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Understanding Radio Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Care of Your Cassette Tape Player . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Care of Your Compact Discs Fixed .I42 Power .I42


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Antenna.


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Comfort Controls & Audio Systems


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Standard Climate Control


The air conditioner and heater work best if you keep your windows closed while using them.


: Selects the force of air you want.


The fan is always running unless the mode control is moved to OFF. Temperature Control: The center control regulates the temperature of the air coming through the system. Mode Control: The right control has settings for air conditioning and non-air conditioning modes.


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Air Conditioning Settings There are three air conditioning settings. On very hot days, open the windows long enough to let hot inside air escape. This reduces the time your air conditioner's compressor will have to run, which should help fuel economy. MAX: Provides maximum cooling or quick cool-down on very hot days. This setting recirculates much of the air inside your vehicle, and it should not be used for long periods because the air may become too cold and dry. A/C: Use for normal cooling on hot days. This setting cools outside air and directs it through the instrument panel outlets.


I 9 (Bi-Level): Use on cool, but


sunny days. This setting brings in the outside air, but directs it in two ways. The cool air is directed to the upper portion of your body through the instrument panel outlets, but warmed air 1 is directed through the heater ducts and defroster vents. At times this temperature difference may be more apparent than others. The air conditioner compressor operates in all air conditioner positions, and in


(@ (Defrost) and ,> (Defog) when


the outside temperature is above 50°F (IOOC). When the air conditioner is on, you may sometimes notice slight changes in your vehicle's engine speed and power. This is normal, because the system is designed to cycle the compressor on and off to keep the desired cooling and help fuel economy.


setting (Defrost)


Defrosting The air through the defroster vents, and some through the heater ducts. Use this for when you have fog or ice on the windshield. When it’s 50°F (10°C) or warmer outside, you’ll get cooled air.


directs most


Non-Air Conditioning Settings 2 (Vent): This setting brings in the


outside air and directs it to the upper portion of your body through the instrument panel outlets.


(Heat): This setting directs


warmed air through the heater ducts. The air conditioner compressor doesn’t run in the non-air conditioning settings. This reduces engine load, resulting in improved fuel economy. If no non-air conditioning setting maintains the comfort of the air inside your vehicle, or it causes your windows to fog up, move the right selector to MAX or A/C, or to (@ (Defrost).


Defogging Windows with Standard Climate Control Move the temperature control to maximum heat. To quickly defog the windshield, set the right selector to (@ and turn the fan control to HIGH. Use ~2 (Defog) for normal defogging


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of the windshield.


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Comfort Controls & Audio Systems


Defogging Windows with Standard Climate Control (CONT:) mode control to ,g and the fan control To defog the side windows, move the


to HIGH. Aim the side vents toward the side windows. For increased air flow to the side vents, close the center vents.


Rear Window Defogger (OPTION) The rear window defogger uses a warming grid to remove fog from the rear window. Press the @ button and release it. A light will glow in the switch while the defogger is working. The defogger will return to off automatically after about 10 minutes of use. If you turn it on again, the defogger will operate for about five minutes only. You can also turn the defogger off by turning off the ignition or pressing the button again. Do not attach a temporary vehicle license across the defogger grid on the rear window.


Don't use a razor blade or something else sharp on the inside of the rear window. If you do, you could cut or damage the warming grid, and the repairs wouldn't be covered by your warranty.


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Electronic Climate Control (OPTION)


With this system, you can control the ventilation, heating and air conditioning in your vehicle, or you can use the auto- matic setting. The digital screen displays the outside temperature, the inside temperature setting, the fan speed, and the heating mode you have selected. The air conditioner compressor operates in all AUTO setting positions, and in (@ when the outside temperature is above 49°F (9°C). When the air conditioner is on, you may sometimes notice slight changes in your vehicle's engine speed and power. This is normal, because the system is designed to cycle


the compressor on and off to keep the desired cooling and help fuel economy. TEMP: Sets the interior temperature you want. The temperature you set will be displayed on the digital screen. Once you set the temperature, the system will try to maintain the set tempera- ture, whether or not you are using the heating or cooling controls. But if you set the temperature for 60°F (16°C) or 90" F (32" C), the fan will stay on HI speed unless you select a different speed.


AUTO: To allow the system to automatically control the temperature, air distribution and fan speed: 1. Set the temperature you want with the


TEMP switch.


2. Press the AUTO switch. EXT. TEMP: Press to have the outside temperature displayed on the digital screen (unless the system is off). Press again to return to the inside temperature setting. When the system is off, the outside temperature will be displayed. Use the following controls when AUTO is not desired.


% : Sets the fan speed. Press the top


of the switch to raise the fan speed, the bottom of the switch to lower the fan speed.


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Comfort Controls & Audio Systems


Electronic Climate Control (Cont.)


O F / ” C: Press this to read the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius. OFF: Shuts the system off. The outside temperature will be displayed. Air will still flow through your vehicle if it is moving. Also, the system will try to maintain the temperature you set, but may not be able to if it’s very warm or cold outside. ECON: Use in cold or cool weather. This saves fuel because the air conditioner compressor doesn’t run. But this setting doesn’t remove humidity from the air.


(Defrost): Press this to remove fog or ice from the windshield. It will start at the high fan speed, but you can select another speed if you want. It’s a good idea to remove any ice or snow from the hood and from the air inlet between the hood and windshield. @ (Rear Window Defogger): Press to warm the defogger grid on the rear window. On some models, the outside rearview mirrors are also warmed. The rear window defogger will turn off automatically after about 10 minutes of use. If you turn it on again, the defogger will operate for about five minutes only. You can also turn the defogger off by turning off the ignition or pressing the switch again.


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Do not attach a temporary vehicle license across the defogger grid on the rear window.


Don’t use a razor blade or something else sharp on the inside of the rear window. If you do, you could cut or damage the warming grid, and the repairs wouldn’t be covered by your warranty.


Extended Idling with Electronic Rear Venfs Ciimate Control When the engine idles for a long time, the outside temperature sensor may cause the system to blow air that is too cool. This should stop once the vehicle is moving again. Extended idling is not recommended. See the Index under Engine Exhaust.


Slide the center control up to direct air Upward. Slide it down to direct air downward. The center position will direct air both UP and dOwn.


Flow-Through Ventilation System Your Pontiac's flow-through ventilation system supplies outside air into the vehicle when it is moving. Outside air will also enter the vehicle when the heater or the air conditioning fan is running.


