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this button to select between five preset equalization

SCAN - Press and hold the center of the SEEK button to momentarily hear each available station. Release the button when SCAN appears in the display. The receiver will continue to scan and momentarily stop at each station until you press the center of the SEEK button again. p. SCAN (Preset Scan) - Press this button to scan each preset pushbutton station. The receiver will continue to scan and momentarily stop at each station until you press either P. SCAN again or one of the six pushbuttons. The AUTO SCAN setting for that preset button will also return. The pushbutton number (Pl-P6) will appear momentarily just before frequency is displayed. AUTO TONE -Press settings and tailor the sound to the music or voice being heard. Each time you press the button, the selection will switch to one of the preset settings of CLASSIC, NEWS, ROCK, POP, or JAZZ. The display will show which mode the receiver is in. To return to the manual mode, press and release AUTO TONE until MAN (manual) appears in the display. This will return the tone adjustment to the TREB and BASS controls. Also, any time a TREB or BASS control is rotated, tone is automatically set back to MAN (manual). FADE - Press lightly on the FADE knob to release it from its stored position and pull it out to the fully extended position. Rotate the knob clockwise to adjust sound to the front speakers and counterclockwise to adjust sound to the rear speakers. Push the knob back in to the stored position when done. BAL - Press lightly on the BAL knob to release it from its stored position and pull it out to the fully extended position. Rotate the knob clockwise to adjust sound to the right speakers and counterclockwise to adjust sound to the left speakers. Push the knob back in to the stored position when done. BASS - Press lightly on the BASS knob to release it from its stored position and pull it out to the fully extended position. Rotate the knob clockwise to increase the bass response and counterclockwise to decrease bass response. Any time the BASS control is rotated, tone is automatically set back to MAN (manual). Push the knob back in to the stored position when done. TREBLE - Press lightly on the TREB knob to release it from its stored position and pull it out to the fully extended position. Rotate the knob clockwise to increase the treble response and counterclockwise to decrease treble response. Any time the TREB control is rotated, tone is automatically set back to MAN (manual). Push the knob back in to the stored position when done.


To Play A Compact Disc

NOTICE: DO NOT use mini-discs that are called singles. They won’t. eject. USE FULL-SIZE COMPACT DISCS.

Press the PWR knob to turn {he player on. Inserting a disc partway with the power off and ignition on will also turn the player on. Insert a disc into the slot, label side up. The player w i l l pull it in. Wait a few seconds and the disc should play. When a disc is in the player, a CD symbol will appear in the display. When a disc is playing, the letters CD will appear next to the CD symbol. If the disc player is very hot, or if you’re driving o n a very rough road. a disc may come out or just not play. If you see the word Err on the display. the disc player is too hot to play the disc. Press RECALL to make the word Err go off the display. When things get back to normal. the disc should play again. If the disc comes back out. check whether:

0 The disc is upside doM;n.

It is dirty. scratched. or wet. Too much moisture is in the air. (If there is, wait about one hour and try again.)

RECALL - Press RECALL to see what track is playing. Press it again within 5 seconds to see how long the CD has been playing that track. Elapsed time is displayed in minutes and tenths of a second. The track number will also appear when a new track begins to play. Press RECALL again to return to the time display. COMP - Press the COMP button to make soft and loud passages more nearly equal in volume. “COMP” will appear in the display while using this control. PREV ( 1) - Press PREV or 4 SEEK to search for the previous selection. If you hold this button or press it more than once, the disc will advance further. PREV will appear in the display. RDM (2) - Press RDM to play the tracks on the disc in random (instead of 1. 2, 3 ...) order. While in the RDM mode, RANDOM appears in the display. Press RDM again to return to normal play. NEXT (3) - Press NEXT or SEEK you hold this button or press it more than once, the disc will advance further. NEXT will appear in the display.

to search for the next selection. If


REV (4)- Press and hold REV to return rapidly to a I'avorite passage. You will hear the disc selection play at high speed while you press the REV button. This allows you to listen and find out when the disc is at the desired selection passage. Release REV to reslmle playing. 00 (5)- Press 00 t o reduce tape noise (fez I w r o t c ctr.s.smc p i c y ~ ~ r is rrscci. The 00 symbol will appear i n the display while thc player is in this mode. FWD (6)- Press and hold FWD to adc.ance rapidly w i t h i n a track. You will hear the disc selection play a t high speed while you press the FWD button. This allows you t o listen and find out when the disc is at the desired selection passage. Release FWD t o resume playing. CD AUX - To switch between the player and thc radio whcn a disc is pluying, press the A M E M button. To return t o the tape player. press CD AUX. When a disc is plqing. thc letters CD and the CD symbol will appear in the display. EJECT - Press EJECT t o eject the disc from the plnycr and play the radio. When the same or a new disc is inserted. the disc will start playing on track I . 00 Dolby'"' Noise Reduction is manufactured under a license from Dolby Laboratories Licensing Corporation. Dolby" and the 00 symbol are trademarks of Dolby Laboratories Licensing Corporation.

THEFTLOCK Theft Deterrent Feature THEFTLOCK is an anti-theft feature for the compact disc player. It can be used or ignored. If igno~-c=d, the system plays normally. If it is used. your player won't be usable if it is ever stolen. because it will go to LOC mode any time the battery power is removed. After a loss of battery power, the player cannot be turned o n unless an unlock code is entered. The following instructions tell you how to enter II secret code into the system. If your vehicle loses battery power for any reason. you must unlock the system with the secret code before the radio will turn on. To Lock The System: 1. Write down any number from 000 to 999 and keep it in a safe place 2. Turn the ignition t o ACC or RUN. 3. Turn the radio off. 4. Press the I and 4 buttons together. Hold them down until .'- - -" shows

on the display. You are 11ow ready to enter your secret code. Don't wait more than 15 seconds bctween any of the following steps. If you do, the radio automatically returns to time display and you must start the procedure over at step 4.


5. Press MIN and “000” will appear on the display. 6. Press the MIN button again to make the last two digits agree with your


7. Press HR to make the first one or two digits agree with your code. 8. Press AM/FM after you have confirmed that the code matches the one you wrote down. rEP appears in the display, indicating that you need to repeat steps 5 through 7.

9. Press AM/FM and this time the display will show SEC. With the ignition off, the THEFTLOCK indicator will flash.

To Unlock THEFTLOCK After a Power Loss When battery power is reapplied to a secured radio, the radio won’t turn on and “LOC” will appear on the display. Enter your secret code as follows. Pause no more than 15 seconds between steps.

1. Turn the ignition on. 2. Turn the radio off. 3. Press MIN and “000” will appear on the display. 4. Press the MIN button again to make the last two digits agree with your


5 . Press HR to make the first one or two digits agree with your code. 6. Press AM/FM after you have confirmed that the code matches the one you wrote down. SEC appears in the display indicating that the radio is now operable.

To Disable THEFTLOCK 1 . 2. 3.

Turn the ignition on. Turn the radio off. With the time showing in the display, press the 1 and 4 buttons together. Hold them down until “SEC” shows on the display. You are now ready to enter your secret code. Don’t wait more than 15 seconds between any of the following steps. Press MIN and “000” will appear on the display. Press the MIN button again to make the last two digits agree with your code. Press HR to make the first one or two digits agree with your code.

4. 5.



7. Press AM/FM after you have confirmed that the code matches the one

’‘ will appear in the display, indicating that the

you wrote down. - system is unsecured (disabled).

i d

If the code is incorrect, “SEC” will appear in the display and the system will still be secured. The radio will still operate if it is secured or unsecured. If “SEC” appears and you still want to disable the system, follow the disable procedure again and enter the correct code. Remote Cassette Player - ETRR AM-FM Stereo Audio Compact Disc ATC System

System that includes a remote cassette player, the cassette player is located in the center of the instrument panel.

Your tape player is built to work best with tapes that are 30 to 45 minutes long on each side. Tapes longer than that are so thin they may not work well in this player. To load a cassette tape with the ignition off, first press EJECT. Then, insert the cassette tape. Once the tape is playing, use the control knobs for volume, balance, fade, treble and bass just as you do for the radio. A lighted tape symbol shows when a cassette tape is in the player. A lighted arrow will also appear and show the direction of play when a tape is active. The player automatically senses if the cassette tape is metal or CRO;! and adjusts for best playback sound. For metal tapes, 00 (Dolby@ Noise Reduction) will appear in the display. Any time a cassette tape is inserted, the top side is selected for play first. PREV (1) - Press PREV or 4 SEEK (in the opposite direction that the lighted tape direction arrow points) to search for the previous selection. A minimum three-second blank gap is needed for the player to stop at the beginning of the selection. The tape direction arrow will blink during the SEEK operation and the audio is in the mute mode.


