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alcohol or drugs, with night vision problems, or by fatigue. Here are some tips on night driving.


Drive defensively. Remember, this is the most dangerous time. Don’t drink and drive. (See the Index under Drunken Driving for more on this problem.) Adjust your inside rearview mirror to reduce the glare from headlights behind you.


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Driving at Night (CONT.:) Since you can’t see as well, you may need to slow down and keep more space between you and other vehicles. It’s hard to tell how fast the vehicle ahead is going just by looking at its taillights. Slow down, especially on higher speed roads, Your headlights can light up only so much road ahead. In remote areas, watch for animals. If you’re tired, pull off the road in a safe place and rest.


Night Hsion No one can see as well at night as in the daytime. But as we get older these differences increase. A 50-year-old driver may require at least twice as much light to see the same thing at night as a 20-year-old. What you do in the daytime can also affect your night vision. For example, if you spend the day in bright sunshine you are wise to wear sunglasses. Your eyes will have less trouble adjusting to night. But if you’re driving, don’t wear sunglasses at night. They may cut down on glare from headlights, but they also make a lot of things invisible that should remain visible-such as parked cars, obstacles, pedestrians, or even trains blocking railway crossings. You may want to put on your sunglasses after you have pulled into a brightly-lighted service or refreshment area. Eyes


shielded from that glare may adjust more quickly to darkness back on the road. But be sure to remove your sunglasses before you leave the service area. You can be temporarily blinded by approaching lights. It can take a second or two, or even several seconds, for your eyes to readjust to the dark. When you are faced with severe glare (as from a driver who doesn’t lower the high beams, or a vehicle with misaimed headlights), slow down a little. Avoid staring directly into the approaching lights. If there is a line of opposing traffic, make occasional glances over the line of headlights to make certain that one of the vehicles isn’t starting to move into your lane. Once you are past the bright lights, give your eyes time to readjust before resuming speed.


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High Beams If the vehicle approaching you has its high beams on, signal by flicking yours to high and then back to low beam. This is the usual signal to lower the headlight beams. If the other driver still doesn’t lower the beams, resist the temptation to put your high beams on. This only makes two half-blinded drivers. On a freeway, use your high beams only in remote areas where you won’t impair approaching drivers. In some places, like cities, using high beams is illegal. When you follow another vehicle on a freeway or highway, use low beams. True, most vehicles now have day-night mirrors that enable the driver to reduce glare. But outside mirrors are not of this type and high beams from behind can bother the driver ahead.


A Few More Night Driving Suggestions Keep your windshield and all the glass on your vehicle clean-inside and out. Glare at night is made much worse by dirt on the glass. Even the inside of the glass can build up a film caused by dust. Tobacco smoke also makes inside glass surfaces very filmy and can be a vision hazard if it’s left there. Dirty glass makes lights dazzle and flash more than clean glass would, making the pupils of your eyes contract repeatedly. You might even want to keep a cloth and some glass cleaner in your vehicle if you need to clean your glass frequently.


Remember that your headlights light up far less of a roadway when you are in a turn or curve. Keep your eyes moving; that way, it’s easier to pick out dimly lighted objects. Just as your headlights should be checked regularly for proper aim, so should your eyes be examined regularly. Some drivers suffer from night blindness-the inability to see in dim light-and aren’t even aware of it.


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Driving in the Rain Rain and wet roads can mean driving trouble. On a wet road you can’t stop, accelerate or turn as well because your tire-to-road traction isn’t as good as on dry roads. And, if your tires don’t have much tread left, you’ll get even less traction. It’s always wise to go slower and be cautious if rain starts to fall while you are driving. The surface may get wet suddenly when your reflexes are tuned for driving on dry pavement. The heavier the rain, the harder it is to see. Even if your windshield wiper blades are in good shape, a heavy rain can make it harder to see road signs and traffic signals, pavement markings, the edge of the road, and even people


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walking. Road spray can often be worse for vision than rain, especially if it comes from a dirty road. So it is wise to keep your wiping equipment in good shape and keep your windshield washer tank filled. Replace your windshield wiper inserts when they show signs of streaking or missing areas on the windshield, or when strips of rubber start to separate from the inserts.


Driving too fast through large water puddles or even going through some car washes can cause problems, too. The water may affect your brakes. Try to avoid puddles. But if you can’t, try to slow down before you hit them.


u I I (


l accidents. They won’t work in a quick stop and may cause


\ Wet brakes can cause pulling to one side. You could lose control of the vehicle. After driving through a large puddle of water or a car wash, apply your brake pedal lightly until your brakes work normally.


Hydroplaning Hydroplaning is dangerous. So much water can build up under your tires that they can actually ride on the water. This can happen if the road is wet enough and you’re going fast enough. When your vehicle is hydroplaning, it has little or no contact with the road. You might not be aware of hydroplaning. You could drive along for some time without realizing your tires aren’t in constant contact with the road. You could find out the hard way: when you have to slow, turn, move out to pass-or if you get hit by a gust of wind. You could suddenly find yourself out of control.


Hydroplaning doesn’t happen often. But it can if your tires haven’t much tread or if the pressure in one or more is low. It can happen if a lot of water is standing on the road. If you can see reflections from trees, telephone poles, or other vehicles, and raindrops “dimple” the water’s surface, there could be hydroplaning. Hydroplaning usually happens at higher speeds. There just isn’t a hard and fast rule about hydroplaning. The best advice is to slow down when it is raining, and be careful.


Some Other Rainy Weather Tips Turn on your headlights-not just your parking lights-to help make you more visible to others. Look for hard-to-see vehicles coming from behind. You may want to use your headlights even in daytime if it’s raining hard. Besides slowing down, allow some extra following distance. And be especially careful when you pass another vehicle. Allow yourself more clear room ahead, and be prepared to have your view restricted by road spray. If the road spray is so heavy you are actually blinded, drop back. Don’t pass until conditions improve. Going more slowly is better than having an accident. Use your defogger if it helps. Have good tires with proper tread depth. (See the Index under Tires.)


Your Driving and the Road


Driving in Fog, Mist and Haze Fog can occur with high humidity or heavy frost. It can be so mild that you can see through it for several hundred feet (meters). Or it might be so thick that you can see only a few feet (meters) ahead. It may come suddenly to an otherwise clear road. And it can be a major hazard. When you drive into a fog patch, your visibility will be reduced quickly. The biggest dangers are striking the vehicle ahead or being struck by the one behind. Try to “read” the fog density down the road. If the vehicle ahead starts to become less clear or, at night, if the taillights are harder to see, the fog is probably thickening. Slow down to give traffic behind you a chance to slow down. 170


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Everybody then has a better chance to avoid hitting the vehicle ahead. A patch of dense fog may extend only for a few feet (meters) or for miles (kilometers); you can’t really tell while you’re in it. You can only treat the situation with extreme care. One common fog condition-sometimes called mist or ground fog-can happen in weather that seems perfect, especially at night or in the early morning in valley and low, marshy areas. You can be suddenly enveloped in thick, wet haze that may even coat your windshield. You can often spot these fog patches or mist layers with your headlights. But sometimes they can be waiting for you as you come over a hill or dip into a shallow valley. Start your windshield wipers and washer to help clear accumulated road dirt. Slow down carefully.


