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when recorded using ID3 tags version 1 and 2. Compressed Audio The radio also plays discs that contain both uncompressed CD audio (.CDA files) and MP3
files. By default the radio reads only the uncompressed audio and ignores the MP3 files. Pressing the CAT (category) button toggles between compressed and uncompressed audio format.


MP3 Format If you burn your own MP3 disc on a personal computer: (cid:129) Make sure the MP3 files are recorded on a

CD-R or CD-RW disc.

(cid:129) Avoid mixing standard audio and MP3 files on

one disc.

(cid:129) The CD player is able to read and play a maximum of 50 folders, 50 playlists, and 255 files.

(cid:129) Create a folder structure that makes it easy to

find songs while driving. Organize songs by albums using one folder for each album. Each folder or album should contain 18 songs or less.

(cid:129) Avoid subfolders. The system can support up to

8 subfolders deep, however, keep the total number of folders to a minimum in order to reduce the complexity and confusion in trying to locate a particular folder during playback.

(cid:129) Make sure playlists have a .mp3 or .wpl

extension (other file extensions may not work).

(cid:129) Minimize the length of the file, folder, or playlist names. Long file, folder, or playlist names, or a combination of a large number of files and folders, or playlists can cause the player to be unable to play up to the maximum number of files, folders, playlists, or sessions. If you wish to play a large number of files, folders, playlists, or sessions, minimize the length of the file, folder, or playlist name. Long names also take up more space on the display, and might not fully display.

(cid:129) Finalize the audio disc before you burn it. Trying to add music to an existing disc can cause the disc not to function in the player.

Change playlists by using the previous and next folder buttons, the tuner knob, or the seek buttons. An MP3 CD-R that was recorded using no file folders can also be played. If a CD-R contains more than the maximum of 50 folders, 50 playlists, and 255 files, the player lets you access and navigate up to the maximum, but all items over the maximum are not accessible.


Root Directory The root directory of the CD-R is treated as a folder. If the root directory has compressed audio files, the directory displays as F1 ROOT. All files contained directly under the root directory are accessed prior to any root directory folders. However, playlists (Px) are always accessed before root folders or files. Empty Directory or Folder If a root directory or a folder exists somewhere in the file structure that contains only folders/subfolders and no compressed files directly beneath them, the player advances to the next folder in the file structure that contains compressed audio files. The empty folder does not display. No Folder When the CD-R contains only compressed files, the files are located under the root folder. The next and previous folder functions are not displayed on a CD-R that was recorded without folders or playlists. When displaying the name of the folder the radio displays ROOT.

When the CD-R contains only playlists and compressed audio files, but no folders, all files are located under the root folder. The folder down and the folder up buttons search playlists (Px) first and then goes to the root folder. When the radio displays the name of the folder, the radio displays ROOT. Order of Play Tracks recorded to the CD-R are played in the following order: (cid:129) Play begins from the first track in the first playlist and continues sequentially through all tracks in each playlist. When the last track of the last playlist has played, play continues from the first track of the first playlist.

(cid:129) Play begins from the first track in the first folder and continues sequentially through all tracks in each folder. When the last track of the last folder has played, play continues from the first track of the first folder.

When play enters a new folder, the display does not automatically show the new folder name unless the folder mode was chosen as the default display. The new track name displays.


File System and Naming The song name that displays is the song name that is contained in the ID3 tag. If the song name is not present in the ID3 tag, then the radio displays the file name without the extension (such as .mp3) as the track name. Track names longer than 32 characters or four pages are shortened. Parts of words on the last page of text and the extension of the filename does not display. Preprogrammed Playlists Preprogrammed playlists that were created using WinAmp™, MusicMatch™, or Real Jukebox™ software, can be accessed, however, they cannot be edited using the radio. These playlists are treated as special folders containing compressed audio song files. Playing an MP3
Insert a CD-R partway into the slot (Single CD Player), or press the load button and wait for the message to insert disc (Six-Disc CD Player), label side up. The player pulls it in, and the CD-R should begin playing.

If the ignition or radio is turned off with a CD-R in the player, it stays in the player. When the ignition or radio is turned on, the CD-R starts to play where it stopped, if it was the last selected audio source. As each new track starts to play, the track number and song title displays. The CD player can play the smaller 3 inch (8 cm) single CD-Rs with an adapter ring. Full-size CD-Rs and the smaller CD-Rs are loaded in the same manner. If playing a CD-R, the sound quality can be reduced due to CD-R quality, the method of recording, the quality of the music that has been recorded, and the way the CD-R has been handled. There can be an increase in skipping, difficulty in finding tracks, and/or difficulty in loading and ejecting. If these problems occur, check the bottom surface of the CD. If the surface of the CD is damaged, such as cracked, broken, or scratched, the CD will not play properly. If the surface of the CD is soiled, see Care of Your CDs on page 215 for more information. If there is no apparent damage, try a known good CD.


If a label is added to a CD, or more

Notice: than one CD is inserted into the slot at a time, or an attempt is made to play scratched or damaged CDs, the CD player could be damaged. While using the CD player, use only CDs in good condition without any label, load one CD at a time, and keep the CD player and the loading slot free of foreign materials, liquids, and debris. Do not add any label to a CD, it could get caught in the CD player. If a CD is recorded on a personal computer and a description label is needed, try labeling the top of the recorded CD with a marking pen. If an error displays, see “CD Messages” later in this section.

Z EJECT: Press the CD eject button to eject CD-R(s). To eject the CD-R that is currently playing, press and release this button. A beep will sound and Ejecting Disc displays. Once the disc is ejected, Remove Disc displays. The CD-R can be removed. If the CD-R is not removed, after several seconds, the CD-R automatically pulls back into the player and begins playing. For the Six-Disc CD player, press and hold the eject button for two seconds to eject all discs.

f (Tune): Turn this knob to select MP3 files on the CD-R currently playing. © SEEK ¨: Press the left SEEK arrow to go to the start of the current MP3 file, if more than ten seconds have played. Press the right SEEK arrow to go to the next MP3 file. If either SEEK arrow is held or pressed multiple times, the player continues moving backward or forward through MP3 files on the CD.


RDM (Random): With the random setting, MP3
files on the CD-R can be played in random, rather than sequential order, on one CD-R or all discs in a six-disc CD player. To use random, do one of the following: 1. To play MP3 files in random order from the

CD-R that is currently playing, press the pushbutton positioned under the RDM label until Random Current Disc displays. Press the same pushbutton again to turn off random play. 2. To play songs from all CDs loaded in a six-disc

CD player in random order, press the pushbutton positioned under the RDM label until Randomize All Discs displays. Press the same pushbutton again to turn off random play.

S c (Previous Folder): Press the pushbutton positioned under the Folder label to go to the first track in the previous folder. c T(Next Folder): Press the pushbutton positioned under the Folder label to go to the first track in the next folder. s REV (Reverse): Press and hold this button to reverse playback quickly within an MP3 file. You will hear sound at a reduced volume. Release this button to resume playing the file. The elapsed time of the file displays. \ FWD (Fast Forward): Press and hold this button to advance playback quickly within an MP3
file. You will hear sound at a reduced volume. Release this button to resume playing the file. The elapsed time of the file displays.


h (Music Navigator): Use the music navigator feature to play MP3 files on the CD-R in order by artist or album. Press the pushbutton located below the music navigator label. The player scans the disc to sort the files by artist and album ID3
tag information. It can take several minutes to scan the disc depending on the number of MP3 files recorded to the CD-R. The radio can begin playing while it is scanning the disc in the background. When the scan is finished, the CD-R begins playing again. Once the disc has been scanned, the player defaults to playing MP3 files in order by artist. The current artist playing is shown on the second line of the display between the arrows. Once all songs by that artist are played, the player moves to the next artist in alphabetical order on the CD-R and begins playing MP3 files by that artist. If you want to listen to MP3 files by another artist, press the pushbutton located below either arrow button. The CD goes to the next or previous artist in alphabetical order. Continue pressing either button until the desired artist displays. To change from playback by artist to playback by album, press the pushbutton located below the Sort By label. From the sort screen, push one of the

buttons below the album button. Press the pushbutton below the back label to return to the main music navigator screen. The album name displays on the second line between the arrows and songs from the current album and begins to play. Once all songs from that album are played, the player moves to the next album in alphabetical order on the CD-R and begins playing MP3 files from that album. To exit music navigator mode, press the pushbutton below the Back label to return to normal MP3

BAND: Press this button to listen to the radio while a CD is playing. The CD remains inside the radio for future listening.