(in the direction that the lighted tape

PROG (on cassette player) - Press PROG to go from one side of the tape to the other. NEXT (3) - Press NEXT or SEEK direction arrow points) to search for the next selection. A minimum three-second blank gap is needed for the player to stop at the beginning of the selection. NEXT will appear in the display and the audio is in the mute mode. REV (4) - To rapidly reverse the tape, press REV and the tape will rapidly reverse to the beginning of the cassette reel or until you press REV again. The radio plays the last selected station during REV. 00 ( 5 ) - 00 is active at all times with a tape inserted in the remote cassette. 00 will appear in the display. FWD (6) - To rapidly advance the tape, press FWD and the tape will rapidly advance to the end of the cassette reel or until you press FWD again. The radio plays the last selected station during FWD. TAPE - To switch between the player and the radio when a tape is playing, press the AM/FM button. To return to the tape player, press CD AUX. The lighted arrow will appear next to the tape symbol and show the direction of play when a tape is active. EJECT (on cassette player) - To remove the tape press the EJECT button. EJECT can be used with either the ignition or radio off. Also, you must press EJECT before loading a cassette with the radio off to allow loading. If a tape is inserted with side “1” (or “A”) up, then the right arrow means that that side is being played. Likewise, a left arrow would indicate that side b‘2“ (or “B”) had been selected. 00 Dolby” Noise Reduction is manufactured under a lice-nse from Dolby Laboratories Licensing Corporation. DolbyB and the 00 symbol are trademarks of Dolby Laboratories Licensing Corporation.

Understanding Radio Reception FM stereo will give you the best sound. But FM signals will reach only about 10 to 40 miles ( I 6 to 65 km). And, tall buildings or hills can interfere with FM signals, causing the sound to come and go. The range for most AM stations is greater than for FM, especially at night. The longer range, however, can cause stations to interfere with each other. AM can pick up noise from things like stornx and power lines. Try reducing the treble to reduce this noise if you ever get it. AM Stereo means the Delco‘ system can receive C-QUAM“stereo broadcasts. Many AM stations around the county use C-QUAM“ to produce stereo, though some do not. (C-QUAM& is a registered trademark of Motorola, Inc.) If your Delco@ system can get C-QUAMa, your “STEREO” light will come on when you’re receiving it.


Be aware that hearing damage from loud noise is almost undetectable until it is too late. Your hearing can adapt to higher volumes of sound. Sound that seems normal can be loud and harmful to your hearing. Take precautions by adjusting the volume control on your radio to a safe sound level before your hearing adapts to it. To help avoid hearing loss or damage:

1. Adjust the volume control to the lowest setting. 2. Increase volume slowly until you hear comfortably and clearly.

NOTICE: Before you add any sound equipment to your vehicle - like a tape player, CB radio, mobile telephone or two-way radio - be sure you can add what you want. If you can, it’s very important to do it properly. Added sound equipment may interfere with the operation of your vehicle’s engine, Delcoa radio or other systems, and even damage them. And, your vehicle’s systems may interfere with the operation of sound equipment that has been added improperly. So, before adding sound equipment, check with your dealer and be sure to check Federal rules covering mobile radio and telephone units.

Care of Your Cassette Player and Tapes A tape player that is not cleaned regularly is subject to reduced sound quality, ruining the cassette, or damaging the mechanism. Tape cassettes that are not properly stored in their plastic cases away from contaminants, direct sunlight, and extreme heat may not operate properly and could cause premature failure of the tape player. Your tape player should be cleaned with every 50 hours of use to provide optimum performance. Your radio may display “Cln” (Clean) to indicate that you have used your tape player for 50 hours without re-setting the tape clean timer. If you notice a reduction in sound quality, regardless of when the tape player was last cleaned, try playing a different cassette to see if the tape or tape player is at fault. If the second cassette results in no improvement in sound quality, try cleaning the tape player. Proper tape player cleaning should be done with a scrubbing action, non-abrasive cleaning cassette. This is a wet-type cleaning system that uses a cleaning cassette with pads which scrub the tape head as the hubs of the cleaner cassette turn. To properly clean your tape player, follow instructions with the cleaning cassette. If you use this type of cleaner, the radio may


display an error and eject the cartridge. This is normal and is the result of an added feature in the tape player that detects broken tapes. If an e.rror occurs, you will need to insert the cleaning cassette at least 3 times to thoroughly clean the tape player. You may prefer to use a non-scrubbing action, wet-type cleaner. This type of cleaner uses a fabric belt to clean the tape head. This type of cleaner cassette will not cause an error, but it may not clean the tape player as thoroughly as the scrubbing type cleaner. A scrubbing action cleaner cassette is available through your retailer (SPO # 12344600). Cassettes are subject to wear and the sound quality may degrade over time. Always verify that the cassette tape is in good condition and the tape player is clean before obtaining service on your tape player.

NOTICE: Cassette tape adapter kits for portable CD players will not work in your cassette player. These adapters will cause the radio to display an error and the adapter cassette will be ejected.

Care of Compact Discs Handle discs carefully. Store them in their original cases or other protective cases and away from direct sunlight and dust. If the surface of a disc is soiled, dampen a clean, soft cloth in a mild, neutral detergent solution and clean it, wiping from the center to the edge. Be sure never to touch the signal surface when handling discs. Pick up discs by grasping the outer edges or the edge of the hole and the outer edge.

Fixed Mast Antenna The fixed mast antenna can withstand most car washes without damaged. If the mast should ever become slightly bent, you can straighten it out by hand. If the mast is badly bent, as it might be by vandals, you should rep1 ace it. Check every once in a while to be sure the mast is still tightened to the fender.








Your Driving and the Road


Here you'll find information about driving on different kinds of roads and in varying weather conditions. We've also included many other useful tips on driving.

Defensive Driving The best advice anyone can give about driving is: Drive defensively. Please start with a very important safety device in your vehicle: Buckle up. (See "Safety Belts" in the Index.) Defensive driving really means "be ready for anything.'' On city streets, rural roads, or freeways, it means "always expect the unexpected.'' Assume that pedestrians or other drivers are going to be careless and make mistakes. Anticipate what they might do. Be ready for their mistakes.

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Rear-end collisions are about the most preventable of accidents. Yet they are common. Allow enough following distance. It’s the best defensive driving maneuver, in both city and rural driving. You never know when the vehicle in front of you is going to brake or turn suddenly. Drunken Driving Death and injury associated with drinking and driving is a national tragedy. It’s the number one contributor to the highway death toll, claiming thousands of victims every year. Alcohol affects four things that anyone needs to drive a vehicle:

Judgment Muscular Coordination Vision Attentiveness

Police records show that almost half of all motor vehicle-related deaths involve alcohol. In most cases, these deaths are the result of someone who was drinking and driving. In recent years, some 18,000 annual motor vehicle-related deaths have been associated with the use of alcohol, with more than 300,000 people injured. Many adults - by some estimates, nearly half the adult population - choose never to drink alcohol, so they never drive after drinking. For persons under 2 I , it’s against the law in every U.S. state to drink alcohol. There are good medical, psychological and developmental reasons for these laws. The obvious way to solve this highway safety problem is for people never to drink alcohol and then drive. But what if people do‘? How much is “too much” if the driver plans to drive? It’s a lot less than many might think. Although it depends on each person and situation, here is some general information on the problem. The Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of someone who is drinking depends upon four things:

How much alcohol consumed The drinker’s body weight The amount of food that is consumed before and during drinking The length of time it has taken the drinker to consume the alcohol


According to the American Medical Association, a 180-pound (82 kg) person who drinks three 12-ounce (355 ml) bottles of beer in an hour will end up with a BAC of about 0.06 percent. The person would reach the same BAC, by drinking three 4-ounce (120 ml) glasses of wine or three mixed drinks if each had 1-1/2 ounces (45 ml) of a liquor like whiskey, gin or vodka.

It’s the amount of alcohol that counts. For example, if the same person drank three double martinis (3 ounces or 90 ml of liquor each) within an hour, the person’s BAC would be close to 0.12 percent. A person who consumes food just before or during drinking will have a somewhat lower BAC level. There is a gender difference, too. Women generally have a lower relative percentage of body water than men. Since alcohol is carried in body water, this means that a woman generally will reach a higher BAC level than a man of her same body weight when each has the same number of drinks. The law in many U.S. states sets the legal limit at a BAC of 0.10 percent. In a growing number of U.S. states, and throughout Canada, the limit is 0.08 percent. In some other countries it’s even lower. The BAC limit for all commercial drivers in the U.S. is 0.04 percent. The BAC will be over 0.10 percent after three to six drinks (in one hour). Of course, as we’ve seen, it depends on how much alcohol is in the drinks, and how quickly the person drinks them. But the ability to drive is affected well below a BAC of 0.10 percent. Research shows that the driving skills of many people are impaired at a BAC approaching 0.05 percent, and that the effects are worse at night. All drivers are impaired at BAC levels above 0.05 percent. Statistics show that the chance of being in a collision increases sharply for drivers who have a BAC of 0.05 percent or above. A driver with a BAC level of 0.06 percent has doubled his or her chance of having a collision. At a BAC level of 0.10 percent, the chance of this driver having a collision is twelve times greater; at a level of 0.15 percent, the chance is twenty-five times greater!


itself of the alcohol in one drink. No The body takes about an hour to rid amount of coffee or number of cold showers will speed that up. “I’ll be careful” isn’t the right answer. What if there’s an emergency, a need to take sudden action, as when a child darts into the street? A person with even a moderate BAC might not be able to react quickly enough to avoid the collision. There’s something else about drinking and driving that many people don’t know. Medical research shows that alcohol in a person’s system can make crash injuries worse, especially injuries to the brain, spinal cQrd or heart. This means that when anyone who has been drinking - driver or passenger - is in a crash, that person’s chance of being killed or permanently disabled is higher than if the person had not been drinking.