Tips on Driving in Fog If you get caught in fog, turn your headlights on low beam, even in daytime. You’ll see-and be seen- better. Use your fog lights. Don’t use your high beams. The light will bounce off the water droplets that make up fog and reflect back at you. Use your defogger. In high humidity, even a light buildup of moisture on the inside of the glass will cut down on your already limited visibility. Run your windshield wipers and washer occasionally. Moisture can build up on the outside glass, and what seems to be fog may actually be moisture on the outside of your windshield. Treat dense fog as an emergency. Try to find a place to pull off the road. Of course you want to respect another’s property, but you might need to put


trees, telephone poles,


something between you and moving vehicles-space, a private driveway, anything that removes you from other traffic. If visibility is near zero and you must stop but are unsure whether you are away from the road, turn your lights on, start your hazard warning flashers, and sound your horn at intervals or when you hear approaching traffic. Pass other vehicles in fog only if you can see far enough ahead to pass safely. Even then, be prepared to delay your pass if you suspect the fog is worse up ahead. If other vehicles try to pass you, make it easy for them.


City Driving One of the biggest problems with city streets is the amount of traffic on them. You’ll want to watch out for what the other drivers are doing and pay attention to traffic signals. Here are ways to increase your safety in city driving:


Know the best way to get to where you are going. Try not to drive around trying to pick out a familiar street or landmark. Get a city map and plan your trip into an unknown part of the city just as you would for a cross- country trip. Try to use the freeways that rim and crisscross most large cities. You’ll save time and energy. (See the next section, Freeway Driving.)


Treat a green light as a warning signal. A traffic light is there because the corner is busy enough to need it. When a light turns green, and just before you start to move, check both ways for vehicles that have not cleared the intersection or may be running the red light. Obey all posted speed limits. But remember that they are for ideal road, weather and visibility conditions. You may need to drive below the posted limit in bad weather or when visibility is especially poor. Pull to the right (with care) and stop clear of intersections when you see or hear emergency vehicles.


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Fmeway Driving Mile for mile, freeways (also called thruways, parkways, expressways, turnpikes, or superhighways) are the safest of all roads. But they have their own special rules. The most important advice on freeway driving is: Keep up with traffic and keep to the right. Drive at the same speed most of the other drivers are driving. Too-fast or too-slow driving breaks a smooth traffic flow. Treat the left lane on a freeway as a passing lane.


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Entering the Freeway At the entrance there is usually a ramp that leads to the freeway. If you have a clear view of the freeway as you drive along the entrance ramp, you should begin to check traffic. Try to determine where you expect to blend with the flow. If traffic is light, you may have no problem. But if it is heavy, find a gap as you move along the entering lane and time your approach. Try to merge into the gap at close to the prevailing speed. Switch on your turn signal, check your rearview mirrors as you move along, and glance over your shoulder as often as necessary. Try to blend smoothly with the traffic flow.


Driving on the Freeway Once you are on the freeway, adjust your speed to the posted limit or to the prevailing rate if it’s slower. Stay in the right lane unless you want to pass. If you are on a two-lane freeway, treat the right lane as the slow lane and the left lane as the passing lane. If you are on a three-lane freeway, treat the right lane as the slower-speed through lane, the middle lane as the higher-speed through lane, and the left lane as the passing lane. Before changing lanes, check your rearview mirrors. Then use your turn signal. Just before you leave the lane, glance quickly over your shoulder to make sure there isn’t another vehicle in your “blind” spot.


If you are moving from an outside to a center lane on a freeway having more than two lanes, make sure another vehicle isn't about to move into the same spot. Look at the vehicles two lanes over and watch for telltale signs: turn signals flashing, an increase in speed, or moving toward the edge of the lane. Be prepared to delay your move. Once you are moving on the freeway, make certain you allow a reasonable following distance. Expect to move slightly slower at night.


Leaving the Freeway When you want to leave the freeway, move to the proper lane well in advance. Dashing across lanes at the last minute is dangerous. If you miss your exit do not, under any circumstances, stop and back up. Drive on to the next exit. At each exit point is a deceleration lane. Ideally it should be long enough for you to enter it at freeway speed (after signaling, of course) and then do your braking before moving onto the exit ramp. Unfortunately, not all deceleration lanes are long enough-some are too short for all the braking. Decide when to start braking. If you must brake on the through lane, and if there is traffic close behind you, you can allow a little


extra time and flash your brake lights (in addition to your turn signal) as extra warning that you are about to slow down and exit. The exit ramp can be curved, sometimes quite sharply. The exit speed is usually posted. Reduce your speed according to your speedometer, not to your sense of motion. After driving for any distance at higher speeds, you may tend to think you are going slower than you actually are. For example, 40 mph (65 km/h) might seem like only 20 mph (32 W h ) . Obviously, this could lead to serious trouble on a ramp designed for 20 mph (32 km/h)!


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Driving a Long Distance Although most long trips today are made on freeways, there are still many made on regular highways. Long-distance driving on freeways and regular highways is the same in some ways. The trip has to be planned and the vehicle prepared, you drive at higher- than-city speeds, and there are longer turns behind the wheel. You’ll enjoy your trip more if you and your vehicle are in good shape. Here are some tips for a successful long trip.


Before Leaving on a Long Trip Make sure you’re ready. Try to be well rested. If you must start when you’re not fresh-such as after a day’s work-don’t plan to make too many miles that first part of the journey. Wear comfortable clothing and shoes you can easily drive in. Is your vehicle ready for a long trip? If you keep it serviced and maintained, it’s ready to go. If it needs service, have it done before starting out. Of course, you’ll find experienced and able service experts in Pontiac dealerships all across North America. They’ll be ready and willing to help if you need it.


Here are some things you can check before a trip:


Windshield Washer Fluid: Is the reservoir full? Are all windows clean inside and outside? Wiper Blades: Are they in good shape? Fuel, Engine Oil, Other Fluids: Have you checked all levels? Lights: Are they all working? Are the lenses clean? Tires: They are vitally important to a safe, trouble-free trip. Is the tread good enough for long-distance driving? Are the tires all inflated to the recommended pressure? Weather Forecasts: What’s the weather outlook along your route? Should you delay your trip a short time to avoid a major storm system? Maps: Do you have up-to-date maps?