CD/AUX (CD/Auxiliary): Press this button to play a CD while listening to the radio. The CD icon and a message showing disc and/or track number displays while a CD is in the player. Press this button again and the system automatically searches for an auxiliary input device such as a portable audio player. If a portable audio player is not connected, “No Aux Input Device” displays.


XM Radio Messages

Radio Display Message


Action Required

XL (Explicit Language Channels)

XL on the radio display, after the channel name, indicates content with explicit language.

These channels, or any others, can be blocked at a customer’s request, by calling 1-800-852-XMXM (9696).

XM Updating

Updating encryption code The encryption code in the receiver is being updated, and no action is required. This process should take no longer than 30 seconds.

No XM Signal

Loss of signal

The system is functioning correctly, but the vehicle is in a location that is blocking the XM™ signal. When you move into an open area, the signal should return.

Loading XM

Acquiring channel audio (after 4 second delay)

The audio system is acquiring and processing audio and text data. No action is needed. This message should disappear shortly.

Channel Off Air

Channel not in service

Channel Unavail

Channel no longer available

This channel is not currently in service. Tune to another channel.

This previously assigned channel is no longer assigned. Tune to another station. If this station was one of the presets, choose another station for that preset button.

No Artist Info

No Title Info


Artist Name/Feature not available

Song/Program Title not available

No artist information is available at this time on this channel. The system is working properly.

No song title information is available at this time on this channel. The system is working properly.

Radio Display Message


Action Required

No CAT Info

No Information

CAT Not Found

Category Name not available

No category information is available at this time on this channel. The system is working properly.

No Text/Informational message available

No text or informational messages are available at this time on this channel. The system is working properly.

No channel available for the chosen category

There are no channels available for the selected category. The system is working properly.

XM Theftlocked

Theft lock active

XM Radio ID


Radio ID label (channel 0)

Radio ID not known (should only be if hardware failure)

The XM™ receiver in the vehicle may have previously been in another vehicle. For security purposes, XM™ receivers cannot be swapped between vehicles. If this message appears after having your vehicle serviced, check with your retailer.

If tuned to channel 0, this message will alternate with the XM™ Radio eight digit radio ID label. This label is needed to activate the service.

If this message is received when tuned to channel 0, there may be a receiver fault. Consult with your retailer.

Check XM Receivr

Hardware failure

XM Not Available

XM Not Available

If this message does not clear within a short period of time, the receiver may have a fault. Consult with your retailer.

If this message does not clear within a short period of time, the receiver may have a fault. Consult with your retailer.


Radio Reception Frequency interference and static can occur during normal radio reception if items such as cellphone chargers, vehicle convenience accessories, and external electronic devices are plugged into the accessory power outlet. If there is interference or static, unplug the item from the accessory power outlet. AM The range for most AM stations is greater than for FM, especially at night. The longer range can cause station frequencies to interfere with each other. For better radio reception, most AM radio stations boost the power levels during the day, and then reduces these levels during the night. Static can also occur when things like storms and power lines interfere with radio reception. When this happens, try reducing the treble on the radio. FM Stereo FM stereo gives the best sound, but FM signals reach only about 10 to 40 miles (16 to 65 km). Tall buildings or hills can interfere with FM signals, causing the sound to fade in and out.


XM™ Satellite Radio Service XM™ Satellite Radio Service gives digital radio reception from coast-to-coast in the 48 contiguous United States, and in Canada. Just as with FM, tall buildings or hills can interfere with satellite radio signals, causing the sound to fade in and out. In addition, traveling or standing under heavy foliage, bridges, garages, or tunnels may cause the loss of XM™ signal for a period of time. The radio might display NO XM SIGNAL to indicate interference. Cellular Phone Usage Cellular phone usage could cause interference with your vehicle’s radio. This interference could occur when making or receiving phone calls, charging the phone’s battery, or simply having the phone on. This interference is an increased level of static while listening to the radio. If static is received while listening to the radio, unplug the cellular phone and turn it off.

Care of Your CDs Handle CDs carefully. Store them in their original cases or other protective cases and away from direct sunlight and dust. The CD player scans the bottom surface of the disc. If the surface of a CD is damaged, such as cracked, broken, or scratched, the CD will not play properly or not at all. If the surface of a CD is soiled, take a soft, lint free cloth or dampen a clean, soft cloth in a mild, neutral detergent solution mixed with water, and clean it. Make sure the wiping process starts from the center to the edge. Do not touch the bottom side of a CD while handling it; this could damage the surface. Pick up CDs by grasping the outer edges or the edge of the hole and the outer edge.

Care of the CD Player Do not use CD lens cleaners for CD players because the lens of the CD optics can become contaminated by lubricants.

Fixed Mast Antenna The fixed mast antenna can withstand most car washes without being damaged. If the mast should ever become slightly bent, straighten it out by hand. If the mast is badly bent, replace it. Check occasionally to make sure the mast is still tightened to the antenna base. If tightening is required, tighten by hand.

XM™ Satellite Radio Antenna System The XM™ Satellite Radio antenna is located on the roof of your vehicle. Keep this antenna clear of snow and ice build up for clear radio reception. A vehicle with a sunroof might not get the best performance from the XM™ system if the sunroof is open. Loading items onto the roof of your vehicle can interfere with the performance of the XM™ system. Make sure the XM™ Satellite Radio antenna is not obstructed.




Section 4

Driving Your Vehicle

Your Driving, the Road, and Your

Vehicle ..................................................... 218
Defensive Driving ...................................... 218
Drunken Driving ........................................ 219
Control of a Vehicle .................................. 222
Braking ...................................................... 222
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) .................. 223
Braking in Emergencies ............................. 225
Enhanced Traction System (ETS) .............. 226
Limited-Slip Differential .............................. 227
Steering .................................................... 227
Off-Road Recovery .................................... 230
Passing ..................................................... 231
Loss of Control .......................................... 233
Racing or Other Competitive Driving .......... 234
Driving at Night ......................................... 234

Driving in Rain and on Wet Roads ............ 236
City Driving ............................................... 239
Freeway Driving ........................................ 240
Before Leaving on a Long Trip .................. 241
Highway Hypnosis ..................................... 242
Hill and Mountain Roads ........................... 242
Winter Driving ........................................... 244
If Your Vehicle is Stuck in Sand, Mud,

Ice, or Snow .......................................... 249
Rocking Your Vehicle to Get It Out ........... 250
Loading Your Vehicle ................................ 250
Towing ........................................................ 256
Towing Your Vehicle ................................. 256
Recreational Vehicle Towing ...................... 256
Towing a Trailer ........................................ 259


Your Driving, the Road, and Your Vehicle

Defensive Driving The best advice anyone can give about driving is: Drive defensively. Please start with a very important safety device in your vehicle: Buckle up. See Safety Belts: They Are for Everyone on page 18.



Defensive driving really means “Be ready for anything.” On city streets, rural roads, or expressways, it means “Always expect the unexpected.” Assume that pedestrians or other drivers are going to be careless and make mistakes. Anticipate what they might do and be ready. Rear-end collisions are about the most preventable of accidents. Yet they are common. Allow enough following distance. Defensive driving requires that a driver concentrate on the driving task. Anything that distracts from the driving task makes proper defensive driving more difficult and can even cause a collision, with resulting injury. Ask a passenger to help do these things, or pull off the road in a safe place to do them. These simple defensive driving techniques could save your life.

Drunken Driving Death and injury associated with drinking and driving is a national tragedy. It is the number one contributor to the highway death toll, claiming thousands of victims every year. Alcohol affects four things that anyone needs to drive a vehicle: Judgment

(cid:129) Muscular Coordination (cid:129) Vision (cid:129) Attentiveness Police records show that almost half of all motor vehicle-related deaths involve alcohol. In most cases, these deaths are the result of someone who was drinking and driving. In recent years, more than 16,000 annual motor vehicle-related deaths have been associated with the use of alcohol, with more than 300,000 people injured.