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Comfort Controls & Audio


ducts toward the floor, not the windshield. It reduces the chance of fogging the inside of your windows. If you have the Electronic Climate Control, the AUTO setting does this for you. Keep the air path under the front seats clear of objects. This helps air to circulate throughout your vehicle.


Flow-Through Ventilation System (CONT) Ventilation Tips


Keep the hood and front air inlet free of ice, snow, or any other obstruction (such as leaves). The heater and defroster will work far better, reducing the chance of fogging the inside of your windows. When you enter a vehicle with Standard Climate Control in cold weather, select a heater function that blows air through the floor ducts. Then turn the blower fan to HI for a few moments before driving off. This will blow moist air from the intake


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rn Audio Systems The following pages describe the audio systems available for your Pontiac, and how to get the best performance from them. Please read about the system in your vehicle.


Hearing damage from loud noise is almost undetectable until it is too late. Your hearing can adapt to higher volumes of sound. Sound that seems normal can be loud and harmful to your hearing. Take precautions by adjusting the volume control on your radio to a safe sound level before your hearing adapts to it. To help avoid hearing loss or damage: 1. Adjust the volume control to the


lowest setting.


2. Increase volume slowly until


you he: clearly.


:omfortably and


Before you add any sound equipment to your vehicle-like a tape player, CB radio, mobile telephone or two-way radio-be sure you can add what you want. If you can, it’s very important to do it properly. Added sound equipment may interfere with the operation of your vehicle’s engine, [email protected] radio or other systems, and can even damage them. And, your vehicle’s systems may interfere with the operation of sound equipment that has been added improperly. So, before adding sound equipment, check with your dealer and be sure to check federal rules covering mobile radio and telephone units.


Setting the Clock For Radios with 4SEEKb : 1. With the radio off, press SET. The


SET indicator will appear on the digital screen for five seconds.


2. Within that five seconds, press ani


hold SEEK, until the correct minute appears on the display.


3. Before another five seconds pass, press and hold 4SEEK until the correct hour appears.


For Radios with V S E E U : 1. With the radio on or off, press SET. The SET indicator will appear on the digital display for five seconds.


2. Within that five seconds, press and


hold SEE- until the correct minute appears on the display.


3. Before another five seconds pass, press and hold WEEK until the correct hour appears.


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Comfort Controls & Audio Systems


TREB (Treble): Slide this lever up to increase treble, or down to decrease it. If a station is weak or noisy, reduce the treble. BASS: Slide this lever up to increase bass, or down to decrease it. To Preset Radio Stations: 1 . Tune in the desired station. 2. Press SET. The word SET will appear on the digital screen for five seconds. 3. While SET is displayed, press one of


the four pushbuttons. The station is now preset. You can tune to it immediately by pressing the same numbered pushbutton.


4. Repeat steps 1-3 for each of four AM


and four FM stations.


Up to three additional stations on each band may be preset by “pairing” pushbuttons: 1 . Tune in the desired station. 2. Press SET, and within five seconds


press any two adjacent pushbuttons at the same time.


3. The station can be tuned in when the same two pushbuttons are pressed at the same time.


A#.FM Stereo Radio The digital display indicates information on time or radio station frequency, the AM or FM radio band, whether the station is in stereo, and other radio functions. Upper Knob (PWRoVOL): This knob does three things:


Rotate it to turn the system on and off (PWR). Rotate it to control the volume. Press it to recall the station frequency when the radio is on.


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BAL (Balance): The control ring behind the upper knob adjusts the lefthight speaker balance. Lower Knob (TUNE): This knob does two things:


Rotate it to tune in radio stations. Press it to change between the AM or FM band.


FADE: The control ring behind the lower knob adjusts the fronthear speaker balance. 7 SEEK A: Press to seek and stop on the next station higher or lower on the radio band.


AM/FM Stereo with Cassette Player The digital display indicates information on time or radio station frequency, the AM or FM radio band, whether the station is in stereo, and other radio functions. Upper Knob (PWRoVOL): This knob does four things:


Rotate it to turn the system on and off (PWR) * Rotate it to control the volume. Press it to recall the station frequency when the radio is on.


When a tape is playing, press it to hear the other side of the tape. BAL (Balance): The control ring behind the upper knob adjusts the lefthight speaker balance. Lower Knob (TUNE): This knob does two things:


Rotate it to tune in radio stations. Press it to change between the AM or FM band.


FADE: The control ring behind the lower knob adjusts the fronthear speaker balance.


V SEEK A: Press to seek and stop on the next station higher or lower on the radio band. TREB (Treble): Slide this lever up to increase treble, or down to decrease it. If a station is weak or noisy, reduce the treble. BASS: Slide this lever up to increase bass, or down to decrease it. To Preset Radio Stations: 1. Tune in the desired station. 2. Press SET. The word SET will


appear on the digital screen for five seconds.


3. While SET is displayed, press one of


the four pushbuttons. The station is now preset. You can tune to it immediately by pressing the same numbered pushbutton.


4. Repeat steps 1-3 for each of four AM


and four FM stations.


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Comfort Controls & Audio Systems


AMIFM Stereo with Cassette Player (CONX:) Up to three additional stations on each band may be preset by “pairing” pushbuttons: 1. Tune in the desired station. 2. Press SET, and within five seconds


press any two adjacent pushbuttons at the same time.


3. The station can be tuned in when the same two pushbuttons are pressed at the same time.


To Play a Cassette Tape: With the power switch on, insert a tape into the cassette door. Do not use tapes that are longer than 45 minutes on each side. When the right indicator arrow is lit, selections listed on the bottom side of the cassette are playing. When the left arrow is lit, selections listed on the top side of the cassette are playing. To change sides of the tape, press the upper control knob while the cassette is playing. When the end of a tape is reached, the other side will then play.


FAST FORWARD: Depress the button with the arrow pointing in the same direction that the tape is playing. To stop fast forward, press the STOP-EJECT button. REWRSE: Depress the button with the arrow pointing in the opposite direction that the tape is playing. To stop reverse, press the STOP-EJECT button. STOP-EJECT To stop playing a tape, fully press this button (the cassette will be partially ejected, and the radio will begin playing).


AM/FM Stereo with Cassette Player and Graphic Equalizer The digital display indicates information on time or radio station frequency, the AM or FM radio band, whether the station is in stereo, and other radio functions. PWR (Power): Turns the unit on and off when the ignition is on.


Upper Knob (VOL): This knob does two things:


Rotate it slightly to the left or right to control the volume. Press it to mute the radio or tape player. Press again to listen.


BAL (Balance): The control ring behind the upper knob adjusts the lefthight speaker balance. The digital display shows the balance selected.