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3n the Road Mess you are the only driver, it is ;ood to share the driving task with Ithers. Limit turns behind the wheel to ibout 100 miles (160 km) or two hours it a sitting. Then, either change drivers x stop for some refreshment like coffee, :ea or soft drinks and some limbering lp. But do stop and move around. Eat lightly along the way. Heavier meals :end to make some people sleepy. 3 n two-lane highways or undivided multilane highways that do not have ;ontrolled access, you’ll want to watch for some situations not usually found on freeways. Examples are: stop signs and signals, shopping centers with direct access to the highway, no passing zones and school zones, vehicles turning left and right off the road, pedestrians, cyclists, parked vehicles, and even animals.


Highway Hypnosis Is there actually such a condition as “highway hypnosis”? Or is it just plain falling asleep at the wheel? Call it highway hypnosis, lack of awareness, o whatever. There is something about an easy stretch of road with the same scenery, along with the hum of the tires on the road, the drone of the engine, and the rush of the wind against the vehicle that can make you sleepy. Don’t let it happen to you! If it does, your vehicle can leave the road in less than a second, and you could crash and be injured. What can you do about highway hypnosis? First, be aware that it can happen. Then here are some tips:


Mike sure your vehicle is well ventilated, with a comfortably cool interior.


Keep your eyes moving. Scan the road ahead and to the sides. Check your rearview mirrors frequently and your instruments from time to time. This can help you avoid a fixed stare. Wear good sunglasses in bright light. Glare can cause drowsiness. But don’t wear sunglasses at night. They will drastically reduce your overall vision at the very time you need all the seeing power you have. If you get sleepy, pull off the road into a rest, service, or parking area and take a nap, get some exercise, or both. For safety, treat drowsiness on the highway as an emergency.


As in any driving situation, keep pace with traffic and allow adequate following distances.


Your Driving and the Road


If you don’t shift down, your brakes could get so hot that


they wouldn’t work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Shift down to let your engine assist your brakes on a steep downhill slope.


I CAUTION


Know how to go uphill. Shift down to D (Drive). This will help cool your engine and transaxle, and you can climb the hill better. Stay in your own lane when driving on two-lane roads in hills or mountains. Don’t swing wide or cut across the center of the road. Drive at speeds that let you stay in your own lane. That way, you won’t be surprised by a vehicle coming toward you in the same lane. It takes longer to pass another vehicle when you’re going uphill. You’ll want to leave extra room to pass. If a vehicle is passing you and doesn’t have enough room, slow down to make it easier for the other vehicle to get by.


Hi// and Mountain Roads Driving on steep hills or mountains is different from driving in flat or rolling terrain. If you drive regularly in steep country, or if you’re planning to visit there, here are some tips that can make your trips safer and more enjoyable. Keep your vehicle in good shape. Check all fluid levels and also the brakes, tires, cooling system and transaxle. These parts can work hard on mountain roads. Know how to go down hills. The most important thing to know is this: let your engine do some of the slowing down. Don’t make your brakes do it all. Shift to a lower gear when you go down a steep or long hill. That way, you will slow down without excessive use of your brakes.


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As you go over the top of a hill, be alert. There could be something in your lane, like a stalled car or an accident. You may see highway signs on mountains that warn of special problems. Examples are long grades, passing or no passing zones, a falling rocks area, or winding roads. Be alert to these and take appropriate action. Winter driving can present special problems. See the Index under Winter Driving.


Parking on Hills Hills and mountains mean spectacular scenery. But please be careful where you stop if you decide to look at the view or take pictures. Look for pull-offs or parking areas provided for scenic viewing. Another part of this manual tells how to use your parking brake (see the I d e x under Parking Brake). But on a mountain or steep hill, you can do one more thing. You can turn your front wheels to keep your vehicle from rolling downhill or out into traffic. Here’s how :


Parking Downhill Turn your wheels to the right. You don’t have to j a m your tires against the curb, if there is a curb. A gentle contact is all you need.


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Parking on Hills (CONI:) Parking Uphill If there is a curb, turn your wheels to the left if the curb is at the right side of your vehicle.


If you’re going uphill on a one-way street and you’re parking on the left side, your wheels should point to the right.


If there is no curb when you’re parking uphill, turn the wheels to the right. If there is no curb when you’re parking uphill on the left side of a one-way street, your wheels should be turned to the left.


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Toque Lock If you are parking on a hill and you don’t shift your transaxle into P (Park) properly, the weight of the vehicle may put too much force on the parking pawl in the transaxle. You may find it difficult to pull the shift lever out of P (Park). This is called “torque lock.” To prevent torque lock, always be sure to shift into P (Park) properly before you leave the driver’s seat. To find out how, see the Index under Shifing Into P (Park). When you are ready to drive, move the shift lever out of P (Park) before you release the parking brake. If torque lock does occur, you may need to have another vehicle push yours a little uphill to take some of the pressure from the transaxle, so you can pull the shift lever out of P (Park).


Winter Driving Here are some tips for winter driving: Have your Pontiac in good shape for winter. Be sure your engine coolant mix is correct. Snow tires can help in loose snow, but they may give you less traction on ice than regular tires. If you do not expect to be driving in deep snow, but may have to travel over ice, you may not want to switch to snow tires at all.


You may want to put winter emergency supplies in your trunk. Include an ice scraper, a small brush or broom, a supply of windshield washer fluid, a rag, some winter outer clothing, a small shovel, a flashlight, a red cloth, and a couple of reflective warning triangles. And, if you will be driving under severe conditions, include a small bag of sand, a piece of old carpet or a couple of burlap bags to help provide traction. Be sure you properly secure these items in your vehicle.


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Driving on Snow or Ice Most of the time, those places where your tires meet the road probably have good traction. However, if there is snow or ice between your tires and the road, you can have a very slippery situation. You’ll have a lot less traction or “grip” and will need to be very careful. What’s the worst time for this? “Wet ice.” Very cold snow or ice can be slick and hard to drive on. But wet ice can be even more trouble because it may offer the least traction of all. You can get “wet” ice when it’s about freezing (32°F; OOC) and freezing rain begins to fall. Try to avoid driving on wet ice until salt and sand crews can get there.


Whatever the condition-smooth ice, packed, blowing or loose snow-drive with caution. Accelerate gently. Try not to break the fragile traction. If you accelerate too fast, the drive wheels will spin and polish the surface under the tires even more. If you have the traction control system, it will improve your ability to accelerate when driving on a slippery road. Even though your vehicle has a traction control system, you’ll want to slow down and adjust your driving to the road conditions. See the Index under Traction Control. Your anti-lock brakes improve your ability to make a hard stop on a slippery road. Even though you have the anti- lock braking system, you’ll want to begin stopping sooner than you would


on dry pavement. See the I d e x under Anti-Lock Brake System.