Many adults — by some estimates, nearly half the adult population — choose never to drink alcohol, so they never drive after drinking. For persons under 21, it is against the law in every U.S. state to drink alcohol. There are good medical, psychological, and developmental reasons for these laws. The obvious way to eliminate the leading highway safety problem is for people never to drink alcohol and then drive. But what if people do? How much is “too much” if someone plans to drive? It is a lot less than many might think. Although it depends on each person and situation, here is some general information on the problem. The Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of someone who is drinking depends upon four things: (cid:129) The amount of alcohol consumed (cid:129) The drinker’s body weight (cid:129) The amount of food that is consumed before

and during drinking

(cid:129) The length of time it has taken the drinker to

consume the alcohol


(cid:129) According to the American Medical Association, a 180 lb (82 kg) person who drinks three 12 ounce (355 ml) bottles of beer in an hour will end up with a BAC of about 0.06 percent. The person would reach the same BAC by drinking three 4 ounce (120 ml) glasses of wine or three mixed drinks if each had 1-1/2 ounces (45 ml) of liquors like whiskey, gin, or vodka.

It is the amount of alcohol that counts. For example, if the same person drank three double martinis (3 ounces or 90 ml of liquor each) within an hour, the person’s BAC would be close to 0.12 percent. A person who consumes food just before or during drinking will have a somewhat lower BAC level. There is a gender difference, too. Women generally have a lower relative percentage of body water than men. Since alcohol is carried in body water, this means that a woman generally will reach a higher BAC level than a man of her same body weight will when each has the same number of drinks. The law in most U.S. states, and throughout Canada, sets the legal limit at 0.08 percent. In some other countries, the limit is even lower. For example, it is 0.05 percent in both France and Germany. The BAC limit for all commercial drivers in the United States is 0.04 percent. The BAC will be over 0.10 percent after three to six drinks (in one hour). Of course, as we have seen, it depends on how much alcohol is in the drinks, and how quickly the person drinks them.


But the ability to drive is affected well below a BAC of 0.10 percent. Research shows that the driving skills of many people are impaired at a BAC approaching 0.05 percent, and that the effects are worse at night. All drivers are impaired at BAC levels above 0.05 percent. Statistics show that the chance of being in a collision increases sharply for drivers who have a BAC of 0.05 percent or above. A driver with a BAC level of 0.06 percent has doubled his or her chance of having a collision. At a BAC level of 0.10 percent, the chance of this driver having a collision is 12 times greater; at a level of 0.15 percent, the chance is 25 times greater! The body takes about an hour to rid itself of the alcohol in one drink. No amount of coffee or number of cold showers will speed that up. “I will be careful” is not the right answer. What if there is an emergency, a need to take sudden action, as when a child darts into the street? A person with even a moderate BAC might not be able to react quickly enough to avoid the collision.

There is something else about drinking and driving that many people do not know. Medical research shows that alcohol in a person’s system can make crash injuries worse, especially injuries to the brain, spinal cord, or heart. This means that when anyone who has been drinking — driver or passenger — is in a crash, that person’s chance of being killed or permanently disabled is higher than if the person had not been drinking.


Drinking and then driving is very dangerous. Your reflexes, perceptions, attentiveness, and judgment can be affected by even a small amount of alcohol. You can have a serious — or even fatal — collision if you drive after drinking. Please do not drink and drive or ride with a driver who has been drinking. Ride home in a cab; or if you are with a group, designate a driver who will not drink.


Average reaction time is about three-fourths of a second. But that is only an average. It might be less with one driver and as long as two or three seconds or more with another. Age, physical condition, alertness, coordination, and eyesight all play a part. So do alcohol, drugs, and frustration. But even in three-fourths of a second, a vehicle moving at 60 mph (100 km/h) travels 66 feet (20 m). That could be a lot of distance in an emergency, so keeping enough space between your vehicle and others is important. And, of course, actual stopping distances vary greatly with the surface of the road, whether it is pavement or gravel; the condition of the road, whether it is wet, dry, or icy; tire tread; the condition of the brakes; the weight of the vehicle; and the amount of brake force applied.

Control of a Vehicle You have three systems that make your vehicle go where you want it to go. They are the brakes, the steering, and the accelerator. All three systems have to do their work at the places where the tires meet the road. Sometimes, as when you are driving on snow or ice, it is easy to ask more of those control systems than the tires and road can provide. That means you can lose control of your vehicle. See Enhanced Traction System (ETS) on page 226. Adding non-Saturn accessories can affect your vehicle’s performance. See Accessories and Modifications on page 270.

Braking See Brake System Warning Light on page 170. Braking action involves perception time and reaction time. First, you have to decide to push on the brake pedal. That is perception time. Then you have to bring up your foot and do it. That is reaction time.


Avoid needless heavy braking. Some people drive in spurts — heavy acceleration followed by heavy braking — rather than keeping pace with traffic. This is a mistake. The brakes may not have time to cool between hard stops. The brakes will wear out much faster if you do a lot of heavy braking. If you keep pace with the traffic and allow realistic following distances, you will eliminate a lot of unnecessary braking. That means better braking and longer brake life. If your vehicle’s engine ever stops while you are driving, brake normally but do not pump the brakes. If you do, the pedal may get harder to push down. If the engine stops, you will still have some power brake assist. But you will use it when you brake. Once the power assist is used up, it may take longer to stop and the brake pedal will be harder to push. Adding non-Saturn accessories can affect your vehicle’s performance. See Accessories and Modifications on page 270.

Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Your vehicle may have the Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS), an advanced electronic braking system that will help prevent a braking skid.

If your vehicle has ABS, this warning light on the instrument panel will come on briefly when you start your vehicle.

When you start your engine, or when you begin to drive away, your ABS will check itself. You may hear a momentary motor or clicking noise while this test is going on, and you may even notice that your brake pedal moves or pulses a little. This is normal.


ABS can change the brake pressure faster than any driver could. The computer is programmed to make the most of available tire and road conditions. This can help you steer around the obstacle while braking hard.

Let us say the road is wet and you are driving safely. Suddenly, an animal jumps out in front of you. You slam on the brakes and continue braking. Here is what happens with ABS: A computer senses that wheels are slowing down. If one of the wheels is about to stop rolling, the computer will separately work the brakes at each wheel.


As you brake, your computer keeps receiving updates on wheel speed and controls braking pressure accordingly.

Remember: ABS does not change the time you need to get your foot up to the brake pedal or always decrease stopping distance. If you get too close to the vehicle in front of you, you will not have time to apply your brakes if that vehicle suddenly slows or stops. Always leave enough room up ahead to stop, even though you have ABS. Using ABS Do not pump the brakes. Just hold the brake pedal down firmly and let anti-lock work for you. You may feel a slight brake pedal pulsation or notice some noise, but this is normal.

Braking in Emergencies At some time, nearly every driver gets into a situation that requires hard braking. If you have ABS, you can steer and brake at the same time. However, if you do not have ABS, your first reaction — to hit the brake pedal hard and hold it down — may be the wrong thing to do. Your wheels can stop rolling. Once they do, the vehicle cannot respond to your steering.

Momentum will carry it in whatever direction it was headed when the wheels stopped rolling. That could be off the road, into the very thing you were trying to avoid, or into traffic. If you do not have ABS, use a “squeeze” braking technique. This will give you maximum braking while maintaining steering control. You can do this by pushing on the brake pedal with steadily increasing pressure. In an emergency, you will probably want to squeeze the brakes hard without locking the wheels. If you hear or feel the wheels sliding, ease off the brake pedal. This will help you retain steering control. If you do have ABS, it is different. See Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) on page 223. In many emergencies, steering can help you more than even the very best braking.


The ETS automatically comes on whenever you start your vehicle. The light on the traction control button will also come on to let you know the system is on. To limit wheel spin, especially in slippery road conditions, you should always leave the system on. But you can turn the traction control system off if you ever need to. You should turn the system off if your vehicle ever gets stuck in sand, mud or snow and rocking the vehicle is required. See Rocking Your Vehicle to Get It Out on page 250 and If Your Vehicle is Stuck in Sand, Mud, Ice, or Snow on page 249.

To turn the system on or off, press the enhanced traction system button located on the instrument panel.