Lower Knob (TUNE): This knob does two things:


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Rotate it slightly to the left or right to tune in radio stations. If you hold it to the left or right, it will tune rapidly. You can also rotate it one stop at a time to fine-tune a specific frequency. Press to change between the AM, FM1 or FM2 bands. (FM1 allows you to preset five stations, FM2 allows you to preset another five stations.)


Your radio has an AMAX-certified receiver. It can produce quality AM stereo sound and receive [email protected] stereo broadcasts. AMAX reduces noise without reducing the high frequencies you need for the best sound. You don’t have to do anything to your Delco/GM radio because AMAX is automatic.


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Comfort Controls & Audio Systems


AM/FM Stereo with Cassette Player and Graphic Equalizer (CONI) FADE: The control ring behind the lower knob adjusts the fronthear speaker balance. The digital display shows the degree of fade selected, 4SEEKb: Press to seek and stop on the next station higher or lower on the radio band. RCL: Press to alternate the display between the time and station frequency.


EQUALIZER: Boost the bass, emphasize a voice in a song, brighten the treble-your equalizer gives you freedom to adjust five separate frequencies of sound to your individual taste. Move a lever up to emphasize a frequency, move it down to de-emphasize. It’s best to begin with the levers in the middle position, then adjust each lever as you like.


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To Preset Radio Stations: The five pushbuttons under the digital display can be used to preset UP to 15 radio stations (five AM, five FMl and five FM2). The buttons have other uses when you are playing a tape (see Tape Player). 1. Tune the digital display to the station


you want.


2. Press SET. The SET indicator will appear on the digital screen for five seconds.


3. While the SET indicator is displayed,


press one of the five pushbuttons.


4. Repeat steps 1-3 for each of five AM,


five FM1 and five FM2 stations.


To Play a Cassette Tape: Press PWR to turn the radio on. The radio will play until a cassette is pushed into the cassette entry door (the tape side goes in first). Do not use tapes that are longer than 90 minutes (45 minutes on each side). This audio system has automatic 00 [email protected] Noise Reduction to reduce background noise on [email protected] encoded tapes. [email protected] Noise Reduction is manufactured under license from Dolby Laboratories Licensing Corporation. [email protected] and the 00 symbol are trademarks of Dolby Laboratories Licensing Corporation.


PROG (Program): Press to change the side of tape being played. When the end Df a tape is reached, the other side will then play. CrOa: This button sets tape bias. When playing high bias chrome or metal tapes, press the button to turn the Cr02 display on. When playing standard tapes, press again to turn the display off. REV (Reverse): Press to reverse the tape rapidly; press again to play the tape. (The radio plays while a tape is rewinding.) FWD (Fast Forward): Press to advance the tape rapidly; press again to play. (The radio plays while the tape is advancing.)


PREV (Previous): Press PREV to repeat a passage. The tape will back up and stop at the first four-second quiet spot in the tape, or when you press PREV or PROG again. NEXT Press to go to the next selection on the tape. The tape will stop at the first four-second quiet spot in the tape, or if you press NEXT or PROG again. ST-PL (Stop-Play): Press to switch from the tape to the radio. Press again to resume playing the tape. EJECT Press to eject the cassette tape (the radio will then play).


Comfort Controls & Audio Systems


Your radio has an AMAX-certified receiver. It can produce quality AM stereo sound and receive [email protected] stereo broadcasts. AMAX reduces noise without reducing the high frequencies you need for the best sound. You don’t have to do anything to your Delco/GM radio because AMAX is automatic. FADE: The control ring behind the lower knob adjusts the fronthear speaker balance. The digital display shows the degree of fade selected. 4SEEKF : Press to seek and stop on the next station higher or lower on the radio band. RCL: Press to alternate the display between the time and station frequency. EQUALIZER: Boost the bass, em- phasize a voice in a song, brighten the treble-your equalizer gives you freedom to adjust five separate frequencies of sound to your individual taste. Move a lever up to emphasize a frequency, move it down to de-emphasize. It’s best to begin with the levers in the middle position, then adjust each lever as you like.


AM/FM Stereo with Compact Disc Player The digital display indicates information on time or radio station frequency, the AM or FM radio band, whether the station is in stereo, and other radio functions. PWR (Power): Turns the unit on and off when the ignition is on. Upper Knob (VOL): This knob does two things:


Rotate it slightly to the left or right to control the volume. Press it to mute the radio or tape player. Press again to listen.


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BAL (Balance): The control ring behind the upper knob adjusts the lefthight speaker balance. The digital display shows the balance selected. Lower Knob (TUNE): This knob does two things:


Rotate it slightly to the left or right to tune in radio stations. If you hold it to the left or right, it will tune rapidly. You can also rotate it one stop at a time to fine-tune a specific frequency. Press to change between the AM, FMl or FM2 bands. (FM1 allows you to preset five stations, FM2 allows you to preset another five stations.)


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Compact Disc Controls Many of the controls for the radio also have functions for the compact disc player, as explained here. To Play a Compact Disc: Don’t use mini-discs that are called singles. They won’t eject. Use only full- size compact discs. 1 . Press PWR to turn the radio on. 2. Insert a disc part-way into the slot, with the label side up. The player will pull it in. In a few seconds, the disc should play.


If the disc comes back out and/or Err appears on the display:


The disc may be upside down. The disc may be dirty, scratched or wet. There may be too much moisture in the air (wait about one hour and try again). The player may be too hot, or the road may be too rough for the disc to play. As soon as things get back to normal, the disc should play.


The five pushbuttons at the lower right can be used to preset up to 15 radio stations (five AM, five FM1 and five FM2). The buttons have other uses when you are playing a compact disc (see Compact Disc Controls). To Preset Radio Stations: 1. Tune the digital display to the station


you want.


2. Press SET. The SET indicator will


appear on the digital screen for five seconds.


3. While the SET indicator is displayed,


press one of the five pushbuttons.


4. Repeat steps 1-3 for each of five AM,


five FM1 and five FM2 stations.


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Compact Disc Controk (CONI) While a disc is playing, the CD indi- cator is displayed on the digital screen, as is the clock. RCL (Recall): Press once to see which track is playing. Press again while the track number is displayed to see how long your selection has been playing. The track number also will be displayed when the volume is changed or a new track starts to play. COMP (Compression): Depressing this button makes soft and loud passages more equal in volume. Press again to resume normal play. RDM (Random): Press to play random order.


tracks in


REV (Reverse): Press and hold to rapidly back up to a favorite passage. Release to resume playing. FWD (Fast Forward): Press and hold to rapidly advance the disc. Release to resume playing. PREV (Previous): Press to play a track again. If you keep pressing the PREV button, the disc will keep backing up to previous tracks. NEXT Press when you want to hear the next track. If you keep pressing the NEXT button, the disc will keep advancing to other tracks.