Allow greater following distance on any slippery road. Watch for slippery spots. The road might be fine until you hit a spot that’s covered with ice. On an otherwise clear road, ice patches may appear in shaded areas where the sun can’t reach: around clumps of trees, behind buildings, or under bridges. Sometimes the surface of a curve or an overpass may remain icy when the surrounding roads are clear. If you see a patch of ice ahead of you, brake before you are on it. Try not to brake while you’re actually on the ice, and avoid sudden steering maneuvers.


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If You’re Caught in a Bli’ard If you are stopped by heavy snow, you could be in a serious situation. You should probably stay with your vehicle unless you know for sure that you are near help and you can hike through the snow. Here are some things to do to summon help and keep yourself and your passengers safe:


Turn on your hazard flashers. Tie a red cloth to your vehicle to alert police that you’ve been stopped by the snow.


Put on extra clothing or wrap a blanket around you. If you have no blankets or extra clothing, make body insulators from newspapers, burlap bags, rags, floor mats-anything you can wrap around yourself or tuck under your clothing to keep warm. You can run the engine to keep warm, but be careful.


cause deadly CO (carbon monoxide) gas to get inside. CO could overcome you and kill you. You can’t see it or smell it, so you might not know it was in your vehicle. Clear away snow from around the base of your vehicle, especially any that is blocking your exhaust pipe. And check around again from time to time to be sure snow doesn’t collect there. Open a window just a little on the side of the vehicle that’s away from the wind. This will help keep CO out.


Your Driving and the Road


If bu’re Caught in a Blizzard (CONT)


Run your engine only as long as you must. This saves fuel. When you run the engine, make it go a little faster than just idle. That is, push the accelerator slightly. This uses less fuel for the heat that you get and it keeps the battery charged. You will need a well-charged battery to restart the vehicle and possibly for signaling later on with your headlights. Let the heater run for a while.


Then, shut the engine off and close the window almost all the way to preserve the heat. Start the engine again and repeat this only when you feel really uncomfortable from the cold. But do it as little as possible. Preserve the fuel as long as you can. To help keep warm, you can get out of the vehicle and do some fairly vigorous exercises every half-hour or so until help comes.


If You’re Stuck in Deep Snow This manual explains how to get the vehicle out of deep snow without damaging it. See the Index under Rocking Your Whicle.


Towing a Tmiler


If you don't use the correct \ equipment and drive properly, you can lose control when you pull a trailer. For example, if the trailer is too heavy, the brakes may not work well-or even at all. You and your passengers could be seriously injured. Pull a trailer only if you have followed all the steps in this section.


NOTICE


I I; Pulling a trailer improperly can : __ damage your vehicle and result in' ; ' costly repairs not covered by your


follow the advice in this section.


Your Pontiac can tow a trailer, unless it is equipped with the 3800 Supercharged Engine (Code 1). Do not attempt to tow a trailer if equipped with the 3800 Supercharged Engine (Code 1). To identify what the vehicle trailering capacity is for your vehicle, you should read the information in Weight of the Trailer that appears later in this section. But trailering is different than just driving your vehicle by itself. Trailering means changes in handling, durability, and fuel economy. Successful, safe


trailering takes correct equipment, and it has to be used properly. That's the reason for this section. In it are many time-tested, important trailering tips and safety rules. Many of these are important for your safety and that of your passengers. So please read this section carefully before you pull a trailer. Load-pulling components such as the engine, transaxle, wheel assemblies, and tires are forced to work harder against the drag of the added weight. The engine is required to operate at relatively higher speeds and under greater loads, generating extra heat. What's more, the trailer adds considerably to wind resistance, increasing the pulling requirements.


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If bu Do Decide to Pulla Trailer If you do, here are some important points.


There are many different laws having to do with trailering. Make sure your rig will be legal, not only where you live but also where you’ll be driving. A good source for this information can be state or provincial police. Consider using a sway control if your trailer will weigh 2,000 pounds (900 kg) or less. You should always use a sway control if your trailer will weigh more than 2,000 pounds (900 kg). You can ask a hitch dealer about sway controls. Don’t tow a trailer at all during the first 500 miles (804 km) your new vehicle is driven. Your engine, axle or other parts could be damaged.


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Then, during the first 500 miles (804 km) that you tow a trailer, don’t drive over 50 mph (80 km/h) and don’t make starts at full throttle. This helps your engine and other parts of your vehicle wear in at the heavier loads. Three important considerations have to do with weight:


Weight of the Trailer How heavy can a trailer safely be? It should never weigh more than 1,000 pounds (450 kg) unless you have the special optional 3,000 pound (1 360 kg) towing package. But even that can be too heavy. It depends on how you plan to use your rig. For example, speed, altitude, road grades, outside temperature and how much your vehicle is used to pull a trailer are all important. And, it can also depend on any special equipment that you have on your vehicle. You can ask your dealer for our trailering information or advice, or write us at:


Pontiac Customer Services


Department


One Pontiac Plaza Pontiac, Michigan 48340-2952


In Canada, write to:


General Motors of Canada Limited Customer Assistance Center 1908 Colonel Sam Drive Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 8P7


Weight of the nailer Tongue The tongue load (A) of any trailer is an important weight to measure because it affects the total, gross weight of your vehicle. The gross vehicle weight (GVW) includes the curb weight of the vehicle, any cargo you may carry in it, and the people who will be riding in the vehicle. And if you will tow a trailer, you must add the tongue load to the GVW because your vehicle will be carrying that weight, too. See the Index under Loading Your &hide for more information about your vehicle’s maximum load capacity.


If your vehicle is not equipped to tow a trailer weighing more than 2,000 pounds (900 kg), the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 10% of the total loaded trailer weight (B). If your vehicle is equipped with the optional 3,000 pound (1 360 kg) towing package, and you’re using a “dead- weight” hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 10% of the total loaded trailer weight (B). Or, if you have a “weight-distributing” hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 12% of the total loaded trailer weight (B). After you’ve loaded your trailer, weigh the trailer and then the tongue, separately, to see if the weights are proper. If they aren’t, you may be able to get them right simply by moving some items around in the trailer.


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If bu Do Decide to Pull a Trailer (CONT.) Total Weight on Your Vehicle’s Tires Be sure your vehicle’s tires are inflated to the limit for cold tires. You will find these numbers on the Certification label at the rear edge of the driver’s door (or, see the Index under 7ire Loading). Then be sure you don’t go over the GVW limit for your vehicle.


Hitches It’s important to have the correct hitch equipment. Crosswinds, large trucks going by, and rough roads are a few reasons why you’ll need the right hitch. Here are some rules to follow:


If you’ll be pulling a trailer that, when loaded, will weigh more than 2,000 pounds (900 kg), be sure to use a properly mounted, weight-distributing hitch and sway control of the proper size. This equipment is very important for proper vehicle loading and good handling when you’re driving.