Enhanced Traction System (ETS) Your vehicle may have an Enhanced Traction System (ETS) that limits wheel spin. This is especially useful in slippery road conditions. The system operates only if it senses that one or both of the front wheels are spinning or beginning to lose traction. When this happens, the system reduces engine power and may also upshift the transaxle to limit wheel spin. The LOW TRAC message will be displayed when your ETS is engaged and limiting wheel spin. See Low Traction Message on page 182. You may feel or hear the system working, but this is normal. If your vehicle is in cruise control when the ETS begins to limit wheel spin, the cruise control will automatically disengage. When road conditions allow you to safely use it again, you may re-engage the cruise control. See Cruise Control on page 147. The ETS operates in all transaxle shift lever positions. But the system can upshift the transaxle only as high as the shift lever position you have chosen, so you should use the lower gears only when necessary.


When you turn the system off, the TRAC OFF message will be displayed. If the ETS is limiting wheel spin when you press the button to turn the system off, the TRAC OFF message will be displayed, but the system will not turn off until there is no longer a current need to limit wheel spin. You can turn the system back on at any time by pressing the button again. The TRAC OFF message will no longer be displayed. Adding non-Saturn accessories can affect your vehicle’s performance. See Accessories and Modifications on page 270 for more information.

Limited-Slip Differential Your vehicle may have this feature. A limited-slip transaxle can give you additional traction on snow, mud, ice, sand or gravel. It works like a standard transaxle most of the time, but when one of the front wheels loses traction, this feature will allow the wheel with traction to move the vehicle.

Steering Electric Power Steering If the engine stalls while you are driving, the power steering assist system will continue to operate until you are able to stop the vehicle. If you lose power steering assist because the system is not functioning, you can steer but it will take much more effort. If you turn the steering wheel in either direction several times until it stops, or hold the steering wheel in the stopped position for an extended amount of time, you may notice a reduced amount of power steering assist. The normal amount of power steering assist should return shortly after a few normal steering movements. The electric power steering system does not require regular maintenance.

If the PWR STR message in the message center is displayed, see your retailer for service. See Power Steering Message on page 184.


Steering Tips It is important to take curves at a reasonable speed. A lot of the “driver lost control” accidents mentioned on the news happen on curves. Here is why: Experienced driver or beginner, each of us is subject to the same laws of physics when driving on curves. The traction of the tires against the road surface makes it possible for the vehicle to change its path when you turn the front wheels. If there is no traction, inertia will keep the vehicle going in the same direction. If you have ever tried to steer a vehicle on wet ice, you will understand this. The traction you can get in a curve depends on the condition of the tires and the road surface, the angle at which the curve is banked, and your vehicle’s speed. While you are in a curve, speed is the one factor you can control.

Suppose you are steering through a sharp curve. Then you suddenly apply the brakes. Both control systems — steering and braking — have to do their work where the tires meet the road. Unless you have four-wheel anti-lock brakes, adding the hard braking can demand too much of those places. You can lose control. The same thing can happen if you are steering through a sharp curve and you suddenly accelerate. Those two control systems — steering and acceleration — can overwhelm those places where the tires meet the road and make you lose control. See Enhanced Traction System (ETS) on page 226. What should you do if this ever happens? Ease up on the brake or accelerator pedal, steer the vehicle the way you want it to go, and slow down.


Speed limit signs near curves warn that you should adjust your speed. Of course, the posted speeds are based on good weather and road conditions. Under less favorable conditions you will want to go slower. If you need to reduce your speed as you approach a curve, do it before you enter the curve, while the front wheels are straight ahead. Try to adjust your speed so you can “drive” through the curve. Maintain a reasonable, steady speed. Wait to accelerate until you are out of the curve, and then accelerate gently into the straightaway. Adding non-Saturn accessories can affect your vehicle’s performance. See Accessories and Modifications on page 270.

Steering in Emergencies There are times when steering can be more effective than braking. For example, you come over a hill and find a truck stopped in your lane, or a car suddenly pulls out from nowhere, or a child darts out from between parked cars and stops right in front of you. You can avoid these problems by braking — if you can stop in time. But sometimes you cannot; there is not room. That is the time for evasive action — steering around the problem. Your vehicle can perform very well in emergencies like these. First apply the brakes — but, unless your vehicle has anti-lock brakes, not enough to lock the wheels. See Braking on page 222. It is better to remove as much speed as you can from a possible collision. Then steer around the problem, to the left or right depending on the space available.


Off-Road Recovery You may find that your vehicle’s right wheels have dropped off the edge of a road onto the shoulder while you are driving.

An emergency like this requires close attention and a quick decision. If you are holding the steering wheel at the recommended 9 and 3 o’clock positions, you can turn it a full 180 degrees very quickly without removing either hand. But you have to act fast, steer quickly, and just as quickly straighten the wheel once you have avoided the object. The fact that such emergency situations are always possible is a good reason to practice defensive driving at all times and wear safety belts properly.


If the level of the shoulder is only slightly below the pavement, recovery should be fairly easy. Ease off the accelerator and then, if there is nothing in the way, steer so that your vehicle straddles the edge of the pavement. You can turn the steering wheel up to one-quarter turn until the right front tire contacts the pavement edge. Then turn the steering wheel to go straight down the roadway.

Passing The driver of a vehicle about to pass another on a two-lane highway waits for just the right moment, accelerates, moves around the vehicle ahead, then goes back into the right lane again. A simple maneuver? Not necessarily! Passing another vehicle on a two-lane highway is a potentially dangerous move, since the passing vehicle occupies the same lane as oncoming traffic for several seconds. A miscalculation, an error in judgment, or a brief surrender to frustration or anger can suddenly put the passing driver face to face with the worst of all traffic accidents — the head-on collision. So here are some tips for passing: (cid:129) Drive ahead. Look down the road, to the

sides, and to crossroads for situations that might affect your passing patterns. If you have any doubt whatsoever about making a successful pass, wait for a better time.

(cid:129) Watch for traffic signs, pavement markings,

and lines. If you can see a sign up ahead that might indicate a turn or an intersection, delay your pass. A broken center line usually indicates it is all right to pass, providing the road ahead is clear. Never cross a solid line on your side of the lane or a double solid line, even if the road seems empty of approaching traffic.

(cid:129) Do not get too close to the vehicle you want to pass while you are awaiting an opportunity. For one thing, following too closely reduces your area of vision, especially if you are following a larger vehicle. Also, you will not have adequate space if the vehicle ahead suddenly slows or stops. Keep back a reasonable distance.


(cid:129) When it looks like a chance to pass is coming up, start to accelerate but stay in the right lane and do not get too close. Time your move so you will be increasing speed as the time comes to move into the other lane. If the way is clear to pass, you will have a running start that more than makes up for the distance you would lose by dropping back. And if something happens to cause you to cancel your pass, you need only slow down and drop back again and wait for another opportunity. If other vehicles are lined up to pass a slow vehicle, wait your turn. But take care that someone is not trying to pass you as you pull out to pass the slow vehicle. Remember to glance over your shoulder and check the blind spot.

(cid:129) Check your vehicle’s mirrors, glance over your shoulder, and start your left lane change signal before moving out of the right lane to pass. When you are far enough ahead of the passed vehicle to see its front in your vehicle’s inside mirror, activate the right lane change signal and move back into the right lane. Remember that your vehicle’s passenger side outside mirror is convex. The vehicle you just passed may seem to be farther away from you than it really is.

(cid:129) Try not to pass more than one vehicle at a time on two-lane roads. Reconsider before passing the next vehicle.

(cid:129) Do not overtake a slowly moving vehicle too rapidly. Even though the brake lamps are not flashing, it may be slowing down or starting to turn. If you are being passed, make it easy for the following driver to get ahead of you. Perhaps you can ease a little to the right.


(cid:129) (cid:129) Loss of Control Let us review what driving experts say about what happens when the three control systems — brakes, steering, and acceleration — do not have enough friction where the tires meet the road to do what the driver has asked. In any emergency, do not give up. Keep trying to steer and constantly seek an escape route or area of less danger. Skidding In a skid, a driver can lose control of the vehicle. Defensive drivers avoid most skids by taking reasonable care suited to existing conditions, and by not overdriving those conditions. But skids are always possible. The three types of skids correspond to your vehicle’s three control systems. In the braking skid, your wheels are not rolling. In the steering or cornering skid, too much speed or steering in a curve causes tires to slip and lose cornering force. And in the acceleration skid, too much throttle causes the driving wheels to spin.