Control of a Vehicle You have three systems that make your vehicle go where you want it to go. They are the brakes, the steering and the accelerator. All three systems have to do their work at the places where the tires meet the road.


Sometimes, as when you’re driving on snow or ice, it’s easy to ask more of those control systems than the tires and road can provide. That means you can lose control of your vehicle. Braking Braking action involves perception tinze and reaction time. First, you have to decide to push on the brake pedal. That’s perception time. Then you have to bring up your foot and do it. That’s reaction time. Average reuction tinze is about 3/4 of a second. But that’s only an average. It might be less with one driver and as long as two or three seconds or more with another. Age, physical condition, alertness, coordination, and eyesight all play a part. So do alcohol, drugs and frustration. But even in 3/4 of a second, a vehicle moving at 60 mph (1 00 km/h) travels 66 feet (20 m). That could be a lot of distance in an emergency, so keeping enough space between your vehicle and others is important. And, of course, actual stopping distances vary greatly with the surface of the road (whether it’s pavement or gravel); the condition of the road (wet, dry, icy); tire tread; and the condition of your brakes. Avoid needless heavy braking. Some people drive in spurts - heavy acceleration followed by heavy braking - rather than keeping pace with traffic. This is a mistake. Your brakes may not have time to cool between hard stops. Your brakes will wear out much faster if you do a lot of heavy braking. If you keep pace with the traffic and allow realistic following distances, you will eliminate a lot of unnecessary braking. That means better braking and longer brake life. If your engine ever stops while you’re driving, brake normally but don’t pump your brakes. If you do, the pedal may get harder to push down. If your engine stops, you will still have some power brake assist. But you will use it when you brake. Once the power assist is used up, it may take longer to stop and the brake pedal will be harder to push.


Anti-Lock Brakes (ABS) Your vehicle has an advanced electronic braking system that can help you keep it under control. When you start your vehicle and begin to drive away, you may hear a momentary motor or clicking noise. This is the ABS system testing itself.

Here's how anti-lock works. Let's say the road is wet. You're driving safely. Suddenly an animal jumps out in front of you. You slam on the brakes. Here's what happens with ABS. A computer senses that wheels are slowing down. If one of the wheels is about to stop rolling, the computer will separately work the brakes at each front wheel and at the rear wheels. The anti-lock system can change the brake pressure faster than any driver could. The computer is programmed to make the most of available tire and road conditions.

You can steer around the obstacle while braking hard. As you brake, your computer keeps receiving updates on wheel speed and controls braking pressure accordingly.


Remember: Anti-lock doesn’t change the time you need to get your foot up to the brake pedal. If you get too close to the vehicle in front of you, you won’t have time to apply your brakes if that vehicle suddenly slows or stops. Always leave enough room up ahead to stop, even though you have anti-lock brakes.

To Use Anti-Lock Don’t pump the brakes. Just hold the brake pedal down and let anti-lock work for you. You may feel the brakes vibrate, or you may notice some noise, but this is normal. On vehicles with four-wheel drive, your anti-lock brakes work at all times - whether you are in two-wheel drive or four-wheel drive.

Braking in Emergencies Use your anti-lock braking system when you need to. With anti-lock, you can steer and brake at the same time. In many emergencies, steering can help you more than even the very best braking. Steering Power Steering If you lose power steering assist because the engine stops or the system is not functioning, you can steer but it will take much more effort.

Steering Tips

Driving on Curves It’s important to take curves at a reasonable speed. A lot of the “driver lost control’’ accidents mentioned on the news happen on curves. Here’s why: Experienced driver or beginner, each of us is subject to the same laws of physics when driving on curves. The traction of the tires against the road surface makes it possible for the vehicle to change its path when you turn the front wheels. If there’s no traction, inertia will keep the vehicle going in the same direction. If you’ve ever tried to steer a vehicle on wet ice, you’ll understand this. The traction you can get in a curve depends on the condition of your tires and the road surface, the angle at which the curve is banked, and your speed. While you’re in a curve, speed is the one factor you can control.


Suppose you’re steering through a sharp curve. Then you suddenly accelerate. Both control systems - steering and acceleration - have to do their work where the tires meet the road. Adding the sudden acceleration can demand too much of those places. You can lose control. What should you do if this ever happens‘? Ease up on the accelerator pedal, steer the vehicle the way you want it to go, and slow down. Speed limit signs near curves warn that you should adjust your speed. Of course, the posted speeds are based on good weather and road conditions. Under less fivorable conditions you’ll want to go slower. If you need to reduce your speed as you approach a curve, do it before you enter the curve, while your front wheels are straight ahead. Try to adjust your speed so you can “drive” through the curve. Maintain a reasonable, steady speed. Wdit to accelerate until you are out of the curve, and then accelerate gently into the straightaway.

Steering in Emergencies There are times when steering can be more effective than braking. For example, you come over a hill and find a truck stopped in your lane, or a car suddenly pulls out from nowhere, or a child darts out from between parked cars and stops right in front of you. You can avoid these problems by braking - if you can stop in time. But sometimes you can’t; there isn’t room. That’s the time for evasive action - steering around the problem. Your vehicle can perform very well in emergencies like these. First apply your brakes. (See “Braking in Emergencies” earlier in this section.) It is better to remove as much speed as you can from a possible collision. Then steer around the problem, to the left or right depending on the space available. An emergency like this requires close attention and a quick decision. If you are holding the steering wheel at the recommended 9 and 3 o’clock positions, you can turn it a full 180 degrees very quickly without removing either hand. But you have to act fast, steer quickly, and just as quickly straighten the wheel once you have avoided the object.


is a good reason

The fact that such emergency situations are always possible to practice defensive driving at all times and wear safety belts properly. Off-Road Recovery You may find sometime that your right wheels have dropped a road onto the shoulder while you’re driving. If the level of the shoulder is only slightly below the pavement, recovery should be fairly easy. Ease off the accelerator and then, if there is nothing in the way, steer so that your vehicle straddles the edge of the pavement. You can turn the steering wheel up to 1/4 turn until the right front tire contacts the pavement edge. Then turn your steering wheel to go straight down the roadway.

off the edge of

1. Edge of Road


2. Slow Down 3. Left Approx. Quarter Turn

4. Recover


Passing The driver of a vehicle about to pass another on a two-lane highway waits for just the right moment, accelerates, moves around the vehicle ahead, then goes back into the right lane again. A simple maneuver? Not necessarily! Passing another vehicle on a two-lane highway is a potentially dangerous move, since the passing vehicle occupies the same lane as oncoming traffic for several seconds. A miscalculation, an error in judgment, or a brief surrender to frustration or anger can suddenly put the passing driver face to face with the worst of all traffic accidents - the .head-on collision. So here are some tips for passing:

0 “Drive ahead.” Look down the road, to the sides, and to crossroads for

a solid line on your

If you have any doubt

situations that might affect your passing patterns. whatsoever about making a successful pass, wait for a better time. Watch for traffic signs, pavement markings, and lines. If you can see a sign up ahead that might indicate a turn or an intersection, delay your pass. A broken center line usually indicates it’s all right to pass (providing the road ahead is clear). Never cross side of the lane or a double solid line, even if the road seems empty of approaching traffic. Do not get too close to the vehicle you want to pass while you’re awaiting an opportunity. For one thing, following too closely reduces your area of vision, especially if you’re following a larger vehicle. Also, you won’t have adequate space if the vehicle ahead suddenly slows or stops. Keep back a reasonable distance. When it looks like a chance to pass is coming up, start to accelerate but stay in the right lane and don’t get too close. Time your move so you will be increasing speed as the time comes to move into the other lane. If the way is clear to pass, you will have a “running start” that more than makes up for the distance you would lose by dropping back. And if something happens to cause you to cancel your pass, you need only slow down and drop back again and wait for another opportunity. If other cars are lined up to pass a slow vehicle, wait your turn. But take care that someone isn’t trying to pass the slow vehicle. Remember to glance over your shoulder and check the blind spot.

you as you pull out to pass

0 Check your mirrors, glance over your shoulder, and start your left lane

change signal before moving out of the right lane to pass. When you are far enough ahead of the passed vehicle to see its front in your inside mirror, activate your right lane change signal and move back into the right lane. (Remember that if your right outside mirror is convex, the vehicle you just passed may seem to be farther away from you than it really is.)

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Try not to pass more than one vehicle at a time on two-lane roads. Reconsider before passing the next vehicle.

0 Don’t overtake a slowly moving vehicle too rapidly. Even though the

brake lights are not flashing, it may be slowing down or starting to turn. If you’re being passed, make it easy for the following driver to get ahead of you. Perhaps you can ease a little to the right.

