (R) and a forward gear (or with a manual transmission, between FIRST ( 1) or SECOND ( 2 ) and REVERSE(R)), spinning the wheels as little as possible. Release the accelerator pedal while you shift, and press lightly on the accelerator pedal when the transmission is in gear. If that doesn’t get you out after a few tries, you may need to be towed out. Or, you can use your recovery hooks if your vehicle has them. If you do need to be towed out, see ”Towing Your Vehicle” in the Index.

Your vehicle may be equipped with recovery hooks. The recovery hooks are provided at the front of your vehicle. You may need to use them if you’re stuck off-road and need to be pulled to some place where you can continue driving.



The recovery hooks, when used, are under a lot of force. Always pull the vehicle straight out. Never pull on the hooks at a sideways angle. The hooks could break off and you or others could be injured from the chain or cable snapping back.


Never use the recovery hooks to tow the vehicle. Your vehicle could be damaged and it would not be covered by warranty.


Section 6 Service and Appearance Care

Here you will find information about the care of your vehicle. This section begins with service and fuel information, and then it shows how to check important fluid and lubricant levels. There is also technical information about your vehicle, and a part devoted to its appearance care.

6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-9 6- 13 6- 14 6-18 6- 19 6- 20 6-2 1 6-23 6-26 6-26 6-26 6-27

Fuel Fuels in Foreign Countries Filling Your Tank Checking Things Under the Hood Engine Oil Air Cleaner Automatic Transmission Fluid Manual Transmission Fluid Hydraulic Clutch Rear Axle Four-wheel Drive and All-Wheel Drive Engine Coolant Radiator Pressure Cap Thermostat Power Steering Fluid Windshield Washer Fluid

6-28 6-32 6-3 3 6-3 8 6-40 6-49 6-49 6-52 6-54 6-5 7 6-5 8 6-58 6-58 6-62 6-63 6-64

Brakes Battery Bulb Replacement Windshield Wiper Blade Replacement Tires Appearance Care Cleaning the Inside of Your Vehicle Care of Safety Belts Cleaning the Outside of Your Vehicle Appearance Care Materials Chart Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) Service Parts Identification Label