Will you have to make any holes in the body of your vehicle, when you install a trailer hitch? If you do, then be sure to seal the holes later when you remove the hitch. If you don’t seal them, deadly carbon monoxide (CO) from your exhaust can get into your vehicle. (See the Index under Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust.) Dirt and water can, too. The bumpers on your vehicle are not intended for hitches. Do not attach rental hitches or other bumper-type hitches to them. Use only a frame- mounted hitch that does not attach to the bumper.


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Safety Chains You should always attach chains between your vehicle and your trailer. Cross the safety chains under the tongue of the trailer so that the tongue will not drop to the road if it becomes separated from the hitch. Instructions about safety chains may be provided by the hitch manufacturer or by the trailer manufacturer. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendation for attaching safety chains. Always leave just enough slack so you can turn with your rig. And, never allow safety chains to drag on the ground.


Tiai/er Brakes If your trailer weighs more than 1000 pounds (450 kg) loaded, then it needs its own brakes-and they must be adequate. Be sure to read and follow the instructions for the trailer brakes so you’ll be able to install, adjust and maintain them properly. Because you have anti-lock brakes, do not try to tap into your vehicle’s brake system. If you do, both brake systems won’t work well, or at all.


Driving witb a Traiiler Towing a trailer requires a certain amount of experience. Before setting out for the open road, you’ll want to get to know your rig. Acquaint yourself with the feel of handling and braking with the added weight of the trailer. And always keep in mind that the vehicle you are driving is now a good deal longer and not nearly so responsive as your vehicle is by itself. Before you start, check the trailer hitch and platform, safety chains, electrical connector, lights, tires and mirror adjustment. If the trailer has electric brakes, start your vehicle and trailer moving and then apply the trailer brake controller by hand to be sure the brakes are working. This lets you check your electrical connection at the same time. During your trip, check occasionally to be sure that the load is secure, and that the lights and any trailer brakes are still working.


‘Your Driving and the Road


Driving with a Tmiler (CONX) Following Distance Stay at least twice as far behind the vehicle ahead as you would when driving your vehicle without a trailer. This can help you avoid situations that require heavy braking and sudden turns. Passing You’ll need more passing distance up ahead when you’re towing a trailer. And, because you’re a good deal longer, you’ll need to go much farther beyond the passed vehicle before you can return to your lane. Backing Up Hold the bottom of the steering wheel with one hand. Then, to move the trailer to the left, just move that hand to the left. To move the trailer to the right, move your hand to the right. Always back up slowly and, if possible, have someone guide you. 1 8 8


Making ’hrns When you’re turning with a trailer, make wider turns than normal. Do this so your trailer won’t strike soft shoulders, curbs, road signs, trees, or other objects. Avoid jerky or sudden maneuvers. Signal well in advance. Turn Signals When Towing a Trailer When you tow a trailer, your vehicle has to have a different turn signal flasher and extra wiring. The green arrows on your instrument panel will flash whenever you signal a turn or lane change. Properly hooked up, the trailer lights will also flash, telling other drivers you’re about to turn, change lanes or stop. When towing a trailer, the green arrows on your instrument panel will flash for turns even if the bulbs on the trailer are burned out. Thus, you may think drivers


behind you are seeing your signal when they are not. It’s important to check occasionally to be sure the trailer bulbs are still working. Vehicles with the optional Lamp Monitor System will warn you when a bulb burns out. But when you plug trailer lights into your vehicle’s lighting system, its bulb warning lights may not let you know if one of your lights goes out. So, when you have trailer lights plugged in, be sure to check your vehicle and trailer lights from time to time to be sure they’re all working. Once you disconnect the trailer lights, your Lamp Monitor System again can tell you if one of your vehicle lights is out.


Driving on Grades Reduce speed and shift to a lower gear before you start down a long or steep downgrade. If you don’t shift down, you might have to use your brakes so much that they would get hot and no longer work well. On a long uphill grade, shift down to D (Drive) and reduce your speed to around 45 mph (70 km/h) to reduce the possibility of engine and transaxle overheating. If you are towing a trailer that weighs more than 1,000 pounds (454 kg), and you have an automatic transaxle with Overdrive, it’s best to drive in D instead of Overdrive (or, as you need to, a lower gear). This will minimize heat build-up and extend the life of your transaxle.


Parking on Hills You really should not park your vehicle, with a trailer attached, on a hill. If something goes wrong, your rig could start to move. People can be injured, and both your vehicle and the trailer can be damaged. But if you ever have to park your rig on a hill, here’s how to do it: 1. Apply your regular brakes, but don’t


shift into P (Park) yet.


2. Have someone place chocks under


the trailer wheels.


3. When the wheel chocks are in place,


release the regular brakes until the chocks absorb the load.


4. Reapply the regular brakes. Then


apply your parking brake, and then shift to P (Park).


5. Release the regular brakes. When You Are Ready to Leave After Parking on a Hill 1, Apply your regular brakes and hold


the pedal down while you:


Start your engine; Shift into a gear; and Release the parking brake.


2. Let up on the brake pedal. 3. Drive slowly until the trailer is clear


of the chocks.


4. Stop and have someone pick up and


store the chocks.


Your Driving and the Road


Maintenance When Tmiler Towing Your vehicle will need service more often when you’re pulling a trailer. See the Maintenance Schedule for more on this. Things that are especially important in trailer operation are automatic transaxle fluid (don’t overfill), engine oil, belts, cooling system, and brake adjustment. Each of these is covered in this manual, and the Index will help you find them quickly. If you’re trailering, it’s a good idea to review these sections before you start your trip. Check periodically to see that all hitch nuts and bolts are tight.


...


190


Part 5 Problems on the Road


Flashers


Hazard 192 Jumpstarting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 197 Towing 202 Engine If a Tire Goes 208 Changing 210 Compactspare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 If You’re Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Overheating


Flat Tire


Warning


H e r e you’ll find out what to do about some problems that can occur on the road .


Your


Flat


Problems on the Road


Hazard Warning Flashers Your hazard warning flashers let you warn others. They also let police know you have a problem. Your front and rear turn signal lights will flash on and off.


Press the button in to make your front and rear turn signal lights flash on and off. Your hazard warning flashers work no matter what position your key is in, and even if the key isn’t in.


To turn off the flashers, pull out on the collar. When the hazard warning flashers are on, your turn signals won’t work. Other Warning Devices If you carry reflective triangles, you can set one up at the side of the road about 300 feet (100 m) behind your vehicle,


Jump Starting If your battery has run down, you may want to use another vehicle and some jumper cables to start your Pontiac. But please follow the steps here to do it safely.