Loss of Control Let’s review what driving experts say about what happens when the three control systems (brakes, steering and acceleration) don’t have enough friction where the tires meet the road to do what the driver has asked. In any emergency, don’t give up. Keep trying to steer and constantly seek an escape route or area of less danger. Skidding In a skid, a driver can lose control of the vehicle. Defensive drivers avoid most skids by taking reasonable care suited to existing conditions, and by not “overdriving” those conditions. But skids are always possible. The three types of skids correspond to your vehicle’s three control systems. In the braking skid your wheels aren’t rolling. In the steering or cornering skid, too much speed or steering in a curve causes tires to slip and lose cornering force. And in the acceleration skid too much throttle causes the driving wheels to spin. A cornering skid and an acceleration skid are best handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal. If your vehicle starts to slide, ease your foot off the accelerator pedal and quickly steer the way you want the vehicle to go. If you start steering quickly enough, your vehicle may straighten out. Always be ready for a second skid if it occurs. Of course, traction is reduced when water, snow, ice, gravel, or other material is on the road. For safety, you’ll want to slow down and adjust your driving to these conditions. It is important to slow down on slippery surfaces because stopping distance will be longer and vehicle control more limited. While driving on a surface with reduced traction, try your best to avoid sudden steering, acceleration. or braking (including engine braking by shifting to a lower gear). Any sudden changes could cause the tires to slide. You may not realize the surface is slippery until your vehicle is skidding. Learn to recognize warning clues - such as enough water, ice or packed snow on the road to make a “mirrored surface” - and slow down when you have any doubt. Remember: Any anti-lock brake system (ABS) helps avoid only the braking skid.


Driving Guidelines

Off-Road Driving with Your Four-wheel Drive Vehicle This off-road guide is for vehicles that have four-wheel drive. Also, see “Anti-Lock Brakes” in the Index. If your vehicle doesn’t have four-wheel drive, you shouldn’t drive off-road unless you’re on a level, solid surface. Off-road driving can be great fun. But it does have some definite hazards. The greatest of these is the terrain itself. “Off-roading” means you’ve left the great North American road system behind. Traffic lanes aren’t marked. Curves aren’t banked. There are no road signs. Surfaces can be slippery. rough, uphill or downhill. In short, you’ve gone right back to nature. Off-road driving involves some new skills. And that’s why it’s very important that you read this guide. You’ll find many driving tips and suggestions. These will help make your off-road driving safer and more enjoyable.

Before You Go Off-Roading There are some things to do before you go out. For example, be sure to have all necessary maintenance and service work done. Check to make sure all underbody shields (if so equipped) are properly attached. Be sure you read all the information about your four-wheel drive vehicle in this manual. Is there enough fuel? Is the spare tire fully inflated? Are the fluid levels up where they should be? What are the local laws that apply to off-roading where you’ll be driving? If you don’t know, you should check with law enforcement people in the area. Will you be on someone’s private land? If so, be sure to get the necessary permission. Loading Your Vehicle for Off-Road Driving There are some important things to remember about how to load your vehicle.

The heaviest things should be on the load floor and forward of your rear axle. Put heavier items as far forward as you can. Be sure the load is secured properly, so driving on the off-road terrain doesn’t toss things around.

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Cargo on the load floor piled higher than the seatbacks can be thrown forward during a sudden stop. You or your passengers could be injured. Keep cargo below the top of the seatbacks. Unsecured cargo on the load floor can be tossed about when driving over rough terrain. You or your passengers can be struck by flying objects. Secure the cargo properly. Heavy loads on the roof raise the vehicle’s center of gravity, making it more likely to roll over. You can be seriously or fatally injured if the vehicle rolls over. Put heavy loads inside the cargo area, not on the roof. Keep cargo in the cargo area as far forward and low as possible.

You’ll find other important information in this manual. See “Vehicle Loading,” “Luggage Carrier” and “Tires” in the Index.

Traveling to Remote Areas It makes sense to plan your trip, especially when going to a remote area. Know the terrain and plan your route. You are much less likely to get bad surprises. Get accurate maps of trails and terrain. Try to learn of any blocked or closed roads. It’s also a good idea to travel with at least one other vehicle. If something happens to one of them, the other can help quickly. Does your vehicle have a winch‘? If so, be sure to read the winch instructions. In a remote area, a winch can be handy if you get stuck. But you’ll want to know how to use it properly. Getting Familiar with Off-Road Driving It’s a good idea to practice in an area that’s safe and close to home before you go into the wilderness. Off-road driving does require some new and different driving skills. Here’s what we mean. Tune your senses to different kinds of signals. Your eyes, for example, need to constantly sweep the terrain for unexpected obstacles. Your ears need to listen for unusual tire or engine sounds. With your arms, hands, feet, and body you’ll need to respond to vibrations and vehicle bounce.


Controlling your vehicle is the key to successful off-road driving. One of the best ways to control your vehicle is to control your speed. Here are some things to keep in mind. At higher speeds:

you approach things faster and you have less time to scan the terrain for obstacles.

0 you have less time to react. 0 you have more vehicle bounce when you drive over obstacles. 0 you’ll need more distance for braking, especially since you’re on an

unpaved surface.


When you’re driving off road, bouncing and quick changes in direction can easily throw you out of position. This could cause you to lose control and crash. So, whether you’re driving on or off the road, you and your passengers should wear safety belts.

Scanning the Terrain Off-road driving can take you over many different kinds of terrain. You need to be familiar with the terrain and its many different features. Here are some things to consider. Stttface Conditions. Off-roading can take you over hard-packed dirt, gravel, rocks, grass, sand, mud, snow or ice. Each of these surfaces affects the steering, acceleration, and braking of your vehicle in different ways. Depending upon the kind of surface you are on, you may experience slipping, sliding, wheel spinning, delayed acceleration, poor traction, and longer braking distances. Surjace Obstacles . Unseen or hidden obstacles can be hazardous. A rock, log, hole, rut, or bump can startle you if you’re not prepared for them. Often these obstacles are hidden by grass, bushes, snow or even the rise and fall of the terrain itself. Here are some things to consider:

Is the path ahead clear? Will the surface texture change abruptly up ahead‘? Does the travel take you uphill or downhill? (There’s more discussion of these subjects later.)

0 Will you have to stop suddenly or change direction quickly?

When you drive over obstacles or rough terrain, keep a firm grip on the steering wheel. Ruts, troughs, or other surface features can jerk the wheel out of your hands if you’re not prepared.

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When you drive over bumps, rocks, or other obstacles, your wheels can leave the ground. If this happens, even with one or two wheels, you can’t control the vehicle as well or at all. Because you will be on an unpaved surface, it’s especially important to avoid sudden acceleration, sudden turns, or sudden braking. In a way, off-road driving requires a different kind of alertness from driving on paved roads and highways. There are no road signs, posted speed limits or signal lights. You have to use your own good judgment about what is safe and what isn’t. Drinking and driving can be very dangerous on any road. And this is certainly true for off-road driving. At the very time you need special alertness and driving skills, your reflexes, perceptions and judgment can be affected by even a small amount of alcohol. You could have a serious - or even fatal - accident if you drink and drive or ride with a driver who has been drinking. (See “Drunken Driving” in the Index.)

Driving On Off-Road Hills Off-road driving often takes you up, down, or across a hill. Driving safely on hills requires good judgment and an understanding of what your vehicle can and can’t do. There are some hills that simply can’t be driven, no matter how well built the vehicle.


Many hills are simply too steep for any vehicle, If you drive up them, you will stall, If you drive down them, you can’t control your speed. If you drive across them, could be seriously injured or killed. If you have any doubt about the steepness, don’t drive the hill.

you will roll over. You

Approaching a Hill When you approach a hill, you need to decide if it’s one of those hills that’s just too steep to climb, descend, or cross. Steepness can be hard to judge. On a very small hill, for example, there may be a smooth, constant incline with only a small change in elevation where you can easily see all the way to the top. On a large hill, the incline may get steeper as you near the top, but you may not see this because the crest of the hill is hidden by bushes, grass, or shrubs.


Here are some other things to consider as you approach a hill.

Is there a constant incline, or does the hill get sharply steeper in places? Is there good traction on the hillside, or will the surface cause tire slipping? Is there a straight path up or down the hill so you won’t have to make turning maneuvers?

0 Are there obstructions on the hill that can block your path (boulders,

trees, logs or ruts)? What’s beyond the hill? Is there a cliff, an embankment, a drop-off, a fence? Get out and walk the hill if you don’t know. It’s the smart way to find out. Is the hill simply too rough? Steep hills often have ruts, gullies, troughs and exposed rocks because they are more susceptible to the effects of erosion.

Driving Uphi// Once you decide you can safely drive up the hill, you need to take some special steps.

0 Use a low gear and get a firm grip on the steering wheel. 0 Get a smooth start up the hill and try to maintain your speed. Don’t use more power than you need, because you don’t want your wheels to start spinning or sliding. Try to drive straight up the hill if at all possible. If the path twists and turns, you might want to find another route.


nrning or driving across steep hills can be dangerous. You could lose traction, slide sideways, and possibly roll over. You could be seriously injured or killed. When driving up hills, always try to go straight up.

Ease up on your speed as you approach the top of the hill.

0 Attach a flag to the vehicle to make you more visible to approaching

traffic on trails or hills. Sound the horn as you approach the top of the hill to let opposing traffic know you’re there. Use your headlights even during the day. They make you more visible to oncoming traffic.