When Finished with the Compact Disc Player: If you press PWR or turn off the ignition, the disc will stay in the player and start again when you turn on the ignition or power switch. The disc will begin playing at the point where it had been stopped. ST/PL (Stop/Play): Press to stop the disc player; the radio will play. Press again to play the disc (the player will start playing the disc where it was stopped earlier). EJECT Press to eject the disc; the radio will play. After eject, if you turn the ignition off with the disc part-way out, the player will pull the disc back in after about 30 seconds. When the player is turned on, it will begin play on the first track.


CD Player Anti-Theft Feature Delco LOC 11 is a security feature for the compact disc player. It can be used or ignored. If ignored, the system plays normally. If it is used, your player won’t be usable if it is ever stolen, because it will go to LOC mode any time battery power is removed. Until an unlock code is entered, it will not turn on. The instructions below tell you how to enter a secret code into the system. If your vehicle loses battery power for any reason, you must unlock the system with the secret code before the radio will turn on. 1. Write down any six-digit number and


keep it in a safe place.


2. Turn the ignition to the Accessory or


Run position.


3. Press the PWR button to turn the


radio off.


4. Press the 1 and 4 buttons together. Hold them down until “- - -” shows on the display. You are ready to enter your secret code.


NOTE: If you allow more than 15 seconds to elapse between any steps, the radio automatically reverts to time and you must start the procedure over at step 4. 5. Press SET and 000 will appear on the


display.


6. Press the SEEK, button to make the


first number of your code appear.


7. Rotate the TUNE knob right or left


to make the second and third numbers agree with your code.


8. Press the lower (BAND) knob and 000 will appear again. Now you are ready to enter the last three digits of your code.


three digits of your code.


9. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for the last IO. Press the lower (BAND) knob and REP will appear for five seconds and then 000 will appear.


11. Repeat steps 6 through 10. This time SEC will appear, indicating that the radio is secure.


Comfort Controls & Audio Systems


CD Player Anti-Theft kature (WNX) To Unlock the System After a Power Loss: When battery power is reapplied to a secured radio, the radio won't turn on and LOC will appear on the display. Enter your secret code as follows; pause no more than l5 seconds between steps. 1. Turn the ignition on. (Radio off.) 2. Press the SET button. The display


will show 000.


3. Enter the six digits of the code following steps 6-9 above. The display will show the numbers as entered.


4. Press the lower (BAND) knob and


SEC appears, then the time, indicating that the disabling sequence was successful.


Disabling the Anti-Theft System: 1. Press the 1 and 4 buttons together for


five seconds with ignition on and radio power off. The display will show SECURED, indicating the unit is in the secure mode.


2. Press the SET button. The display


will show 000.


3. Enter the first three digits of the code


following steps 6-7 earlier in this section. The display will show the numbers as entered.


4. Press the lower (BAND) knob. The


radio will display 000.


5. Enter the second three digits of the code. The display will show the numbers as entered. 6. Press the lower (BAND) knob. If the display shows "- - -," the disabling sequence was successful (the numbers matched the user-selected code or the factory back-up code) and the unit is in the UNSECURED mode. If the display shows SEC, the disabling sequence was unsuccessful and the numbers did not match either of the codes and the unit will remain in the SECURED mode.


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Steering Wheel Controls for Audio System Some audio functions can be operated with these controls: AM/FM: Press to select either the AM or FMl and FM2 radio bands. The band you select will be displayed on the digital screen. The frequency of the station will be displayed, and if the station is in stereo, the stereo indicator will also be displayed.


SEEK: Each time you press an up or down arrow on SEEK, you will tune in the next station up or down the AM or FM radio band. When listening to a cassette tape or compact disc, you can change to the previous or next selection by pressing the SEEK up or down arrow. RCL (Recall): When the radio is on, press to change between the clock and the radio station frequency displayed on the digital screen.


PRE-SET Press this to hear the radio stations that are set on your system. VOL (Volume): Press A to increase volume. Press 7 to lower the volume. PWR: Turns the unit on and off when the ignition is on.


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Comfort Controls & Audio Systems


Gain Control Some models have this control below the audio system. To get more bass sound, move the GAIN control to adjust the amount of bass.


Understanding Radio Reception F M Stereo FM stereo will give you the best sound, but FM signals will reach only about 10 to 40 miles (16 to 65 km). Tall buildings or hills can interfere with FM signals, causing the sound to come and go. AM The range for most AM stations is greater than for FM, especially at night. The longer range, however, can cause stations to interfere with each other. AM can also pick up noise from things like storms and power lines. To lower this noise, try reducing the treble level.


AM Stereo Your [email protected] system may be able to receive [email protected] stereo broadcasts. Many AM stations around the country use [email protected] to produce stereo, though some do not. [email protected] is a registered trademark of Motorola, Inc. If your [email protected] system can get [email protected] signals, your stereo indicator light will come on when you are receiving it.


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Clean your tape player with a wiping- action, non-abrasive cleaning cassette, and follow the directions provided with it. Cassettes are subject to wear and the sound quality may degrade over time. Always make sure that the cassette tape is in good condition before you have your tape player serviced.


Care of Your Compact Discs Handle discs carefully. Store them in their original cases or other protective cases and away from direct sunlight and dust. If the surface of a disc is soiled, dampen a clean, soft cloth in a mild, neutral detergent solution and clean it, wiping from the center to the edge. Be sure never to touch the signal surface when handling discs. Pick up discs by grasping the outer edges or the edge of the hole and the outer edge.


Care of Your Cassette Tape Player A tape player that is not cleaned regularly can cause reduced sound quality, ruined cassettes, or a damaged mechanism. Cassette tapes should be stored in their cases away from contaminants, direct sunlight, and extreme heat. If they aren’t, they may not operate properly or cause failure of the tape player. Your tape player should be cleaned regularly each month or after every 15 hours of use. If you notice a reduction in sound quality, try a known good cassette to see if the tape or the tape player is at fault. If this other cassette has no improvement in sound quality, clean the tape player.


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Comfort Controls & Audio Systems


Don’t lubricate the power antenna. Lubrication could damage


it.


Fixed Mast Antenna The fixed mast antenna can withstand most car washes without being damaged. If the mast should ever become slightly bent, you can straighten it out by hand. If the mast is badly bent, as it might be by vandals, you should replace it. Check every once in a while to be sure the mast is still tightened to the fender.