Ignoring these steps could result in costly damage to your vehicle that


- L be dangernus because:


Batteries can hurt you. They :y contain acid that a n burn


* ' YQU. 0 They contain gas that can explode or ignite. They contain enough electricity to burn you. If you don't follow these steps pyactly, some or all of these things


To Jump Start Your Pontiac: 1. Check the other vehicle. It must have


a 12-volt battery with a negative charge system.


If the other system isn't a 12-volt system with a negative ground, both vehicles can be damaged.


193


Problems on the Road


Jump Starting (CONT:) 2. Get the vehicles close enough so the jumper cables can reach, but be sure the vehicles aren't touching each other. If they are, it could cause a ground connection you don't want. * You wouldn't be able to start your


Pontiac, and the bad grounding could damage the electrical systems.


L You could be injured if the


Jehicles roll. Set the parking brake firmly on each vehicle. Put an automatic transaxle in P (Park) or a manual transaxle in N (Neut] . -.


3. Turn off the ignition on both


vehicles. Turn off all lights that aren't needed, and radios. This will avoid sparks and help save both batteries. And it could save your radio!


If you leave your radio on, it could be badly damaged. The repairs wouldn't be covered by your warranty.


4. Open the hoods and locate the


batteries. CAUTlON


An electric fan can start up


I even when the engine is not running and can injure you. Keep hands, clothing and tools away from any underhood electric fan.


I I


Find the positive (+) and negative (-) terminals on each battery.


- b can cause battery gas to , Using a match near a battery


explode. People have been hurt doing this, and some have been blinded. .Use a flashlight if you need more light. Be sure the batteries have enough water. You don’t need to add water to the Delco [email protected] battery installed in every new GM vehicle. But if a battery has filler caps, be sure the right amount of fluid is there. If it is low, add water to take care of that first. If you don’t, explosive gas could be present. Battery fluid contains acid that can burn you. Don’t get it on you. If you accidentally get it in your eyes or on your skin, flush the place with water and get medical help immediately.


5. Check that the jumper cables don’t have loose or missin.g insulation. If they do, you could get a shock. The vehicles could be damaged, too.


Before you connect the cables, here are some things you should know. Positive (+) will go to positive (+) and negative (-) will go to negative (-) or a metal engine part. Don’t connect (+) to (-) or you’ll get a short that would damage the battery and maybe other parts, too.


Fans or other moving engine


running.


Problems on the Road


Jump Starting (CONI) 6. Connect the red positive (+) cable to


the positive (+) terminal of the vehicle with the dead battery. Use a remote positive (+) terminal if the vehicle has one.


7. Don’t let the other end touch metal.


Connect it to the positive (+) terminal of the good battery. Use a remote positive (+) terminal if the vehicle has one.


8. Now connect the black negative (-) cable to the good battery’s negative (-) terminal.


Don’t let the other end touch anything until the next step. The other end of the negative cable doesn’t go to the dead battery. It goes to a heavy unpainted metal part on the engine of the vehicle with the dead battery.


9. Attach the cable at least 18 inches


(45 cm) away from the dead battery, but not near engine parts that move. The electrical connection is just as good there, but the chance of sparks getting back to the battery is much less.


10. Now start the vehicle with the good


battery and run the engine for a while.


11. Try to start the vehicle with the


dead battery. If it won’t start after a few tries, it probably needs service.


m .


196


1 2. Remove the cables in reverse order to prevent electrical shorting. Take care that they don't touch each other or any other metal.


Towing Your Pontiac Try to have a GM dealer or a professional towing service tow your Pontiac. The usual towing equipment is: (A) Sling-type tow truck (B) Wheel-lift tow truck (C) Car carrier If your vehicle has been changed or modified since it was factory-new by adding aftermarket items like fog lamps, aero skirting, or special tires and wheels, these instructions and illustrations may not be correct. Before you do anything, turn on the hazard warning flashers.


When you call, tell the towing service: That your vehicle can only be towed with certain equipment, as described later in this section. That your vehicle has fi-ont-wheel drive. The make, model, and year of your vehicle. Whether you can still move the shift lever. If there was an accident, what was damaged.


When the towing service arrives, let the tow operator know that this manual contains detailed towing instructions and illustrations. The operator may want to see them.


197


Problems on the Road


I Towing Your Pontiac (CONI:)


To help avoid injury to you or Ithers:


Never let passengers ride in a vehicle that is being towed. Never tow faster than safe or posted speeds. Never tow with damaged parts not fully secured. Never get under your vehicle after it has been lifted by the tow truck. Always use separate safety chains on each side when towing a vehicle. Never use “J” hooks. Use T- hooks instead.


When your vehicle is being towed, have the ignition key off. The steering wheel should be clamped in a straight-ahead position, with a clamping device designed for towing service. Do not use the vehicle’s steering column lock for this. The transaxle should be in Neutral and the parking brake released. Don’t have your vehicle towed on the front wheels, unless you must. If the vehicle must be towed on the front wheels, don’t go more than 35 mph (56 km/h) or farther than 50 miles (80 km) or your transaxle will be damaged. If these limits must be exceeded, then the front wheels have to be supported on a dolly.


198


Towing from the Front- Vehicle Hook-up (EXCEPT SSE & SSEI’) Before hoolung up to a tow truck, be sure to read all the information on Towing Your Pontiac earlier in this section. 1. Attach T-hook chains into the bottom


slots in the cradle behind the front wheels, on both sides.


2. Across sling chains, position a 4x4


wood beam against bottom of radiator support behind the front bumper.


x6019 I


3. Attach a separate safety chain around


the outboard end of each control arm.


.r


Problems on the Road


X6019


I L


bwing from the Front- @hick Hook-up (SSE & SSEi ONLY) Attach a separate safety chain around lefore hooking up to a tow ure to read all the information on bwing Your Pontiac earlier in this xtion.


truck, be the outboard end


of each control arm.


Do not tow with sling-type equipment or hcia/fog light damage will occur. Use wheel-lift or car carrier equipment (additional ramping may be required for car carrier equipment). Use safety chains and wheel straps.


...


200


To help avoid damaging a vehicle during a tow over rough surfaces, install a towing dolly beneath the wheels that would otherwise be on the ground during the tow. This will increase clearance between the wheel-lift equipment and the underbody of the towed vehicle.


2. Position the lower sling crossbar


directly under the rear bumper.


3. Attach a separate safety chain around


the outboard end of each lower control arm.


lowing from the Rear- Vehice Hook-up (ALL) Before hooking up to a tow truck, be sure to read all the information on Towing Your Pontiac earlier in this section. 1. Attach T-hook chains on both sides in


the slotted holes in the floor pan support rails just ahead of the rear wheels.


201 m


Problems on the Road


I'


Engine Overheating You will find a coolant temperature gage or the warning light about a hot engine on your Pontiac's instrument panel. See the Index under Coolant Temperature Gage and Coolant Temperature Warning Light.