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Driving to the top (crest) of a hill at full speed can cause an accident. There could be a drop-off, embankment, cliff, or even another vehicle. You could be seriously injured or killed. As you near the top of a hill, slow down and stay alert.

Q: What should I do if my vehicle stalls, or is about to stall, and I

can’t make it up the hill?

A: If this happens, there are some things you should do, and there are

some things you must not do. First, here’s what you shoclld do: 0 Push the brake pedal to stop the vehicle and keep it from rolling

backwards. Also, apply the parking brake. If your engine is still running, shift the transmission into reverse, release the parking brake, and slowly back down the hill in reverse. If your engine has stopped running, you’ll need to restart it. With the brake pedal depressed and the parking brake still applied, shift the transmission to PARK (P) (or, shift to NEUTRAL (N) if your vehicle has a manual transmission) and restart the engine. Then, shift to reverse, release the parking brake, and slowly back down the hill as straight as possible in reverse.

0 As you are backing down the hill, put your left hand on the steering

wheel at the 12 o’clock position. This way, you’ll be able to tell if your wheels are straight and maneuver as you back down. It’s best that you back down the hill with your wheels straight rather than in the left or right direction. Turning the wheel too far to the left or right will increase the possibility of a rollover. Here are some things you must m t do if you stall, or are about to stall, when going up a hill.

0 Never attempt to prevent a stall by shifting into NEUTRAL (N) (or depressing the clutch, if you have a manual transmission) to ”rev-up” the engine and regain forward momentum. This won’t work. Your vehicle will roll backwards very quickly and you could go out of control.


Instead, apply the regular brake to stop the vehicle. Then apply the parking brake. Shift into reverse, release the parking brake, and slowly back straight down.

Never attempt to turn around if you are about to stall when going up a hill. If the hill is steep enough to stall your vehicle, it’s steep enough to cause you to roll over if you turn around. If you can’t make it up the hill, you must back straight down the hill.

Q: Suppose, after stalling, I try to back down the hill and decide I just

can’t do it. What should I do?

A: Set the parking brake, put your transmission in PARK (P) (or the

manual transmission in first gear) , and turn off the engine. Leave the vehicle and go get some help. Exit on the uphill side and stay clear of the path the vehicle would take if it rolled downhill. Do not shift the transfer case to NEUTRAL (N) when you leave the vehicle. Leave it in some gear,


Shifting the transfer case to NEUTRAL (N) can cause your vehicle to roll even if the transmission is in PARK (P) (or, if you have the manual transmission, even if you’re in gear), This is because the NEUTRAL (N) position on the transfer case overrides the transmission. If you are going to leave your vehicle, set the parking brake and shift the transmission to PARK (P) (or, put your manual transmission in first gear). But do not shift the transfer case to the NEUTRAL (N) position. Leave the transfer case in the 2 Wheel, 4 High or 4 Low position.

Driving Downhill When off-roading takes you downhill, you’ll want to consider a number of things:

How steep is the downhill? Will I be able to maintain vehicle control? What’s the surfxe like? Smooth? Rough? Slippery? Hard-packed dirt? Gravel?

0 Are there hidden surface obstacles? Ruts? Logs? Boulders?

What’s at the bottom of the hill? Is there a hidden creek bank or even a river bottom with large rocks?


If you decide you can go down a hill safely, then try to keep your vehicle headed straight down, and use a low gear. This way, engine drag can help your brakes and they won’t have to do all the work. Descend slowly, keeping your vehicle under control at all times.


Heavy braking when going down a hill can cause your brakes overheat and fade. This could cause accident. Apply the brakes lightly when descending use a low gear to keep vehicle speed under control.

to loss of control and a serious

a hill and

Q: Are there some things I should not do when driving down a hill? A: Yes! These are important because if you ignore them you could lose

control and have a serious accident. When driving downhill, avoid turns that take you across the incline of the hill. A hill that’s not too steep to drive down may be too steep to drive across. You could roll over if you don’t drive straight down. Never go downhill with the transmission in NEUTRAL (N) , or with the clutch pedal depressed in a manual shift . This is called “free-wheeling.” Your brakes will have to do all the work and could overheat and fade.

Q: Am I likely to stall when going downhill? A: It’s much more likely to happen going uphill. But if it happens going

downhill, here’s what to do.

0 Stop your vehicle by applying the regular brakes. Apply the parking

brake. Shift to PARK (P) (or to Neutral with the manual transmission) and, while still braking, restart the engine. Shift back to a low gear, release the parking brake, and drive straight down. If the engine won’t start, get out and get help.

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Driving Across an Incline Sooner or later, an off-road trail will probably go across the incline of a hill. If this happens, you have to decide whether to try to drive across the incline. Here are some things to consider:


A hill that can be driven straight up or down may be too steep to drive across. When you go straight up or down a hill, the length of the wheel base (the distance from the front wheels to the rear wheels) reduces the likelihood the vehicle will tumble end over end. But when you drive across an incline, the much more narrow track width (the distance between the left and right wheels) may not prevent the vehicle from tilting and rolling over. Also, driving across an incline puts more weight on the downhill wheels. This could cause a downhill slide or a rollover. Surface conditions can be a problem when you drive across a hill. Loose gravel, muddy spots, or even wet grass can cause your tires to slip sideways, downhill. If the vehicle slips sideways, it can hit something that will trip it (a rock, a rut, etc.) and roll over. Hidden obstacles can make the steepness of the incline even worse. If you drive across a rock with the uphill wheels, or if the downhill wheels drop into a rut or depression, your vehicle can tilt even more. For reasons like these, you need to decide carefully whether to try to drive across an incline. Just because the trail goes across the incline doesn’t mean you have to drive it. The last vehicle to try it might have rolled over.


Driving across an incline that’s too steep will make your vehicle roll over. You could be seriously injured or killed. If you have any doubt about the steepness of the incline, don’t drive across it. Find another route instead. 0: What if I’m driving across an incline that’s not too steep, but I hit some loose gravel and start to slide downhill. What should I do? A: If you feel your vehicle starting to slide sideways, turn downhill. This

should help straighten out the vehicle and prevent the side slipping. However, a much better way to prevent this is to get out and “walk the course” so you know what the surface is like before you drive it.

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Stalling on an lncline If your vehicle stalls when you’re crossing an incline, be sure you (and your passengers) get out on the uphill side, even if the door there is harder to open. If you get out on the downhill side and the vehicle starts to roll over, you’ll be right in its path. If you have to walk down the slope, stay out of the path the vehicle will take if it does roll over.


Getting out on the downhill (low) side of a vehicle stopped across an incline is dangerous. If the vehicle rolls over, you could be crushed or killed. Always get out on the uphill (high) side of the vehicle and stay well clear of the rollover path.

Driving In Mud, Sand, Snow, Or Ice When you drive in mud, snow or sand, your wheels won’t get good traction. You can’t accelerate as quickly, turning is more difficult, and you’ll need longer braking distances. It’s best to use a low gear when you’re in mud - the deeper the mud, the lower the gear. In really deep mud, the idea is to keep your vehicle moving so you don’t get stuck. When you drive on sand, you‘ll sense a change in wheel traction. But it will depend upon how loosely packed the sand is. On loosely packed sand (as on beaches or sand dunes) your tires will tend to sink into the sand. This has an effect on steering, accelerating, and braking. You may want to reduce the air pressure in your tires slightly when driving on sand. This will improve traction.


Hard packed snow and ice offer the worst tire traction. On these surfaces, it’s very easy to lose control. On wet ice, for example, the traction is so poor that you will have difficulty accelerating. And if you do get moving, poor steering and difficult braking can cause you to slide out of control.


Driving on frozen lakes, ponds or rivers can be dangerous. Underwater springs, currents under the ice, or sudden thaws can weaken the ice. Your vehicle could fall through the ice and you and your passengers could drown. Drive your vehicle on safe surfaces only.

Driving In Water Light rain causes no special off-road driving problems. But heavy rain can mean flash flooding, and flood waters demand extreme caution. Find out how deep the water is before you drive through it. If it’s deep enough to cover your wheel hubs, axles, or exhaust pipe, don’t try it - you probably won’t get through. Also, water that deep can darnage your axle and other vehicle parts. If the water isn’t too deep, then drive through it slowly. At fast speeds, water splashes on your ignition system and your vehicle can stall. Stalling can also occur if you get your tailpipe under water. And, as long as your tailpipe is under water, you’ll never be able to start your engine. When you go through water, remember that when your brakes get wet, it may take you longer to

stop. A CAUTION:

Driving through rushing water can be dangerous. Deep water can sweep your vehicle downstream and you and your passengers could drown. If it’s only inches deep, it can still wash away the ground from under your tires, and you could lose traction and roll the vehicle over. Don’t drive through rushing water.

If you have a diesel engme, see “Driving Through Water (Diesel Engines)” in the Index for more information on driving through water.