Power Antenna Mast Care Your power antenna will look its best and work well if it’s cleaned from time to time. To Clean the Antenna Mast: 1. Turn on the ignition and radio to


raise the antenna to full mast extension.


2. Dampen a clean cloth with mineral


spirits or equivalent solvent.


3. Wipe the cloth over the mast sections,


removing any dirt.


4. Wipe dry with a clean cloth before


retracting.


5. Make the antenna go up and down by


turning the radio or ignition on and off.


6. Then repeat if necessary.


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Before entering an automatic car wash, turn off your radio to make the power antenna go down. This will prevent the mast from possibly getting damaged. If the antenna does not go down when you turn the radio off, it may be damaged or need to be cleaned. In either case, lower the antenna by hand by carefully pressing the antenna down.


If the mast portion of your antenna is damaged, you can easily replace it. See your dealer for a replacement lut, and follow the instructions in the kit.


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Notes


H e r e you'll find information about driving on different kinds of roads and in varying weather conditions . We've also included many other useful tips on driving .


Your Driving and the Road


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Road Signs Defensive Driving Drunken Driving Control of a Vehicle


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Anti-Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Steering Tips Steering in Emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Passing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 DrivingatNight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Driving in the Rain Driving in Fog, Mist and Haze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 CityDriving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Freeway Driving 172 Driving a Long Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 HillandMountainRoads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 ParkingonHills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Winter Driving 179 TowingaTrailer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183


Brakes


Your Driving and the Road


STOP1 1


Road Signs


The road signs you see everywhere are coded by color, shape and symbols. It's a good idea to know these codes so that you can quickly grasp the basic meaning or intent of the sign even before you have a chance to read it.


WAY


STOP


WRONG


DO NOT ENTER Color of Road Signs Red means Stop. It may also indicate that some movement is not allowed. Examples are Do Not Enter and Wrong Way.


RR ADVANCE NARROW NO PASSING CROSSING ZONE


BRIDGE


Yellow indicates a general warning. Slow down and be careful when you see a yellow sign. It may signal a railroad crossing ahead, a no-passing zone, or some other potentially dangerous situation. Likewise, a yellow solid line painted on the road means Don't Cross.


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heen is used to guide the driver. Green igns may indicate upcoming freeway :xits or show the direction you should urn to reach a particular place.


Blue signs with white letters show motorists' services.


INFORMATION


HOSPITAL


STOPII


WORKERS


FLAGGER


LOW


AHEAD


SHOULDER


Orange indicates road construction or rnaincnance. You’ll want to slow down when you see an orange sign, as part of the road may be closed off or torn up. And there may be workers and maintenance vehicles around, too.


CANOEING


SWIMMING Brown signs point out recreation areas or points of historic or cultural interest.


Shape Of Road [email protected] The shape of the sign will tell you something, too. An octagonal (eight-sided) sign means Stop. It is always red with white letters.


A diamond-shaped sign is a warning of something ahead-for example, a curve, steep hill, soft shoulder, or a narrow bridge.


A triangle, pointed downward, indicates Yield. It assigns the right of way to traffic on certain approaches to an intersection.


A triangular sign also is used on two- lane roads to indicate a No Passing Zone. This sign will be on the left side of the roadway.


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Your Uriving and the Road


KEEP RIGHT


LEFT OR THROUGH


RIGHT TURN


ONLY


Shape of Road Signs (CONI:) Rectangular (square or oblong) signs show speed limits, parking regulations, give directions, and such information as distances to cities.


Symbols on Road Signs There are many international road signs in use today.


Traffic Lights We’re all familiar with traffic lights or stop lights. Often green arrows are being used in the lights for improved traffic control. On some multilane roads, green arrows light up, indicating that traffic in one or more lanes can move or make a turn. Green arrows don’t mean “go no matter what.” You’ll still need to proceed with caution, yielding the right of way to pedestrians and sometimes to other vehicles. Some traffic lights also use red arrows to signify that you must stop before turning on red.


NO


NO U TURN


PARKING


NO BICYCLES The basic message of many of these signs is in pictures or graphic symbols. A picture within a circle with a diagonal line across it shows what not to do.


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REVERSIBLE LANE ON MULTllANE ROADWAY


NO PASSING ZONE


Many city roads and expressways, and even bridges, use reversible-lane traffic control during rush hours. A red X light above a lane means no driving in that lane at that time. A green arrow means you may drive in that lane. Look for the signs posted to warn drivers what hours and days these systems are in effect.


Pavement Markings Pavement markings add to traffic signs and signals. They give information to drivers without taking attention from the roadway. A solid yellow line on your side of the road or lane means Don’t Cross.


bur Own Signals Drivers signal to others, too. It’s not only more polite, it’s safer to let other drivers know what you are doing. And in some places the iaw requires driver signals. “urn and Lane Change Signals: Always signal when you plan to turn or change lanes. If necessary, you can use hand signals out the window: Left arm straight out for a left turn, down for slow or about- to-stop, and up for a right turn. Slowing Down: If time allows, tap the brake pedal once or twice in advance of slowing or stopping. This warns the driver behind you. Disabled: Your four-way flashers signal that your vehicle is disabled or is a hazard. See the Index under Hazard Warning Flashers. Tm#k Officer The traffic police officer is also a source of important information. The officer’s signals govern, no matter what the traffic lights or other signs say. The next section discusses some of the road conditions you may encounter.


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Your Driving and the Road


Defensive Driving The best advice anyone can give about driving is: Drive defensively. Please start with a very important safety device in your Pontiac: Buckle up. (See the Index under Safev Belts.) Defensive driving really means “be ready for anything.” On city streets, rural roads, or freeways, it means “always expect the unexpected.” Assume that pedestrians or other drivers are going to be careless and make mistakes. Anticipate what they might do. Be ready for their mistakes. Expect children to dash out from behind parked cars, often followed by other children. Expect occupants in parked cars to open doors into traffic. Watch for movement in parked cars-someone may be about to open a door.