If your engine catches fire because you keep driving with no coolant, your vehicle can be badly damaged. The costly repai not be covered by your warranty.


2 0 2


' Steam is Coming from Your Engine:


Steam from an overheated , engine can burn you badly,


even if you just open the hood. Stay away h m the engine if you see or hear steam coming from it. Just turn it off and get everyone away from the vehicle until itmols down. Wait until there is no sign of steam or coolant before opening the hood. If you keep driving when your engine is overheated, the liquids in it can catch fm You or-others could be badly burned. Stop your engine if it wetheats, and get out of the vehicle until the engine is cool.


If No Steam is Coming from Your Engine: If you get the overheat warning but see or hear no steam, the problem may not be too serious. Sometimes the engine can get a little too hot when you: Climb a long hill on a hot day. Stop after high speed driving. Idle for long periods in traffic. Tow a trailer.


If you get the overheat warning with no sign of steam, try this for a minute or so: 1 . Turn off your air conditioner. 2. Turn your heater to full hot at the highest blower speed and open the window as necessary.


3. If you’re in a traffic jam, shift to


N (Neutral).


But then, if you still have the warning, TURN OFF THE ENGINE AND GET EVERYONE OUT OF THE VEHICLE until it cools down. You may decide not to lift the hood but to get service help right away.


If you no longer have the overheat warning, you can drive. Just to be safe, drive slower for about ten minutes. If the warning doesn’t come back on, you can drive normally. If the warning continues, pull over, stop, and park your vehicle right away. If there’s still no sign of steam, you can idle the engine for two or three minutes while you’re parked, to see if the warning stops.


203


Problems on the Road


Engine Overheating (CONK) Cooling System When you decide it’s safe to lift the hood, here’s what you’ll see: (A) Coolant recovery tank (B) Radiator pressure cap (C) Electric engine fan


An electric fan under the hood h can start up even when the engine is not running and can injure you. Keep hands, clothing and tools away from any underhood electric fan.


.. .


204


If the coolant inside the coolant recovery tank is boiling, don’t do anything else until it cools down. The coolant level should be at or above the FULL COLD mark. If it isn’t, you may have a leak in the radiator hoses, heater hoses, radiator, water pump or somewhere else in the cooling system.


anc


I I 1 Heater and radiator hoses, - other engine parts, can be very hot. Don’t touch them. If you do, you can be burned. Don’t run the engine if there is a leak. If you run the engine, it could lose all coolant. That could cause an engine fire, and you could be burned. Get any leak fixed before you drive the vehicle.


I Engine damage from running your


engine without coolant isn’t covered by your warranty.


If there seems to be no leak, check to see if the electric engine fan is running. is overheating, the fan If the engine should be running. If it isn’t, your vehicle needs service. How to Add Coolant to the Coolant Recovery Tank: If you haven’t found a problem yet, but the coolant level isn’t up to the FULL COLD mark, add a 50/50 mixture of clean water (preferably distilled) and a proper antifreeze at the coolant recovery tank. See the Index under Coolant for more information about the proper coolant mix.


,k


Adding only plain water to L your cooling system can be dangerous. Plain water, or some other liquid like alcohol, can boil before the proper coolant mix will. Your vehicle’s coolant warning system is set for the proper coolant mix. With plain water or the wrong mix, Your engine could get recovery too hot but you wouldn’t get the overheat warning. Your engine could catch fm and you or others mix


Use a


be


of clean water and a proper antifreeze.


I b-Au I IUN


L You can be burned if you spill


coolant on hot engine parts. Coolant contains ethylene glycol and it will burn if the engine parts are hot enough. Don’t spill coolant on a hot engine.


When the coolant in the coolant


tank is at or above FULL


COLD, start your vehicle. If the overheat warning continues, there’s one more thing you can try. You can add the proper coolant mix directly to the radiator, but be sure the cooling system is cool before you do it.


In cold weather, water can freeze and crack the engine, radiator, heater core and other parts. Use the recommended coolant.


II


205 ”


Problems on the Road


i '. 'k


I Engine Overheating (CONT.)


\ Steam and scalding liquids From a hot cooling system can 3w out and burn you badly. They I thl= radiator pressure cap-even a ale under pressure, and if you turn tle-they can come out at high I eed. Never turn the pressure cap when the cooling system, including the radiator pressure cap, is hot. Wait for the cooling system and radiator pressure cap to cool if you ever have to turn. the pressure cap.


How to Add Coolant to the Radiator: 1. You can remove the radiator pressure


cap when the cooling system, including the radiator pressure cap and upper radiator hose, is no longer hot. Turn the pressure cap slowly to the left until it first stops. (Don't press down while turning the pressure cap.)


If you hear a hiss, wait for that to stop. A hiss means there is still some pressure left.


2. Then keep turning the pressure cap, it.


but now push down as you turn Remove the pressure cap.


3. Fill the radiator with the proper mix,


up to the base of the filler neck.


4. Then fill the coolant recovery tank to 5. Put the cap back on the coolant


recovery tank, but leave the radiator pressure cap off.


the FULL COLD mark.


207 '.


Problems on the Road


I Engine Overheating (CONT.)


6. Start the engine and let it run until you can feel the upper radiator hose getting hot. Watch out for the engine fan.


7. By this time, the coolant level inside the radiator filler neck may be lower. If the level is lower, add more of the proper mix through the filler neck until the level reaches the base of the filler neck.


8. Then replace the pressure cap. Be


sure the arrows on the pressure cap line up like this.


Ifa Tire Goes Flat It’s unusual for a tire to “blow out” while you’re driving, especially if you maintain your tires properly. If air goes out of a tire, it’s much more likely to if you should ever leak out slowly. But have a “blowout:’ here are a few tips about what to expect and what to do: If a front tire fails, the flat tire will create a drag that pulls the vehicle toward that side. Take your foot off the accelerator pedal and grip the steering wheel firmly. Steer to maintain lane position, then gently brake to a stop well out of the traffic lane.


Air lnflator Sysfem Some vehicles have an air inflator for use in bringing tires up to the proper pressure. The air inflator is located in the trunk. The ON switch will work even with the ignition off.


A rear blowout, particularly on a curve, acts much like a skid and may require the same correction you'd use in a skid. In any rear blowout, remove your foot from the accelerator pedal. Get the vehicle under control by steering the way you want the vehicle to go. It may be very bumpy and noisy, but you can still steer, Gently brake to a stop, well off the road if possible. If your tire goes flat, the next section shows how to use your jacking equipment to change a flat tire safely.


The air inflator comes with a kit that includes a 20-foot hose and an air pressure gage, as well as instructions and special adapters for inflating things like an air mattress or basketball.


Inflating something too much can make it explode, and you or others could be injured. Be sure to read the inflator instructions, and inflate any object only to its recommended pressure.