After Off-Road Driving Remove any brush or debris that has collected on the underbody, chassis or under the hood. These accumulations can be a fire hazard. After operation in mud or sand, have the brake linings cleaned and checked. These substances can cause glazing and uneven braking. Check the body structure, steering, suspension. wheels, tires, and exhaust system for damage. Also, check the fuel lines and cooling system for any leakage. Your vehicle will require more frequent service due to off-road use. Refer to the Maintenance Schedule for additional information. Driving at Night

Night driving is more dangerous than day driving. One reason is that some drivers are likely to be impaired - by alcohol or drugs, with night vision problems, or by fatigue. Here are some tips on night driving.

0 Drive defensively.

Don’t drink and drive. Adjust your inside rearview mirror to reduce the glare from headlamps behind you. Since you can’t see as well, you may need to slow down and keep more space between you and other vehicles.

a Slow down, especially on higher speed roads. Your headlamps can light

up only so much road ahead.

0 In remote areas, watch for animals.

If you’re tired, pull off the road in a safe place and rest.


Night Vision No one can see as well at night as in the daytime. But as we get older these differences increase. A SO-year-old driver may require at least twice as much light to see the same thing at night as a 20-year-old. What you do in the daytime can also affect your night vision. For example, if you spend the day in bright sunshine you are wise to wear sunglasses. Your eyes will have less trouble adjusting to night. But if you’re driving, don’t wear sunglasses at night. They may cut down on glare from headlamps, but they also make a lot of things invisible. You can be temporarily blinded by approaching lights. It can take a second or two, or even several seconds, for your eyes t o readjust to the dark. When you are faced with severe glare (as from a driver who doesn’t lower the high beams, or a vehicle with misaimed headlamps), slow down a little. Avoid staring directly into the approaching lights. Keep your windshield and all the glass on your vehicle clean - inside and out. Glare at night is made much worse by dirt on the glass. Even the inside of the glass can build up a film caused by dust. Dirty glass makes lights dazzle and flash more than clean glass would, making the pupils of your eyes contract repeatedly. Remember that your headlamps light up far less of a roadway when you are in a turn or curve. Keep your eyes moving; that way, it’s easier to pick out dimly lighted objects. Just as your headlamps should be checked regularly for proper aim, so should your eyes be examined regularly. Some drivers suffer from night blindness - the inability to see in dim light - and aren’t even aware of it. Driving in the Rain

Rain and wet roads can mean driving trouble. On a wet road you can’t stop, accelerate or turn as well because your tire-to-road traction isn’t as good as on dry roads. And, if your tires don’t have much tread left, you‘ll get even


less traction. It‘s always wise to go slower and be cautious if rain starts to fall while you are driving. The surface may get wet suddenly when your reflexes are tuned for driving on dry pavement. The heavier the rain, the harder it is to see. Even if your windshield wiper blades are in good shape, a heavy rain can make it harder to see road signs and traffic signals, pavement markings, the edge of the road, and even people walking. It‘s wise to keep your wiping equipment in good shape and keep your windshield washer tank filled. Replace your windshield wiper inserts when they show signs of streaking or missing areas on the windshield, or when strips of rubber start to separate from the inserts.

Driving too fast through large water puddles or even going through some car washes can cause problems, too. The water may affect your brakes. Try to avoid puddles. But if you can’t, try to slow down before you hit them.


Wet brakes can cause accidents. They won’t work well in a quick stop and may cause pulling to one side. You could lose control of the vehicle. After driving through a large puddle of water or a car wash, apply your brake pedal lightly until your brakes work normally.

Hydroplaning Hydroplaning is dangerous. So much water can build up under your tires that they can actually ride on the water. This can happen if the road is wet enough and you’re going fast enough. When your vehicle is hydroplaning, it has little or no contact with the road.


Hydroplaning doesn’t happen often. But it can if your tires haven’t much tread or if the pressure in one or more is low. It can happen if a lot of water is standing on the road. If you can see reflections from trees, telephone poles, or other vehicles, and raindrops “dimple” the water’s surface, there could be hydroplaning. Hydroplaning usually happens at higher speeds. There just isn’t a hard and fast rule about hydroplaning. The best advice is to slow down when it is raining.

Some Other Rainy Weather Tips

Turn on your low-beam headlights - not just your parking lights - to help make you more visible to others. Besides slowing down, allow some extra following distance. And be especially careful when you pass another vehicle. Allow yourself more clear room ahead, and be prepared to have your view restricted by road spray. Have good tires with proper tread depth. (See “Tires” in the Index.)

City Driving

One of the biggest problems with city streets is the amount of traffic on them. You’ll want to watch out for what the other drivers are doing and pay attention to traffic signals. Here are ways to increase your safety in city driving:

0 Know the best way to get to where you are going. Get a city map and plan your trip into an unknown part of the city just as you would for a cross-country trip.



Try to use the freeways that rim and crisscross most large cities. You’ll save time and energy. (See the next part, “Freeway Driving.”) Treat a green light as a warning signal. A traffic light is there because the corner is busy enough to need it. When a light turns green, and just before you start to move, check both ways for vehicles that have not cleared the intersection or may be running the red light.

Freeway Driving

Mile for mile, freeways (also called thruways, parkways. expressways, turnpikes, or superhighways) are the safest of all roads. But they have their own special rules. The most important advice on freeway driving is: Keep up with traffic and keep to the right. Drive at the same speed most of the other drivers are driving. Too-fast or too-slow driving breaks a smooth traffic flow. Treat the left lane on a freeway as a passing lane. At the entrance there is usually a ramp that leads to the freeway. If you have a clear view of the freeway as you drive along the entrance ramp, you should begin to check traffic. Try to determine where you expect to blend with the flow. Try to merge into the gap at close to the prevailing speed. Switch on your turn signal, check your mirrors and glance over your shoulder as often as necessary. Try to blend smoothly with the traffic flow. Once you are on the freeway, adjust your speed to the posted limit or to the prevailing rate if it’s slower. Stay in the right lane unless you want to pass. Before changing lanes, check your mirrors. Then use your turn signal. Just before you leave the lane, glance quickly over your shoulder to make sure there isn’t another vehicle in your “blind” spot. Once you are moving on the freeway, make certain you allow a reasonable following distance. Expect to move slightly slower at night.


When you want to leave the freeway, move to the proper lane well in advance. If you miss your exit do not, under any circumstances, stop and back up. Drive on to the next exit. The exit ramp can be curved, sometimes quite sharply. The exit speed is usually posted. Reduce your speed according to your speedometer, not to your sense of motion. After driving for any distance at higher speeds, you may tend to think you are going slower than you actually are. Before Leaving on a Long Trip Make sure you’re ready. Try t o be well rested. If you must start when you’re not fresh - such as after a day’s work - don’t plan to make too many miles that first part of the journey. Wear comfortable clothing and shoes you can easily drive in. Is your vehicle ready for a long trip‘? If you keep it serviced and maintained, it’s ready to go. If it needs service, have it done before starting out. Of course, you’ll find experienced and able service experts in GM dealers all across North America. They’ll be ready and willing to help if you need it. Here are some things you can check before a trip:

Windshield Washer Fluid: Is the reservoir full? Are all windows clean inside and outside? Wiper Blades: Are they in good shape? FueZ, Engine Oil, Other Fluids: Have you checked all levels? Lamps: Are they all working? Are the lenses clean? Tires: They are vitally important to a safe, trouble-free trip. Is the tread good enough for long-distance driving? Are the tires all inflated to the recommended pressure? Weather Forecasts: What’s the weather outlook along your route? Should you delay your trip a short time to avoid a major storm system? Maps: Do you have up-to-date maps?

Highway Hypnosis Is there actually such a condition as “highway hypnosis”? Or is it just plain falling asleep at the wheel? Call it highway hypnosis, lack of awareness, or whatever. There is something about an easy stretch of road with the same scenery, along with the hum of the tires on the road, the drone of the engine, and the rush of the wind against the vehicle that can make you sleepy. Don’t let it happen to you! If it does, your vehicle can leave the road in less than a second, and you could crash and be injured.


What can you do about highway hypnosis? First, be aware that it can happen. Then here are some tips:

0 Make sure your vehicle is well ventilated, with a comfortably cool

interior. Keep your eyes moving. Scan the road ahead and to the sides. Check your mirrors and your instruments frequently. If you get sleepy, pull off the road into a rest, service, or parking area and take a nap, get some exercise, or both. For safety, treat drowsiness on the highway as an emergency.

Hill and Mountain Roads

Driving on steep hills or mountains is different from driving in flat or rolling terrain. If you drive regularly in steep country, or if you’re planning to visit there, here are some tips that can make your “Off-Road Driving” in the Index for information about driving

off-road.) Keep your vehicle in good shape. Check all fluid levels and also the brakes, tires, cooling system and transmission. These parts can work hard on mountain roads. Know how to go down hills. The most important thing to know is this: let your engine do some of the slowing down. Shift to a lower gear when you go down a steep or long hill.

trips safer and more enjoyable. (See



If you don’t shift down, your brakes could get so hot that they wouldn’t work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Shift down to let your engine assist your brakes on a steep downhill slope.


Coasting downhill in NEUTRAL (N) or with the ignition off is dangerous. Your brakes will have to do all the work of slowing down. They could get so hot that they wouldn’t work well. You could crash. Always have your engine running and your vehicle in gear when you go downhill.