Expect other drivers to run stop signs when you are on a through street. Be ready to brake if necessary as you go through intersections. You may not have to use the brake, but if you do, you will be ready. If you’re driving through a shopping center parking lot where there are well- marked lanes, directional arrows, and designated parking areas, expect some drivers to ignore all these markings and dash straight toward one part of the lot. Pedestrians can be careless. Watch for them. In general, you must give way to pedestrians even if you know you have the right of way. Rear-end collisions are about the most preventable of accidents. Yet they are common. Allow enough following


distance. It’s the best defensive driving maneuver, in both city and rural driving. You never know when the vehicle in front of you is going to brake or turn suddenly. Here’s a final bit of information about defensive driving. The most dangerous time for driving in the U.S. is very early on Sunday morning. In fact, GM Research studies show that the most and the least dangerous times for driving, every week, fall on the same day. That day is Sunday. The most dangerous time is Sunday from 3 a.m. to 4 a.m. The safest time is Sunday from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m. Driving the same distance on a Sunday at 3 a.m. isn’t just a little more dangerous than it is at 10 a.m. It’s about 134 times more dangerous! That leads to the next section.


Drunken Driving Death and injury associated with drinking and driving is a national tragedy. It’s the number one contributor to the highwizy death toll, claiming thousands of victims every year. Alcohol takes away three things that anyone needs to drive a vehicle:


Judgment Muscular Coordination Vision


Police records show that half of all motor vehicle-related deaths involve alcohol-a driver, a passenger or someone else, such as a pedestrian, had been drinking. In most cases, these deaths are the result of someone who was drinking and driving. Over 25,000 motor vehicle-related deaths occur each year because o€ alcohol, and thousands of people are injured.


Just how much alcohol is too much if a person plans to drive? Ideally, no one should drink alcohol and then drive. But if one does, then what’s ‘900 much”? It can be a lot less than many might think. Although it depends an each person and situation, here is some general information on the problem. The Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) of someone who is drinking depends upon four things:


How much alcohol is in the drink. The drinker’s body weight. The amount of food that is consumed before and during drinking. The length of time it has taken the drinker to consume the alcohol.


According to the American Medical Association, a 18.O-pound (82 kg) person who drinks three 12-ounce (355 ml) bottles of beer in an hour will end up with a BAC of about 0.06 percent. The person would reach the same BAC by drinking thee 4-ounce (120 ml) glasses of wine or three mixed drinks if each had 1% ounces (45 rnl) of a liquor like whiskey, gin or vodka. It’s the amount of alcohol that counts. For example, if the same person drank three double martinis (3 ounces or 90 ml of liquor each) within an hour, the person’s BAC would be close to 0.12 percent. A person who consumes food just before or during drinking will have a slightly lower BAC level.


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people are impaired at a BAC approaching 0.05 percent, and that the effects are worse at night. All drivers are impaired at BAC levels above 0.05 percent. Statistics show that the chance of being in an accident increases sharply for drivers who have a BAC of 0.05 percent or above. A driver with a BAC level of 0.06 percent (three beers in one hour for a 180-pound or 82 kg person) has doubled his or her chance of having an accident. At a BAC level of 0.10 percent, the chance of that driver having an accident is six times greater; at a level of 0.15 percent, the chances are twenty-five times greater! And, the body takes about an hour to rid itself of the alcohol in one drink. No amount of coffee or number of cold showers will speed that up.


Drunken Driving (CONK) The law in most U.S. states sets the legal limit at a BAC of 0.10 percent. In Canada the limit is 0.08 percent, and in some other countries it’s lower than that. The BAC will be over 0.10 percent after three to six drinks (in one hour).


Of course, as we’ve seen, it depends on how much alcohol is in the drinks, and how quickly the person drinks them. But it’s very important to keep in mind that the ability to drive is affected well below a BAC of 0.10 percent. Research shows that the driving skills of many


“I’ll be careful” isn’t the right answer. What if there’s an emergency, a need to take sudden action, as when a child darts into the street? A person with a higher BAC might not be able to react quickly enough to avoid the collision. There’s something else about drinking and driving that many people don’t know. Medical research shows that alcohol in a person’s system can make crash injuries worse. That’s especially true for brain, spinal cord and heart injuries. That means that if anyone who has been drinking-driver or in a crash, the chance of passenger-is being killed or permanently disabled is higher than if that person had not been drinking. And we’ve already seen that


the chance of a crash itself is higher for drinking drivers.



Drinking and then driving is very dangerous. Your reflexes, perceptions, and judgment will be affected by even a small amount of alcohol. You could have a serious-or even fatal-accident you drive after drinking. Please don’t drink and drive or ride with a driver who has been drinking. Ride home in a cab; or if you’re with a group, designate a driver who will not drink.


if


Control of a Vehicle You have three systems that make your vehicle go where you want it to go. They are the brakes, the steering and the accelerator. All three systems have to do their work at the places where the tires meet the road. Sometimes, as when you’re driving on snow or ice, it’s easy to ask more of those control systems than the tires and road can provide. That means you can lose control of your vehicle.


Your Driving and the Road


Braking Braking action involves perception time and reaction time. First, you have to decide to push on the brake pedal. That’s perception time. Then you have to bring up your foot and do it. That’s reaction time. Average reaction time is about %i of a second. But that’s only an average. It might be less with one driver and as long as two or three seconds or more with another. Age, physical condition, alertness, coordination, and eyesight all play a part. So do alcohol, drugs and frustration. But even in % of a second, a vehicle moving at 60 mph (100 km/h) travels 66 feet (20 m). That could be a lot of distance in an emergency, so keeping enough space between your vehicle and others is important.


And, of course, actual stopping distances vary greatly with the surface of the road (whether it’s pavement or gravel); the condition of the road (wet, dry, icy); tire tread; and the condition of your brakes. Most drivers treat their brakes with care. Some, however, overwork the braking system with poor driving habits.


Avoid needless heavy braking. Some people drive in spurts-heavy acceleration followed by heavy braking-rather than keeping pace with traffic. This is a mistake. Your brakes may not have time to cool between hard stops. Your brakes will wear out much faster if you do-a lot of heavy braking.


_,. 1: <.,


-< , ,


,,I ,


Don’t “ride” the brakes by letting your left foot rest lightly on the brake pedal while driving.


8 8 I


1 5 4


Anti-Lock Brakes Your Pontiac has an advanced electronic braking system that will help prevent skidding.


If you keep pace with the traffic and allow realistic following distances, you will eliminate a lot of unnecessary braking. That means better braking and longer brake life.


If your engine ever stops while you’re driving, brake normally but don’t pump your brakes. If you do, the pedal may get harder to push down. If your engine stops, you will still have some power brake assist. But you will use it when you brake. Once the power assist is used up, it may take longer to stop and the brake pedal will be harder to push.



1 cause them to overheat to the


“Riding” your brakes can


point that they won’t work well. You might not be able to stop your vehicle in time to avoid an accident. If you “ride” your brakes, they will get so hot they will require a lot of pedal force to sIow you down. Avoid “riding” the brakes.