I 209


Problems on the Road


Changing a Flat Tire If a tire goes flat, avoid further tire and wheel damage by driving slowly to a level place. Turn on your hazard warning flashers.


I . . r -0


The following steps will tell you how to use the jack and change a tire. The equipment you’ll need is in the trunk.


1. Turn the center retainer bolt on the spare tire cover counterclockwise to remove it, then lift the tire cover.


2. Remove the spare tire from the trunk.


3. Open the jack storage cover by


twisting the knob % turn counter- clockwise.


211 m .


Problems on the Road


Changing a Flat Tire (CONT.) 4. Remove the jack and wheel wrench.


5. If you have wheel nut caps, remove


them.


6. If you have aluminum wheels, remove


the center cover that conceals the wheel nuts by using the flat end of the wheel wrench to pry it off. Do not drop the cover or lay it face down, as it could be scratched or damaged. Do not use a hammer or mallet to install the cover.


7. If your wheel has the special locking


lug nut, use the special adapter supplied with your vehicle to remove the locking wheel nut by turning counterclockwise.


8. Use the wheel wrench to loosen the wheel nuts, but don’t remove them.


9. Attach the wheel wrench to the jack,


and rotate the wrench clockwise to raise the jack head a few inches.


Problems on the Road


Changing a Flat lire (CONT.:) 10. Near each wheel well is a notch in the frame into which to put the jack head. The front notch is 10 inches back from the front wheel well. The rear notch is 8 inches forward from the rear wheel well. The wheel wrench has these 8 and 10 inch distances stamped on the handle. Use the wheel wrench to measure to the notch by flipping the socket into the handle, then measuring from the socket end of the wrench.


1 1. Position the jack and raise the jack head until it fits firmly on the ridge in the vehicle's frame nearest the flat tire. Do not raise the vehicle yet. Put the compact spare tire near you.


2. Raise the vehicle by rotating the


wheel wrench clockwise in the jack. Raise the vehicle far enough off the ground so there is enough room for the spare tire to fit.


Raising your vehicle with the jack improperly positioned will damage the vehicle or may allow the vehicle to fall off the jack. Be sure to fit the jack lift head into the proper location before raising your vehicle.


3. Remove all the wheel nuts and take


off the flat tire.


b on the parts to which it is Rust or dirt on the wheel, or fastened, can make the wheel nuts become loose after a time. The wheel could come off and cause an accident. When you change a wheel, remove any rust or dirt from the places where the wheel attaches to the vehicle. In an emergency, you can use a cloth or a paper towel to do this; but be sure to use a scraper or wire brush later, if you need to, to get all the rust or dirt off.


I I


4. Remove any corrosion from the wheel bolts, mounting surface or spare wheel.


5. Place the spare tire on the mounting


surface.


- aLdds or nuts. If you do, the


A hTwer use oil or grease on


nuts might come loose. Your wheel could fall off, causing a serious accident.


16. Replace the wheel nuts with the


rounded end of the nuts toward the wheel. Tighten each nut by hand until the wheel is held against the hub.


215


Problems on the Road


Changing a Flat Tire (CONI) 17. Lower the vehicle by rotating the


wheel wrench counterclockwise on the jack. Lower the jack completely.


m m m 216


18. In a criss-cross sequence, tighten


the wheel nuts


firmly.


Incorrect wheel nuts or improperly tightened wheel


nuts can cause the wheel to become loose and even come off. This could lead to an accident. Be sure to use the correct wheel nuts. If you have to replace them, be sure to get the right kind. Stop somewhere as soon as you can and have the nuts tightened with a torque wrench to 100 pound-feet (140 Nom).


Don’t try to put the wheel cover on the compact spare tire. It won’t fit. Store the wheel cover in the trunk until you have replaced the compact spare tire with a regular tire.


19. Store the flat tire as far forward in the trunk as possible. Store the jack and wheel wrench in their compartment in the trunk.


Wheel covers won’t fit on your compact spare. If you try to put a wheel cover on your compact spare, you could damage the cover or the spare.


1 Storing a jack, a tire, or other equipment in the passenger compartment of the vehicle could cause injury. In a sudden stop or collision, loose equipment could strike someone. Store all these in


I the proper place.


The compact spare is for temporary use only. Replace the compact spare tire with a full-size tire as soon as you can. See Compact Spare Tire later in this section.


Compact Spare Tire Although the compact spare was fully inflated when your vehicle was new, it can lose air after a time. Check the inflation pressure regularly. It should be 60 psi (420 kPa). The compact spare is made to go up to 3,000 miles (5 000 km), so you can finish your trip and have your full-size tire repaired or replaced where you want. Of course, it’s best to replace your spare with a fill-size tire as soon as you can. Your spare will last longer and be in good shape in case you need it again.


Problems on the Road


Compact Spare lire (CONI) Your anti-lock brake system warning light may come on when you are driving with a compact spare. See the Index under Anti-Lock Brake System Warning Light.


Don’t use your compact spare on some other vehicle. And don’t mix your compact spare or wheel with other wheels or tires. They won’t fit. Keep your spare and its wheel together.


If You’re Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow What you don’t want to do when your vehicle is stuck is to spin your wheels. The method known as “rocking” can help you get out when you’re stuck, but you must use caution.


. I . 218


I CAUTION


If you let your tires spin at high speed, they can explode


and you or others could be injured. And, the transaxle or other parts of the vehicle can overheat. That could cause an engine compartment fire or other damage. When you're stuck, spin the wheels as little as possible. Don't spin the wheels above 35 mph (56 km/h) as shown on the speedometer.


Spinning your wheels can destroy parts of your vehicle as well as the tires. If you spin the wheels too fast while shifting your transaxle back and forth, you can destroy your transaxle.


Rocking Your Vehicle to Get it Out: First, turn your steering wheel left and right. That will clear the area around your front wheels. Then shift back and forth between R (Reverse) and a forward gear, spinning the wheels as little as possible. Release the accelerator pedal while you shift, and press lightly on the accelerator pedal when the transaxle is in gear. If that doesn't get you out after a few tries, you may need to be towed out. If you do need to be towed out, see the Index under Towing Your Pontiac.


Notes


.


COO25


H e r e you will find information about the care of your Pontiac . This part begins with service and fuel information. and then it shows how to check important fluid and lubricant levels . There is also technical information about your vehicle. and a section devoted to its appearance care .


Part 6 Service G Appearance Care


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 HoodRelease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Engineoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Aircleaner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 TransaxleFluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Enginecoolant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Power Steering Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Windshield Washer Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Bulb Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 . . . . . . . 248 Windshield Wiper Blade Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Loading Your Vehicle Tires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Appearance Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Add-on Electrical Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Fuses & Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Capacities & Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Normal Maintenance Replacement Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Fluids & Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Replacement Bulbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273


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