Know how to go uphill. You may want to shift down to a lower gear. The lower gears help cool your engine and transmission, and you can climb the hill better. Stay in your own lane when driving on two-lane roads in hills or mountains. Don’t swing wide or cut across the center of the road. Drive at speeds that let you stay in your own lane. As you go over the top of a hill, be alert. There could be something in your lane, like a stalled car or an accident. You may see highway signs on mountains that warn of special problems. Examples are long grades, passing or no-passing zones, a falling rocks area, or winding roads. Be alert to these and take appropriate action.


Winter Driving

Here are some tips for winter driving:

0 Have your vehicle in good shape for winter. Be sure your engine

coolant mix is correct. You may want to put winter emergency supplies in your vehicle. Include an ice scraper, a small brush or broom, a supply of windshield washer fluid, a rag, some winter outer clothing, a small shovel, a flashlight, a red cloth, and a couple of reflective warning triangles. And, if you will be driving under severe conditions, include a small bag of sand, a piece of old carpet or a couple of burlap bags to help provide traction. Be sure you properly secure these items in your vehicle. Driving on Snow or Ice Most of the time, those places where your tires meet the road probably have good traction. However, if there is snow or ice between your tires and the road, you can have a very slippery situation. You’ll have a lot less traction or “grip” and will need to be very careful.



What’s the worst time for this? “Wet ice.” Very cold snow or ice can slick and hard to drive on. But wet ice can be even more trouble because it may offer the least traction of all. You can get “wet ice” when it’s about freezing (32°F; OOC) and freezing rain begins to fall. Try to avoid driving on wet ice until salt and sand crews can get there. Whatever the condition - smooth ice, packed, blowing or loose snow - drive with caution. Accelerate gently. Try not to break the fragile traction. If you accelerate too fast, the drive wheels will spin and polish the surface under the tires even more. Your anti-lock brakes improve your ability to make a hard stop on a slippery road. Even though you have an anti-lock braking system, you’ll want to begin stopping sooner than you would on dry pavement. See “Anti-Lock” in the Index.

Allow greater following distance on any slippery road. Watch for slippery spots. The road might be fine until you hit a spot that’s covered with ice. On an otherwise clear road, ice patches may appear in shaded areas where the sun can’t reach: around clumps of trees, behind buildings, or under bridges. Sometimes the surface of a curve or an overpass may remain icy when the surrounding roads are clear. If you see a patch of ice of you, brake before you are on it. Try not to brake while you’re actually on the ice, and avoid sudden steering maneuvers.


If You’re Caught in a Blizzard


If you are stopped by heavy snow, you could be in a serious situation. You should probably stay with your vehicle unless you know for sure that you are near help and you can hike through the snow. Here are some things to do to summon help and keep yourself and your passengers safe: Turn on your hazard flashers. Tie a red cloth to your vehicle to alert police that you’ve been stopped by the snow. Put on extra clothing or wrap a blanket around you. If you have no blankets or extra clothing, make body insulators from newspapers, burlap bags, rags, floor mats - anything you can wrap around yourself or tuck under your clothing to keep warm. You can run the engine to keep warm, but be careful.


Snow can trap exhaust gases under your vehicle. This can cause deadly CO (carbon monoxide) gas to get inside. CO could overcome you and kill you. You can’t see it or smell it, so you might not know it is in your vehicle. Clear away snow from around the base of your vehicle , especially any that is blocking your exhaust pipe. And check around again from time to time to be sure snow doesn’t collect there. Open a window just a little on the side of the vehicle that’s away from the wind. This will help keep CO out.



Run your engine only as long as you must. This saves fuel. When you run the engine, make it go a little faster than just idle. That is, push the accelerator slightly. This uses less fuel for the heat that you get and it keeps the battery (or batteries) charged. You will need a well-charged battery (or batteries) to restart the vehicle, and possibly for signaling later on with your headlights. Let the heater run for awhile. If you have a diesel engine, you may have to run it at a higher speed to get enough heat. Then, shut the engine off and close the window almost all the way to preserve the heat. Start the engine again and repeat this only when you feel really uncomfortable from the cold. But do it as little as possible. Preserve the fuel as long as you can. To help keep warm, you can get out of the vehicle and do some fairly vigorous exercises every half hour or so until help comes. Power Winches If you wish to use a power winch on your vehicle, only use it when your vehicle is stationary or anchored.

NOTICE: Using a power winch with the transmission in gear may damage the transmission. When operating a power winch, always leave the transmission in NEUTRAL (N).

Use the regular brakes, set the parking brake, or block the wheels to keep your vehicle from rolling.


Power Take-Off (PTO)

NOTICE: If you have a PTO that will exceed 35 horsepower installed on your vehicle, it could damage the transfer case or transmission. When having a PTO installed on your vehicle, make sure that it will not exceed 35 horsepower.

Before using a power take-off, refer to the manufacturer’s or installer’s instructions.

NOTICE: Using a PTO while operating in one place before the vehicle has reached normal operating temperature can damage the transfer case or transmission. If you will be using the PTO while operating in one place, drive and warm up the vehicle before using the PTO.

To engage a power take-off

1. Set the parking brake. 2. Shift the transmission into NEUTRAL (N). 3. Hold the clutch pedal down and engage the power take-off.


Using a PTO for more than four hours without driving your vehicle can damage the transfer case or transmission. If using a PTO for more than four hours without dr$ving your vehicle, drive your vehicle for a while to allow the transfer case and transmission to cool.

If you are going to drive the vehicle, shift you want. Then shift the transfer case into the range have four-wheel drive), apply the regular brakes and release the parking brake.

the transmission into the gear

you want (if you

4. Release the clutch (and the regular brakes) as you normally would.

When you release the clutch, the power take-off will start.


Using a Transfer Case Mounted Power Take-Off (Manual Transmission) 1. Set the parking brake. 2. Shift the transfer case into NEUTRAL (N). 3. Hold the clutch pedal down. If the vehicle will remain in the same

place, shift the transmission into the highest gear.

4. Engage the power take-off.

If you are going to drive the vehicle, shift the trans~nission into the gear you want, Then shift the transfer case into the range you want, apply the regular brakes and release the parking brake.

5. Release the clutch (and the regular brakes) as you normally would.

When you release the clutch, the power take-off will start.

Using a Transfer Case Mounted Power Take-Off (Automatic Transmission) 1. 2. 3. 4.

Set the parking brake. Shift the transfer case into NEUTRAL (N). Shift the transmission into NEUTRAL (N). Engage the power take-off. If you are going to drive the vehicle, shift the transfer case into the range you want. Then apply the regular brakes and release the parking brake. Shift the transmission to DRIVE (3) to start the power take-off. Release the regular brakes to drive the vehicle.

5. 6.


Loading Your Vehicle -



The Certification/Tire label is found on the rear edge of the driver’s door or in the Incomplete Vehicle Document in the cab. The label shows the size of your original tires and the inflation pressures needed to obtain the gross weight capacity of your vehicle. This is called the GVWR (Gross Vehicle Weight Rating). The GVWR includes the weight of the vehicle, all occupants, fuel and cargo. The CertificatiodTire label also tells you the maximum weights for the front and rear axles, called Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR). To find out the actual loads on your front and rear axles, you need to go to a weigh station and weigh your vehicle. Your dealer can help you with this. Be sure to spread out your load equally on both sides of the centerline. Never exceed the GVWR for your vehicle, or the GAWR for either the front or rear axle. And, if you do have a heavy load, you should spread it out.


In the case of a sudden stop or collision, things carried in the bed of your truck could shift forward and come into the passenger area, injuring you and others. If you put things in the bed of your truck, you should make sure they are properly secured.



DO not load your vehicle any heavier than the GVWR, or either the maximum front or rear GAWR. If you do, parts on your vehicle can break, or it can change the way your vehicle handles. These could cause you to lose control. Also, overloading can shorten the life of your vehicle.

Using heavier suspension components to get added durability might not change your weight ratings. Ask your dealer to help you load your vehicle the right way. If your vehicle is equipped for front-end equipment (a snow plow, for example), the front suspension may have been adjusted (raised) to level the vehicle when the equipment was installed. If the front suspension was adjusted, you must re-adjust the front suspension after the equipment is removed to avoid possible front suspension damage. Adjust the front suspension to original design specifications for your particular model.

NOTICE: Your warranty does not cover parts or components that fail because of overloading.

There’s also important loading information for off-road driving in this manual. See “Loading Your Vehicle“ in the Index.


Truck-Camper Loading Information Open your glove box door and look for this label:


This label will tell you how much of a load your vehicle can carry, and how to spread out your load the right way. Also, it will help you match the right slide-in camper to your vehicle. When you carry a slide-in camper, the total cargo load of your vehicle is the weight of the camper, PLUS

everything else added to the camper after it left the factory; everything in the camper; and all the people inside.

The Cargo Weight Rating (CWR) is the maximum weight of the load your vehicle can carry. It doesn’t include the weight of the people inside. But, you can figure about 150 pounds for each seat. The total cargo load must not be more than your vehicle’s CWR. TRUCK LOADING INFORMATION

1. Recommended

location for cargo center of gravity for cargo weight rating (Pickup Truck) .

Refer to the Truck Camper Loading Information label in glove box for “A”and “B” dimensions. Use the rear edge of the load floor for measurement purposes.