I NOTICE


“Riding” the brakes wears them out much faster. You would need costly brake replacement much sooner than normal, and it also reduces fuel economy.


Your Driving and the Road


4nti-Lock Brakes (CONT.) rhis light on the instrument panel will ;o on when you start your vehicle. See he Index under Anti-Lock Bruke System iVarning Light.


-Iere's how anti-lock works. Let's say he road is wet. You're driving safely. Suddenly an animal jumps out in front >f you. Y'ou slam on the brakes. Here's what lappens with ABS. 4 computer senses that wheels are ;lowing down. The computer separately works the brakes at each front wheel md at the rear wheels. The anti-lock system can change the )rake pressure faster than any driver :ould. The computer is programmed to nake the most of available tire and road :onditions.


'ou can steer around the obstacle while raking hard. As you brake, your omputer keeps receiving updates on {heel speed and controls braking ressure accordingly.


A *,nti-lock doesn't change the - --me you need to get your foot up to the brake pedal. If you get too close to the vehicle in front of you, you won't have time to apply your brakes if that vehicle suddenly slows or stops. Always leave enough room up ahead to stop, even though you have anti-lock brakes.


m m m 156


I--


To Use Anti-Lock: Don't pump the brakes. Just hold the brake pedal down and let anti-lock work for you. When you start your vehicle and begin to drive away, you may hear a momentary motor or clicking noise and you may even notice that your brake pedal moves a little while this is going on. This is the ABS system testing itself. You also may hear this during a hard stop.


Tiction Control (omm) Your vehicle may have a traction control system that limits wheel spin. This is especially useful in slippery road conditions. The tractidn control system works at low speeds only, such as when you accelerate from a stop. It applies brake pressure to an individual wheel that the system senses is about to spin. You may feel the system working, or you may notice some noise, but. this is normal. A TRACTION OFF warning light in the instrument cluster lets you know if your traction control system is not working. See the Index under Traction Control System Warning Light.


To turn the system off, press the TRACTION CONTROL switch on the center console while the vehicle is stopped. The TRACTION OFF warning light will come on and stay on. To turn the system back on, bring the vehicle to a stop and press the switch again. The warning light should go off. The system will also turn itself on if you turn your ignition off and back on again.


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Your Driving and the Road


I bAU I I U I V


Disc Brake Wear Indicators Your Pontiac has front disc brakes and rear drum brakes. Disc brake pads have built-in wear indicators that make a high-pitched warning sound when the brake pads are worn and new pads are needed. The sound may come and go or be heard all the time your vehicle is moving (except when you are pushing on the brake pedal firmly).


Continuing to drive with worn-out brake pads could result in costly brake repair.


Some driving conditions or climates may cause a brake squeal when the brakes are first applied or lightly applied. This does not mean something is wrong with your brakes.


Rear Drum Brakes Your rear drum brakes don’t have wear indicators, but if you ever hear a rear brake rubbing noise, have the rear brake linings inspected. Also, the rear brake drums should be removed and inspected each time the tires are removed for rotation or changing. When you have the front brakes replaced, have the rear brakes inspected, too. Brake linings should always be replaced as complete axle sets. Brake Pedal Travel See your dealer if the brake pedal does not return to normal height, or if there is a rapid increase in pedal travel. This could be a sign of brake trouble.


Brake Adjustment Every time you make a moderate brake stop, your brakes adjust for wear. If you rarely make a moderate or heavier stop, then your brakes might not adjust correctly. If you drive in that way, then-very carefully-make a few moderate brake stops about every 1,000 miles (1 600 km), so your brakes will adjust properly.


Braking In Emergencies Use your anti-lock braking system when you need to. With anti-lock, you can steer and brake at the same time. In many emergencies, steering can help you more than even the very best braking.


...


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Your Driving and the Road


Power Steering If you lose power steering assist because the engine stops or the system fails to function, you can steer but it will take much more effort.


Variable Effort Steering If your vehicle is equipped with this option, you have a variable effort steering system that eases steering effort at speeds less than 20 mph (32 W h ) . This is particularly useful when parking your vehicle.


Steering Tips-Driving on Curves It’s important to take curves at a reasonable speed. A lot of the “driver lost control” accidents mentioned on the news happen on curves. Here’s why: Experienced driver or beginner, each of us is subject to the same laws of physics when driving on curves. The traction of the tires against the road surface makes its it possible for the vehicle to change path when you turn the front wheels. If there’s no traction, inertia will keep the vehicle going in the same direction. If you’ve ever tried to steer a vehicle on wet ice, you’ll understand this.


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The traction you can get in a curve depends on the condition of your tires and the road surface, the angle at which the curve is banked, and your speed. While you’re in a curve, speed is the one factor you can control. Suppose you’re steering through a sharp curve. Then you suddenly accelerate. Those two control systems-steering and acceleration-can overwhelm those places where the tires meet the road and make you lose control. What should you do if this ever happens? Let up on the brake or accelerator pedal, steer the vehicle the way you want it to go, and slow down.


Speed limit signs near curves warn that you should adjust your speed. Of course, the posted speeds are based on good weather and road conditions. Under less favorable conditions you’ll want to go slower. If you need to reduce your speed as you approach a curve, do it before you enter the curve, while your front wheels are straight ahead. Try to adjust your speed so you can “drive” through the curve. Maintain a reasonable, steady speed. Wait to accelerate until you are out of the curve, and then accelerate gently into the straightaway. When you drive into a curve at night, it’s harder to see the road ahead of you because it bends away from the straight beams of your lights. This is one good reason to drive slower.


Steering in Emergencies There are times when steering can be more effective than braking. For example, you come over a hill and find a truck stopped in your lane, or a car suddenly pulls out from nowhere, or a child darts out from between parked cars and stops right in front of you. You can avoid these problems by braking-if you can stop in time. But sometimes you can’t; there isn’t room. That’s the time for evasive action-steering around the problem. Your Pontiac can perform very well in emergencies like these. First apply your brakes. It is better to remove as much speed as you can from a possible collision. Then steer around the problem, to the left or right depending on the space available.


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‘Your Driving and the Road


Steering in Emergencies (CONI) An emergency like this requires close attention and a quick decision. If you are holding the steering wheel at the recommended 9 and 3 o’clock positions, you can turn it a full 180 degrees very quickly without removing either hand. But you have to act fast, steer quickly, and just as quickly straighten the wheel once you have avoided the object. You must then be prepared to steer back to your original lane and then brake to a controlled stop. Depending on your speed, this can be rather violent for an unprepared driver. This is one of the reasons driving experts recommend that you use your safety belts and keep both hands on the steering wheel. The fact that such emergency situations are always possible is a good reason to practice defensive driving at all times.