A cornering skid is best handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal. If you have the Enhanced Traction System (ETS), remember: It helps to avoid only the acceleration skid. See Enhanced Traction System (ETS) on page 226. If you do not have the Enhanced Traction System, or if the system is off, then an acceleration skid is also best handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal. If your vehicle starts to slide, ease your foot off the accelerator pedal and quickly steer the way you want the vehicle to go. If you start steering quickly enough, your vehicle may straighten out. Always be ready for a second skid if it occurs. Of course, traction is reduced when water, snow, ice, gravel, or other material is on the road. For safety, you will want to slow down and adjust your driving to these conditions. It is important to slow down on slippery surfaces because stopping distance will be longer and vehicle control more limited.


While driving on a surface with reduced traction, try your best to avoid sudden steering, acceleration, or braking, including reducing vehicle speed by shifting to a lower gear. Any sudden changes could cause the tires to slide. You may not realize the surface is slippery until your vehicle is skidding. Learn to recognize warning clues — such as enough water, ice, or packed snow on the road to make a mirrored surface — and slow down when you have any doubt. If you have the Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS), remember: It helps avoid only the braking skid. If you do not have ABS, then in a braking skid, where the wheels are no longer rolling, release enough pressure on the brakes to get the wheels rolling again. This restores steering control. Push the brake pedal down steadily when you have to stop suddenly. As long as the wheels are rolling, you will have steering control.


Racing or Other Competitive Driving See your warranty book before using your vehicle for racing or other competitive driving. After reviewing your warranty book, please see the GM Performance Parts website or catalog and contact the race sanctioning bodies, for example Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) or Grand American, for parts and equipment required for racing or other competitive driving.

Driving at Night Night driving is more dangerous than day driving. One reason is that some drivers are likely to be impaired — by alcohol or drugs, with night vision problems, or by fatigue. Here are some tips on night driving. (cid:129) Drive defensively. (cid:129) Do not drink and drive. (cid:129) Adjust the inside rearview mirror to reduce the

glare from headlamps behind you.

(cid:129) Since you cannot see as well, you may need to slow down and keep more space between you and other vehicles.

(cid:129) Slow down, especially on higher speed roads. Your vehicle’s headlamps can light up only so much road ahead. In remote areas, watch for animals. If you are tired, pull off the road in a safe place and rest.

No one can see as well at night as in the daytime. But as we get older these differences increase. A 50-year-old driver may require at least twice as much light to see the same thing at night as a 20-year-old. What you do in the daytime can also affect your night vision. For example, if you spend the day in bright sunshine you are wise to wear sunglasses. Your eyes will have less trouble adjusting to night. But if you are driving, do not wear sunglasses at night. They may cut down on glare from headlamps, but they also make a lot of things invisible.

You can be temporarily blinded by approaching headlamps. It can take a second or two, or even several seconds, for your eyes to re-adjust to the dark. When you are faced with severe glare, as from a driver who does not lower the high beams, or a vehicle with misaimed headlamps, slow down a little. Avoid staring directly into the approaching headlamps. Keep the windshield and all the glass on your vehicle clean — inside and out. Glare at night is made much worse by dirt on the glass. Even the inside of the glass can build up a film caused by dust. Dirty glass makes lights dazzle and flash more than clean glass would, making the pupils of your eyes contract repeatedly. Remember that the headlamps light up far less of a roadway when you are in a turn or curve. Keep your eyes moving; that way, it is easier to pick out dimly lighted objects. Just as the headlamps should be checked regularly for proper aim, so should your eyes be examined regularly. Some drivers suffer from night blindness — the inability to see in dim light — and are not even aware of it.


(cid:129) (cid:129) And, if your tires do not have much tread left, you will get even less traction. It is always wise to go slower and be cautious if rain starts to fall while you are driving. The surface may get wet suddenly when your reflexes are tuned for driving on dry pavement. The heavier the rain, the harder it is to see. Even if your windshield wiper blades are in good shape, a heavy rain can make it harder to see road signs and traffic signals, pavement markings, the edge of the road, and even people walking. It is wise to keep your windshield wiping equipment in good shape and keep your windshield washer fluid reservoir filled with washer fluid. Replace your windshield wiper inserts when they show signs of streaking or missing areas on the windshield, or when strips of rubber start to separate from the inserts.

Driving in Rain and on Wet Roads

Rain and wet roads can mean driving trouble. On a wet road, you cannot stop, accelerate, or turn as well because your tire-to-road traction is not as good as on dry roads.



Wet brakes can cause accidents. They may not work as well in a quick stop and may cause pulling to one side. You could lose control of the vehicle. After driving through a large puddle of water or a car wash, apply the brake pedal lightly until the brakes work normally.

Driving too fast through large water puddles or even going through some car washes can cause problems, too. The water may affect your brakes. Try to avoid puddles. But if you cannot, try to slow down before you hit them. Hydroplaning Hydroplaning is dangerous. So much water can build up under your tires that they can actually ride on the water. This can happen if the road is wet enough and you are going fast enough. When your vehicle is hydroplaning, it has little or no contact with the road.

Hydroplaning does not happen often. But it can if your tires do not have much tread or if the pressure in one or more is low. It can happen if a lot of water is standing on the road. If you can see reflections from trees, telephone poles, or other vehicles, and raindrops dimple the water’s surface, there could be hydroplaning. Hydroplaning usually happens at higher speeds. There just is not a hard and fast rule about hydroplaning. The best advice is to slow down when it is raining. Driving Through Deep Standing Water Notice: deep puddles or standing water, water can come in through the engine’s air intake and badly damage the engine. Never drive through water that is slightly lower than the underbody of your vehicle. If you cannot avoid deep puddles or standing water, drive through them very slowly.

If you drive too quickly through


Some Other Rainy Weather Tips (cid:129) Besides slowing down, allow some extra

following distance. And be especially careful when you pass another vehicle. Allow yourself more clear room ahead, and be prepared to have your view restricted by road spray.

(cid:129) Have good tires with proper tread depth.

See Tires on page 328.

Driving Through Flowing Water


Flowing or rushing water creates strong forces. If you try to drive through flowing water, as you might at a low water crossing, your vehicle can be carried away. As little as six inches of flowing water can carry away a smaller vehicle. If this happens, you and other vehicle occupants could drown. Do not ignore police warning signs, and otherwise be very cautious about trying to drive through flowing water.


City Driving

One of the biggest problems with city streets is the amount of traffic on them. You will want to watch out for what the other drivers are doing and pay attention to traffic signals.

Here are ways to increase your safety in city driving: (cid:129) Know the best way to get to where you are

going. Get a city map and plan your trip into an unknown part of the city just as you would for a cross-country trip.

(cid:129) Try to use the freeways that rim and crisscross

most large cities. You will save time and energy. See Freeway Driving on page 240. (cid:129) Treat a green light as a warning signal. A traffic light is there because the corner is busy enough to need it. When a light turns green, and just before you start to move, check both ways for vehicles that have not cleared the intersection or may be running the red light.


Freeway Driving

Mile for mile, freeways — also called thruways, parkways, expressways, turnpikes, or superhighways — are the safest of all roads. But they have their own special rules.


The most important advice on freeway driving is: Keep up with traffic and keep to the right. Drive at the same speed most of the other drivers are driving. Too-fast or too-slow driving breaks a smooth traffic flow. Treat the left lane on a freeway as a passing lane. At the entrance, there is usually a ramp that leads to the freeway. If you have a clear view of the freeway as you drive along the entrance ramp, you should begin to check traffic. Try to determine where you expect to blend with the flow. Try to merge into the gap at close to the prevailing speed. Switch on your turn signal, check your mirrors, and glance over your shoulder as often as necessary. Try to blend smoothly with the traffic flow. Once you are on the freeway, adjust your speed to the posted limit or to the prevailing rate if it is slower. Stay in the right lane unless you want to pass. Before changing lanes, check your mirrors. Then use your turn signal. Just before you leave the lane, glance quickly over your shoulder to make sure there is not another vehicle in your blind spot.