1 6 2


Off-Road Recovery You may find sometime that your right wheels have dropped off the edge of a road onto the shoulder while you’re driving. If the level of the shoulder is only slightly below the pavement, recovery should be fairly easy. Ease off the accelerator and then, if there is nothing in the way, steer so that your vehicle straddles the edge of the pavement. You can turn the steering wheel up to 5/4 turn until the right front tire contacts the pavement edge. Then turn your steering wheel to go straight down the roadway. If the shoulder appears to be about four inches (100 mm) or more below the pavement, this difference can cause


problems. If there is not enough room to pull entirely onto the shoulder and stop, then follow the same procedures. But if the right front tire scrubs against the side of the pavement, do not steer more sharply. With too much steering angle, the vehicle may jump back onto the road with so much steering input that it crosses over into the oncoming traffic before you can bring it back under control. Instead, ease off again on the accelerator and steering input, straddle the pavement once more, then try again.


Passing The driver of a vehicle about to pass another on a two-lane highway waits for just the right moment, accelerates, moves around the vehicle ahead, then goes back into the right lane again. A simple maneuver? Not necessarily! Passing another vehicle on a two-lane highway is a potentially dangerous move, since the passing vehicle occupies the same lane as oncoming traffic for several seconds. A miscalculation, an error in judgment, or a brief surrender to frustration or anger can suddenly put the passing driver face to face with the worst of all traffic accidents-the head-on collision. So here are some tips for passing:


“Drive ahead.” Look down the road, to the sides, and to crossroads for situations that might affect your passing patterns. If you have any doubt whatsoever about making a successful. pass, wait for a better time.


Watch for traffic signs, pavement markings, and lines. If you can see a sign up ahead that might indicate a turn or an intersection, delay your pass. A broken center line usually indicates it’s all right to pass (providing the road ahead is clear). Never cross a solid line on your side of the lane or a double solid line, even if the road seems empty of approaching traffic. If you suspect that the driver of the vehicle you want to pass isn’t aware of your presence, tap the horn a couple of times before passing. Do not get too close to the vehicle you want to pass while you’re awaiting an opportunity. For one thing, following too closely reduces your area of vision, especially if you’re following a larger vehicle. Also, you won’t have adequate space if the vehicle ahead suddenly slows or stops. Keep back a reasonable distance.


When it looks like a chance to pass is coming up, start to accelerate but stay in the right lane and don’t get too close. Time your move so you will be increasing speed as the time comes to move into the other lane. If the way is clear to pass, you will have a “running start’’ that more than makes up for the distance you would lose by dropping back. And if something happens to cause you to cancel your pass, you need only slow down and drop back again and wait for another opportunity. If other cars are lined up to pass a slow vehicle, wait your turn. But take care that someone isn’t trying to pqss you as you pull out to pass the slow vehicle. Remember to glance over your shoulder and check the blind spot. Check your mirrors, glance over your shoulder, and start your left lane change signal before moving out of the


1 6 3


Your Driving and the Road


Passing (CONX:) right lane to pass. When you are far enough ahead of the passed vehicle to see its front in your inside mirror, activate your right lane change signal and move back into the right lane. (Remember that your right outside mirror is convex. The vehicle you just passed may seem to be farther away from you than it really is.) Try not to pass more than one vehicle at a time on two-lane roads. Reconsider before passing the next vehicle. Don’t overtake a slowly moving vehicle too rapidly. Even though the brake lights are not flashing, it may be slowing down or starting to turn. If you’re being passed, make it easy for the following driver to get ahead of you. Perhaps you can ease a little to the right.


Loss of Control Let’s review what driving experts say about what happens when the three control systems (brakes, steering and acceleration) don’t have enough friction where the tires meet the road to do what the driver has asked. In any emergency, don’t give up. Keep trying to steer and constantly seek an escape route or area of less danger.


Skidding In a skid, a driver can lose control of the vehicle. Defensive drivers avoid most skids by taking reasonable care suited to existing conditions, and by not “overdriving” those conditions. But skids are always possible. The three types of skids correspond to your Pontiac’s three control systems. In the braking skid your wheels aren’t rolling. In the steering or cornering skid, too much speed or steering in a curve causes tires to slip and lose cornering force. And in the acceleration skid too much throttle causes the driving wheels to spin. A cornering skid and an acceleration skid are best handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal. If your vehicle starts to slide (as when you turn


a corner on a wet, snow- or ice-covered road), ease your foot off the accelerator pedal as soon as you feel the vehicle start to slide. Quickly steer the way you want the vehicle to go. If you start steering quickly enough, your vehicle will straighten out. As it does, straighten the front wheels. Of course, traction is reduced when water, snow, ice, gravel, or other material is on the road. For safety, you’ll want to slow down and adjust your driving to these conditions. It is important to slow down on slippery surfaces because stopping distance will be longer and vehicle control more limited.


While driving on a surface with reduced traction, try your best to avoid sudden steering, acceleration, or braking (including engine braking by shifting to a lower gear). Any sudden changes could cause the tires to slide. You may not realize the surface is slippery until your vehicle is skidding. Learn to recognize warning clues-such as enough water, ice or packed snow on the road to make a “mirrored surface”-and slow down when you have any doubt. Remember: Any anti-lock braking system (ABS) helps avoid only the braking slud. Steer the way you want to go.


Driving at Night Night driving is more dangerous than day driving. One reason is that some drivers are likely to be impaired-by alcohol or drugs, with night vision problems, or by fatigue. Here are some tips on night driving.


Drive defensively. Remember, this is the most dangerous time. Don’t drink and drive. (See the Index under Drunken Driving for more on this problem.) Adjust your inside rearview mirror to reduce the glare from headlights behind you.


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Your Driving and the Road


Driving at Night (CONT.:) Since you can’t see as well, you may need to slow down and keep more space between you and other vehicles. It’s hard to tell how fast the vehicle ahead is going just by looking at its taillights. Slow down, especially on higher speed roads, Your headlights can light up only so much road ahead. In remote areas, watch for animals. If you’re tired, pull off the road in a safe place and rest.


Night Hsion No one can see as well at night as in the daytime. But as we get older these differences increase. A 50-year-old driver may require at least twice as much light to see the same thing at night as a 20-year-old. What you do in the daytime can also affect your night vision. For example, if you spend the day in bright sunshine you are wise to wear sunglasses. Your eyes will have less trouble adjusting to night. But if you’re driving, don’t wear

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