Once you are moving on the freeway, make certain you allow a reasonable following distance. Expect to move slightly slower at night. When you want to leave the freeway, move to the proper lane well in advance. If you miss your exit, do not, under any circumstances, stop and back up. Drive on to the next exit. The exit ramp can be curved, sometimes quite sharply. The exit speed is usually posted. Reduce your speed according to your speedometer, not to your sense of motion. After driving for any distance at higher speeds, you may tend to think you are going slower than you actually are.

Before Leaving on a Long Trip Make sure you are ready. Try to be well rested. If you must start when you are not fresh — such as after a day’s work — do not plan to make too many miles that first part of the journey. Wear comfortable clothing and shoes you can easily drive in. Is your vehicle ready for a long trip? If you keep it serviced and maintained, it is ready to go. If it needs service, have it done before starting out.

Of course, you will find experienced and able service experts at Saturn retailers all across the United States and Canada. They will be ready and willing to help if you need it. Here are some things you can check before a trip: (cid:129) Windshield Washer Fluid: Is the reservoir

full? Are all windows clean inside and outside?

(cid:129) Wiper Blades: Are they in good shape? (cid:129) Fuel, Engine Oil, Other Fluids: Have you

checked all levels? Lamps: Are they all working? Are the lenses clean?

(cid:129) Tires: They are vitally important to a safe, trouble-free trip. Is the tread good enough for long-distance driving? Are the tires all inflated to the recommended pressure?

(cid:129) Weather Forecasts: What is the weather

outlook along your route? Should you delay your trip a short time to avoid a major storm system?

(cid:129) Maps: Do you have up-to-date maps?


(cid:129) Hill and Mountain Roads

Driving on steep hills or mountains is different from driving in flat or rolling terrain.

Highway Hypnosis Is there actually such a condition as highway hypnosis? Or is it just plain falling asleep at the wheel? Call it highway hypnosis, lack of awareness, or whatever. There is something about an easy stretch of road with the same scenery, along with the hum of the tires on the road, the drone of the engine, and the rush of the wind against the vehicle that can make you sleepy. Do not let it happen to you! If it does, your vehicle can leave the road in less than a second, and you could crash and be injured. What can you do about highway hypnosis? First, be aware that it can happen. Then here are some tips: (cid:129) Make sure your vehicle is well ventilated, with

a comfortably cool interior.

(cid:129) Keep your eyes moving. Scan the road ahead and to the sides. Check your rearview mirrors and your instruments frequently. If you get sleepy, pull off the road into a rest, service, or parking area and take a nap, get some exercise, or both. For safety, treat drowsiness on the highway as an emergency.


(cid:129) If you drive regularly in steep country, or if you are planning to visit there, here are some tips that can make your trips safer and more enjoyable. (cid:129) Keep your vehicle in good shape. Check all fluid levels and also the brakes, tires, cooling system, and transaxle. These parts can work hard on mountain roads.


If you do not shift down, the brakes could get so hot that they would not work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Shift down to let the engine assist the brakes on a steep downhill slope.


Coasting downhill in NEUTRAL (N) or with the ignition off is dangerous. The brakes will have to do all the work of slowing down. They could get so hot that they would not work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Always have the engine running and your vehicle in gear when you go downhill.

(cid:129) Know how to go down hills. The most important thing to know is this: let your engine do some of the slowing down. Shift to a lower gear when you go down a steep or long hill.

(cid:129) Know how to go uphill. You may want to shift

down to a lower gear. The lower gears help cool your engine and transaxle, and you can climb the hill better.


Winter Driving

(cid:129) Stay in your own lane when driving on two-lane roads in hills or mountains. Do not swing wide or cut across the center of the road. Drive at speeds that let you stay in your own lane.

(cid:129) As you go over the top of a hill, be alert. There could be something in your lane, like a stalled car or an accident.

(cid:129) You may see highway signs on mountains that

warn of special problems. Examples are long grades, passing or no-passing zones, a falling rocks area, or winding roads. Be alert to these and take appropriate action.

Here are some tips for winter driving: (cid:129) Have your vehicle in good shape for winter. (cid:129) You may want to put winter emergency

supplies in your trunk.

Also see Tires on page 328.


Include an ice scraper, a small brush or broom, a supply of windshield washer fluid, a rag, some winter outer clothing, a small shovel, a flashlight, a red cloth, and a couple of reflective warning triangles. And, if you will be driving under severe conditions, include a small bag of sand, a piece of old carpet, or a couple of burlap bags to help provide traction. Be sure you properly secure these items in your vehicle. Driving on Snow or Ice Most of the time, those places where the tires meet the road probably have good traction. However, if there is snow or ice between the tires and the road, you can have a very slippery situation. You will have a lot less traction, or grip, and will need to be very careful.


Whatever the condition — smooth ice, packed, blowing, or loose snow — drive with caution. If you have the Enhanced Traction System (ETS), it will improve your ability to accelerate when driving on a slippery road. Even if your vehicle has ETS, you will want to slow down and adjust your driving to the road conditions. Under certain conditions, you may want to turn the ETS off, such as when driving through deep snow and loose gravel, to help maintain vehicle motion at lower speeds. See Enhanced Traction System (ETS) on page 226. If you do not have ETS, accelerate gently. Try not to break the fragile traction. If you accelerate too fast, the drive wheels will spin and polish the surface under the tires even more.

What is the worst time for this? Wet ice. Very cold snow or ice can be slick and hard to drive on. But wet ice can be even more trouble because it may offer the least traction of all. You can get wet ice when it is about freezing, 32°F (0°C), and freezing rain begins to fall. Try to avoid driving on wet ice until salt and sand crews can get there.


Unless you have the Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS), you will want to brake very gently, too. If you do have ABS, see Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) on page 223. ABS improves your vehicle’s stability when you make a hard stop on a slippery road. Whether you have ABS or not, you will want to begin stopping sooner than you would on dry pavement. Without ABS, if you feel your vehicle begin to slide, let up on the brakes a little. Push the brake pedal down steadily to get the most traction you can. Remember, unless you have ABS, if you brake so hard that your wheels stop rolling, you will just slide. Brake so your wheels always keep rolling and you can still steer. (cid:129) Whatever your braking system, allow greater

following distance on any slippery road.

(cid:129) Watch for slippery spots. The road might be fine until you hit a spot that is covered with ice. On an otherwise clear road, ice patches may appear in shaded areas where the sun cannot reach, such as around clumps of trees, behind buildings, or under bridges. Sometimes the surface of a curve or an overpass may remain icy when the surrounding roads are clear.

If you see a patch of ice ahead of you, brake before you are on it. Try not to brake while you are actually on the ice, and avoid sudden steering maneuvers.

If You Are Caught in a Blizzard If you are stopped by heavy snow, you could be in a serious situation. You should probably stay with your vehicle unless you know for sure that you are near help and you can hike through the snow. Here are some things to do to summon help and keep yourself and your passengers safe: (cid:129) Turn on your hazard flashers. (cid:129) Tie a red cloth to your vehicle to alert police

that you have been stopped by the snow.

(cid:129) Put on extra clothing or wrap a blanket around

you. If you do not have blankets or extra clothing, make body insulators from newspapers, burlap bags, rags, floor mats — anything you can wrap around yourself or tuck under your clothing to keep warm.



Snow can trap exhaust gases under your vehicle. This can cause deadly CO (carbon monoxide) gas to get inside. CO could overcome you and kill you. You cannot see it or smell it, so you might not know it is in your vehicle. Clear away snow from around the base of your vehicle, especially any that is blocking the exhaust pipe. And check around again from time to time to be sure snow does not collect there. Open a window just a little on the side of the vehicle that is away from the wind. This will help keep CO out.

Run your engine only as long as you must. This saves fuel. When you run the engine, make it go a little faster than just idle. That is, push the accelerator slightly. This uses less fuel for the heat that you get and it keeps the battery charged.

You can run the engine to keep warm, but be careful.


You will need a well-charged battery to restart the vehicle, and possibly for signaling later on with your headlamps. Let the heater run for a while. Then, shut the engine off and close the window almost all the way to preserve the heat. Start the engine again and repeat this only when you feel really uncomfortable from the cold. But do it as little as possible. Preserve the fuel as long as you can. To help keep warm, you can get out of the vehicle and do some fairly vigorous exercises every half hour or so until help comes.

If Your Vehicle is Stuck in Sand, Mud, Ice, or Snow In order to free your vehicle when it is stuck, you will need to spin the wheels, but you do not want to spin your wheels too fast. The method known as rocking can help you get out when you are stuck, but you must use caution. If your vehicle has the Enhanced Traction System (ETS), the ETS can often help to free a stuck vehicle. See Enhanced Traction System (ETS) on page 226. If the stuck condition is too severe for the ETS to free the vehicle, turn the ETS off and use the rocking method.


If you let your vehicle’s tires spin at high speed, they can explode, and you or others could be injured. And, the transaxle or other parts of the vehicle can overheat. That could cause an engine compartment fire or other damage. When you are stuck, spin the wheels as little as possible. Do not spin the wheels above 35 mph (55 km/h) as shown on the speedometer.

Notice: Spinning the wheels can destroy parts of your vehicle as well as the tires. If you spin the wheels too fast while shifting the transaxle back and forth, you can destroy the transaxle. See Rocking Your Vehicle to Get It Out on page 250. For information about using tire chains on your vehicle, see Tire Chains on page 348.


Rocking Your Vehicle to Get It Out First, turn the steering wheel left and right. That will clear the area around the front wheels. If your vehicle has the enhanced traction system (ETS), you should turn the ETS off. See Enhanced Traction System (ETS) on page 226. Then shift back and forth between REVERSE (R) and a forward gear, or with a manual transaxle, between FIRST (1) or SECOND (2) and REVERSE (R), spinning the wheels as little as possible. Release the accelerator pedal while you shift, and press lightly on the accelerator pedal when the transaxle is in gear. By slowly spinning the wheels in the forward and reverse directions, you will cause a rocking motion that may free your vehicle. If that does not get your vehicle out after a few tries, it may need to be towed out. If your vehicle does need to be towed out, see Towing Your Vehicle on page 256.

Loading Your Vehicle It is very important to know how much weight your vehicle can carry. This weight is called the vehicle capacity weight and includes the weight of all occupants, cargo, and all nonfactory-installed options. Two labels on your vehicle show how much weight it may properly carry, the Tire and Loading Information label and the Certification/Tire label. Two labels on your vehicle show how much weight it may properly carry, the Tire and Loading Information label and the Vehicle Certification label.


Do not load your vehicle any heavier than the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR), or either the maximum front or rear Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR). If you do, parts on your vehicle can break, and it can change the way your vehicle handles. These could cause you to lose control and crash. Also, overloading can shorten the life of your vehicle.


Tire and Loading Information Label

The Tire and Loading Information label also lists the tire size of the original equipment tires (C) and the recommended cold tire inflation pressures (D). For more information on tires and inflation, see Tires on page 328 and Inflation - Tire Pressure on page 337. There is also important loading information on the Certification label. It tells you the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) and the Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) for the front and rear axle, see “Certification Label” later in this section.

Label Example

A vehicle specific Tire and Loading Information label is attached to the vehicle’s center pillar (B-pillar). With the driver’s door open, you will find the label attached below the door lock post (striker). The Tire and Loading Information label lists the number of occupant seating positions (A), and the maximum vehicle capacity weight (B) in kilograms and pounds.


Steps for Determining Correct Load Limit 1. Locate the statement “The combined

weight of occupants and cargo should never exceed XXX kg or XXX lbs” on your vehicle’s placard.

2. Determine the combined weight of the driver

and passengers that will be riding in your vehicle.

3. Subtract the combined weight of the driver and passengers from XXX kg or XXX lbs.

4. The resulting figure equals the available

amount of cargo and luggage load capacity. For example, if the “XXX” amount equals 1400 lbs and there will be five 150 lb passengers in your vehicle, the amount of available cargo and luggage load capacity is 650 lbs (1400 − 750 (5 x 150) = 650 lbs).

5. Determine the combined weight of luggage and cargo being loaded on the vehicle. That weight may not safely exceed the available cargo and luggage load capacity calculated in Step 4.

6. If your vehicle will be towing a trailer, the load

from your trailer will be transferred to your vehicle. Consult this manual to determine how this reduces the available cargo and luggage load capacity for your vehicle.

If your vehicle can tow a trailer, see Towing a Trailer on page 259 for important information on towing a trailer, towing safety rules, and trailering tips.


Example 1

Example 2


Description Maximum Vehicle Capacity Weight for Example 1 = Subtract Occupant Weight 150 lbs (68 kg) × 2 = Available Occupant and Cargo Weight =



1,000 lbs (453 kg)

300 lbs (136 kg)

700 lbs (317 kg)

Description Maximum Vehicle Capacity Weight for Example 2 = Subtract Occupant Weight 150 lbs (68 kg) × 5 = Available Cargo Weight =


1,000 lbs (453 kg)

750 lbs (340 kg)

250 lbs (113 kg)


Certification Label

Example 3


Description Maximum Vehicle Capacity Weight for Example 3 = Subtract Occupant Weight 200 lbs (91 kg) × 5 = Available Cargo Weight =


1,000 lbs (453 kg)

1,000 lbs (453 kg)

0 lbs (0 kg)

Refer to your vehicle’s Tire and Loading Information label for specific information about your vehicle’s maximum vehicle capacity weight and seating positions. The combined weight of the driver, passengers, and cargo should never exceed your vehicle’s maximum vehicle capacity weight.


A vehicle specific Certification label is found on the rear edge of the driver’s door. The label shows the gross weight capacity of your vehicle, called the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR). The GVWR includes the weight of the vehicle, all occupants, fuel, cargo, and tongue weight if pulling a trailer. Never exceed the GVWR for your vehicle or the Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) for either the front or rear axle.



Do not load your vehicle any heavier than the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR), or either the maximum front or rear Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR). If you do, parts on your vehicle can break, and it can change the way your vehicle handles. These could cause you to lose control and crash. Also, overloading can shorten the life of your vehicle.

Notice: Overloading your vehicle may cause damage. Repairs would not be covered by your warranty. Do not overload your vehicle. If things like suitcases, tools, packages, or anything else are put inside the vehicle, they will go as fast as the vehicle goes. If you have to stop or turn quickly, or if there is a crash, they will keep going.

Things you put inside your vehicle can strike and injure people in a sudden stop or turn, or in a crash.

(cid:129) Put things in the trunk of your vehicle. In a trunk, put them as far forward as you can. Try to spread the weight evenly.

(cid:129) Never stack heavier things, like

suitcases, inside the vehicle so that some of them are above the tops of the seats.

(cid:129) Do not leave an unsecured child

restraint in your vehicle.

(cid:129) When you carry something inside the vehicle, secure it whenever you can.

(cid:129) Do not leave a seat folded down

unless you need to.



Towing Your Vehicle Consult your retailer or a professional towing service if you need to have your disabled vehicle towed. See Roadside Assistance Program on page 415. If you want to tow your vehicle behind another vehicle for recreational purposes (such as behind a motorhome), see “Recreational Vehicle Towing” following.

Recreational Vehicle Towing Recreational vehicle towing means towing your vehicle behind another vehicle – such as behind a motorhome. The two most common types of recreational vehicle towing are known as “dinghy towing” (towing your vehicle with all four wheels on the ground) and “dolly towing” (towing your vehicle with two wheels on the ground and two wheels up on a device known as a “dolly”).

With the proper preparation and equipment, many vehicles can be towed in these ways. See “Dinghy Towing” and “Dolly Towing” following in this section. Here are some important things to consider before you do recreational vehicle towing: (cid:129) What is the towing capacity of the towing vehicle? Be sure you read the tow vehicle manufacturer’s recommendations.

(cid:129) How far will you tow? Some vehicles have restrictions on how far and how long they can tow.

(cid:129) Do you have the proper towing equipment?

See your retailer or trailering professional for additional advice and equipment recommendations. Is your vehicle ready to be towed? Just as you would prepare your vehicle for a long trip, you will want to make sure your vehicle is prepared to be towed. See Before Leaving on a Long Trip on page 241.


(cid:129) Dinghy Towing (All Transaxles) Notice: Dolly towing or dinghy towing your vehicle may cause damage because of reduced ground clearance. Always tow your vehicle using the dolly towing or dinghy towing procedure listed in this section or put your vehicle on a flatbed truck.

To tow your vehicle from the front with all four wheels on the ground, do the following: 1. Set the parking brake. 2. Turn the ignition key to ACC (Accessory) to

unlock the steering wheel.

If you exceed 65 mph (105 km/h) while

3. Shift your transaxle to NEUTRAL. 4. Release the parking brake. To prevent battery rundown on long trips, remove the IP BATT 2 fuse (#41) from the engine compartment fuse block. See Engine Compartment Fuse Block on page 378 for more information. Once you have reached your destination, be sure to replace this fuse back into its original location. Notice: towing your vehicle, it could be damaged. Never exceed 65 mph (105 km/h) while towing your vehicle. Notice: Towing your vehicle from the rear could damage it. Also, repairs would not be covered by the warranty. Never have your vehicle towed from the rear. Notice: Don’t tow a vehicle with the front drive wheels on the ground if one of the front tires is a compact spare tire. Towing with two different tire sizes on the front of the vehicle can cause severe damage to the transaxle.


Dolly Towing (All Transaxles) Notice: Dolly towing or dinghy towing your vehicle may cause damage because of reduced ground clearance. Always tow your vehicle using the dolly towing or dinghy towing procedure listed in this section or put your vehicle on a flatbed truck.

To tow your vehicle from the front with two wheels on the ground, do the following: 1. Put the front wheels on a dolly. 2. If you have an automatic transaxle, shift the transaxle to PARK (P). If you have a manual transaxle, shift the vehicle to SECOND (2).

3. Set the parking brake and then remove

the key.

4. Clamp the steering wheel in a straight-ahead position with a clamping device designed for towing.

5. Release the parking brake.


Towing a Trailer


If you do not use the correct equipment and drive properly, you can lose control when you pull a trailer. For example, if the trailer is too heavy, the brakes may not work well — or even at all. You and your passengers could be seriously injured. You may also damage your vehicle; the resulting repairs would not be covered by your warranty. Pull a trailer only if you have followed all the steps in this section. Ask your retailer for advice and information about towing a trailer with your vehicle.

Notice: Pulling a trailer improperly can damage your vehicle and result in costly repairs not covered by your warranty. To pull a trailer correctly, follow the advice in this part and see your retailer for important information about towing a trailer with your vehicle.

Your vehicle can tow a trailer if it is equipped with the proper trailer towing equipment. To identify the trailering capacity of your vehicle, you should read the information in “Weight of the Trailer” that appears later in this section. Trailering is different than just driving your vehicle by itself. Trailering means changes in handling, durability and fuel economy. Successful, safe trailering takes correct equipment, and it has to be used properly. That is the reason for this part. In it are many time-tested, important trailering tips and safety rules. Many of these are important for your safety and that of your passengers. So please read this section carefully before you pull a trailer. Load-pulling components such as the engine, transaxle, rear axle, wheel assemblies and tires are forced to work harder against the drag of the added weight. The engine is required to operate at relatively higher speeds and under greater loads, generating extra heat. What is more, the trailer adds considerably to wind resistance, increasing the pulling requirements.


If You Do Decide to Pull a Trailer If you do, here are some important points: (cid:129) There are many different laws, including speed

limit restrictions, having to do with trailering. Make sure your rig will be legal, not only where you live but also where you’ll be driving. A good source for this information can be state or provincial police.

(cid:129) Consider using a sway control. You can ask a

hitch retailer about sway controls.

(cid:129) Do not tow a trailer at all during the first 1000 miles (1600 km) your new vehicle is driven. Your engine, axle or other parts could be damaged. The repairs would not be covered by your warranty.

(cid:129) Then, during the first 500 miles (805 km) that

you tow a trailer, do not drive over 50 mph (80 km/h) and don’t make starts at full throttle. This helps your engine and other parts of your vehicle wear in at the heavier loads.


(cid:129) Obey speed limit restrictions when towing a trailer. Do not drive faster than the maximum posted speed for trailers, or no more than 55 mph (90 km/h), to save wear on your vehicle’s parts.

(cid:129) Do not tow a trailer when the outside temperature is above 100°F (38°C).

Three important considerations have to do with weight:

the weight of the trailer, the weight of the trailer tongue and the total weight on your vehicle’s tires.

Weight of the Trailer How heavy can a trailer safely be? It should never weigh more than 1,000 lbs (454 kg). But even that can be too heavy. It depends on how you plan to use your rig. For example, speed, altitude, road grades, outside temperature and how much your vehicle is used to pull a trailer are all important. It can also depend on any special equipment that you have on your vehicle, and the amount of tongue weight the vehicle can carry. See “Weight of the Trailer Tongue” later in this section for more information.

(cid:129) (cid:129) (cid:129) Maximum trailer weight is calculated assuming only the driver is in the tow vehicle and it has all the required trailering equipment. The weight of additional optional equipment, passengers and cargo must be subtracted from the maximum trailer weight. You can ask your retailer for trailering information or advice. Weight of the Trailer Tongue The tongue load (A) of any trailer is an important weight to measure because it affects the total or gross weight of your vehicle. The Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) includes the curb weight of the vehicle, any cargo you may carry in it, and the people who will be riding in the vehicle. And if you tow a trailer, you must add the tongue load to the GVW because your vehicle will be carrying that weight, too. See Loading Your Vehicle on page 250 for more information about your vehicle’s maximum load capacity.

If you are using a weight-carrying hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 10 percent of the total loaded trailer weight (B). If you are using a weight-distributing hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 12 percent of the total loaded trailer weight (B). After you have loaded your trailer, weigh the trailer and then the tongue, separately, to see if the weights are proper. If they are not, you may be able to get them right simply by moving some items around in the trailer.


Total Weight on Your Vehicle’s Tires Be sure your vehicle’s tires are inflated to the upper limit for cold tires. You’ll find these numbers on the Tire-Loading Information label, See Loading Your Vehicle on page 250. Then be sure you don’t go over the GVW limit for your vehicle, including the weight of the trailer tongue. Hitches It’s important to have the correct hitch equipment. Crosswinds, large trucks going by and rough roads are a few reasons why you’ll need the right hitch. Here are some rules to follow: (cid:129) The rear bumper on your vehicle is not

intended for hitches. Do not attach rental hitches or other bumper-type hitches to it. Use only a frame-mounted hitch that does not attach to the bumper.

(cid:129) Will you have to make any holes in the body

of your vehicle when you install a trailer hitch? If you do, then be sure to seal the holes later when you remove the hitch. If you do not seal them, deadly carbon monoxide (CO) from your exhaust can get into your vehicle. See Engine Exhaust on page 120. Dirt and water can, too.


Safety Chains You should always attach chains between your vehicle and your trailer. Cross the safety chains under the tongue of the trailer so that the tongue will not drop to the road if it becomes separated from the hitch. Instructions about safety chains may be provided by the hitch manufacturer or by the trailer manufacturer. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendation for attaching safety chains and do not attach them to the bumper. Always leave just enough slack so you can turn with your rig. And, never allow safety chains to drag on the ground. Trailer Brakes If your vehicle has anti-lock brakes, do not try to tap into your vehicle’s hydraulic brake system. If you do, both brake systems won’t work well, or at all. Be sure to read and follow the instructions for the trailer brakes, so you will be able to install, adjust and maintain them properly.

Driving with a Trailer Towing a trailer requires a certain amount of experience. Before setting out for the open road, you’ll want to get to know your rig. Acquaint yourself with the feel of handling and braking with the added weight of the trailer. And always keep in mind that the vehicle you are driving is now a good deal longer and not nearly as responsive as your vehicle is by itself. Before you start, check the trailer hitch and platform (and attachments), safety chains, electrical connector, lamps, tires and mirror adjustment. If the trailer has electric brakes, start your vehicle and trailer moving and then apply the trailer brake controller by hand to be sure the brakes are working. This lets you check your electrical connection at the same time. During your trip, check occasionally to be sure that the load is secure, and that the lamps and any trailer brakes are still working.

Following Distance Stay at least twice as far behind the vehicle ahead as you would when driving your vehicle without a trailer. This can help you avoid situations that require heavy braking and sudden turns. Passing You will need more passing distance up ahead when you’re towing a trailer. And, because you’re a good deal longer when towing a trailer, you will need to go much farther beyond the passed vehicle before you can return to your lane. Backing Up Hold the bottom of the steering wheel with one hand. Then, to move the trailer to the left, just move that hand to the left. To move the trailer to the right, move your hand to the right. Always back up slowly and, if possible, have someone guide you.