I . Camper center of


2. Recommended center of gravity location zone.

The camper’s center of gravity should fall within the center of gravity zone for your vehicle’s cargo load. You must weigh any accessories or other equipment that you add to your vehicle. Then, subtract this extra weight from the CWR. This extra weight may shorten the center of gravity zone of your vehicle. Your dealer can help you with this. If your slide-in camper and its load weigh less than the CWR, the center of gravity zone for your vehicle may be larger. Your dealer can help you make a good vehicle-camper match. He’ll also help you determine your CWR. After you’ve loaded your vehicle and camper, drive to a weigh station and weigh on the front and rear wheels separately. This will tell you the loads on your axles. The loads on the front and rear axles shouldn’t be more than either of the GAWRs. The total of the axle loads should not be more than the GVWR. Open your driver’s door and look at the CertificatiodTire label to find out your GAWR and GVWR. If you’ve gone over your weight ratings, move or take out some things until all the weights fall below the ratings. Of course, you should always tie down any loose items when you load your vehicle or camper. When you install and load your slide-in &‘@er, check the manufacturer’s instructions. If you want more information on curb weights, cargo weights, cargo weight rating and the correct center of gravity zone for your vehicle, your dealer can help you. Just ask for a copy of “Consumer Information, Truck-Camper Loading.”


Trailer Recommendations You must subtract your hitch loads from the CWR for your vehicle. Weigh your vehicle with the trailer hitch attached, so that you won’t go over the GVWR or the G A M . You’ll get the best performance if you spread out the weight of your load the right way, and if you choose the correct hitch and trailer brakes. For more information, see “Trailer Towing” in the Index. Pickup Conversion to Chassis Cab General Motors is aware that some vehicle owners may consider having the pickup box removed and a commercial or recreational body installed. Before you do so, first contact the GM Zone Office for your area for “Warranty information on such conversions specific to this vehicle. (See the and Owner Assistance” booklet for Zone Office.) Owners should be aware that, as manufactured, there are differences between a chassis cab and a pickup with the box removed which may affect vehicle safety. The components necessary to adapt a pickup to permit its safe use with a specialized body should be installed by a body builder in accordance with the information available from the Zone Office. Towing a Trailer

Pulling a trailer improperly can damage your vehicle and result in costly repairs not covered by your warranty. To pull a trailer correctly, follow the advice in this part, and see your GM dealer for important information about towing a trailer with your vehicle.


Most vehicles are ready for some trailer towing. If yours was built with trailering options, as many are, it’s ready for heavier trailers. But trailering is different than just driving your vehicle by itself. Trailering means changes in handling, durability, and fuel economy. Successful, safe trailering takes correct equipment, and it has to be used properly. That’s the reason for this part. In it are many time-tested, important trailering tips and safety rules. Many of these are important for your safety and that of your passengers. So please read this section carefully before you pull a trailer. If You Do Decide To Pull A Trailer If you do, here are some important points.

There are many different laws, including speed limit restrictions, having to do with trailering. Make sure your rig will be legal, not only where you live but also where you’ll be driving. A good source for this information can be state or provincial police. Consider using a sway control if your trailer will weigh 4,000 pounds ( I 800 kg) or less. You should always use a sway control if your trailer will weigh more than 4,000 pounds (1 800 kg). You can ask a hitch dealer about sway controls. Don’t tow a trailer at all during the first 500 miles (800 km) your new vehicle is driven. Your engine, axle or other parts could be damaged. Then, during the first 500 miles (800 km) that you tow a trailer, don‘t drive over 50 mph (80 k d h ) and don’t make starts at full throttle. This helps your engine and other parts of your vehicle wear in at the heavier loads. If you have an automatic transmission, you should use DRIVE (3) (or, as you need to, a lower gear) when towing a trailer. Operating your vehicle in DRIVE (3) when towing a trailer will minimize heat build-up and extend the life of your transmission. If you have a manual transmission and you are towing a trailer, it’s better not to use FIFTH ( 5 ) gear. Just drive in FOURTH (4) gear (or, as you need to, a lower gear).

Three important considerations have to do with weight:

Weight of the Trailer How heavy can a trailer safely be? It depends on how you plan to use your rig. For example, speed, altitude, road grades, outside temperature and how much your vehicle is used to pull a trailer are all important. And, it can also depend on any special equipment that you have on your vehicle.


You can ask your dealer for our trailering information or advice, or you can write us at the address listed in your Warranty and Owner Assistance Information Booklet. In Canada, write to: General Motors of Canada Limited Customer Assistance Center 1908 Colonel Sam Drive Oshawa, Ontario Ll H 8P7 Weight of the Trailer Tongue The tongue load (A) of any trailer is an important weight to measure because it affects the total or gross weight of your vehicle. The gross vehicle weight (GVW) includes the curb weight of the vehicle, any cargo you may carry in it, and the people who will be riding in the vehicle. And if you will tow a trailer, you must add the tongue load to the GVW because your vehicle will be carrying that weight, too. See “Loading Your Vehicle” in the Index for more information about your vehicle’s maximum load capacity.

If you’re using a “dead-weight” hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 10% of the total loaded trailer weight (B). If you have a “weight-distributing” hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 12% of the total loaded trailer weight (B). After you’ve loaded your trailer, weigh the trailer and then the tongue, separately, to see if the weights are proper. If they aren’t, you may be able to get them right simply by moving some items around in the trailer.


Total Weight on Your Vehicle’s Tires Be sure your vehicle‘s tires are inflated t o the limit for cold tires. You’ll find these numbers on the Certification label at the rear edge of the driver’s door or see “Tire Loading“ in the Index. Then be sure you don‘t go over the GVW limit for your vehicle, includins the weight of the trailer tongue.

Hitches It’s important to have the correct hitch equipment. Crosswinds, large trucks going by, and rough roads are a few reasons why you’ll need the right hitch. Here are some rules to follow:

If you use a step bumper hitch, and your trailer tongue has a V-shaped foot. your bumper could be damaged in sharp turns. Check the distance from the front edge of the foot to the middle of the hitch ball socket. If the distance is less than 12 inches, take the foot off the trailer tongue. If you‘ll be pulling a trailer that, when loaded, will weigh more than 4,000 pounds ( 1 8 14 kg) be sure to use a properly mounted, weight-distributing hitch and sway control of the proper size. This equipment is very important for proper vehicle loading and good handling when you’re driving.

Safety Chains You should always attach chains between your vehicle and your trailer. Cross the safety chains under the tongue of the trailer so that the tongue will not drop to the road if it becomes separated from the hitch. Instructions about safety chains may be provided by the hitch manufacturer or by the trailer manufacturer. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendation for attaching safety chains and do not attach them to the bumper. Always leave just enough slack so you can turn with your rig. And, never allow safety chains to drag on the ground.

Trailer Brakes If your trailer weighs more than 1,000 pounds (450 kg) loaded, then it needs its own brakes - and they must be adequate. Be sure to read and follow the instructions for the trailer brakes so you’ll be able to install. adjust and maintain them properly. Your trailer brake system can tap into your vehicle’s hydraulic brake system, but consider the following:

Don’t tap into your vehicle’s brake system if the trailer’s brake system will use more than 0.02 cubic inch ( 0 . 3 ~ ~ ) of fluid from your vehicle’s master cylinder. Tf it does, both braking systems won’t work well. You could even lose your brakes.


Will the trailer brake parts take 3,000 psi (20 650 Wa) of Ijressure? If not, the trailer brake system must not be

used with your vehicle.

Driving with a Trailer Towing a trailer requires a certain amount of experience. Before setting out for the open road, you’ll want to get to know your rig. Acquaint yourself with the feel of handling and braking with the added weight of the trailer. And always keep in mind that the vehicle you are driving is now a good deal longer and not nearly as responsive as your vehicle is by itself. Before you start, check the trailer hitch and platform (and attachments), safety chains, electrical connector, lamps, tires and mirror adjustment. If the trailer has electric brakes, start your vehicle and trailer moving and then apply the trailer brake controller by hand to be sure the brakes are working. ‘This lets you check your electrical connection at the same time. During your trip, check occasionally to be sure that the load is secure, and that the lamps and any trailer brakes are still working.

Following Distance Stay at least twice as far behind the vehicle ahead as you would when driving your vehicle without a trailer. This can help you avoid situations that require heavy braking and sudden turns.

Passing You’ll need more passing distance up ahead when you’re towing a trailer. And, because you’re a good deal longer, you’ll need to go much farther beyond the passed vehicle before you can return to your lane. . Backing Up Hold the bottom of the steering wheel with one hand. Then, to move the trailer to the left, just move that hand to the left. To move the trailer to the back up slowly and, if possible, right, move your hand to the right. Always have someone guide you.


Making Turns


Making very sharp turns while trailering could cause the trailer to come in contact with the vehicle. Your vehicle could be damaged. Avoid making very sharp turns while trailering.

When you’re turning with a trailer, make wider turns than normal. Do this so your trailer won’t strike soft shoulders, curbs, road signs, trees, or other objects. Avoid jerky or sudden maneuvers. Signal well in advance.

Turn Signals When Towing a Trailer When you tow a trailer, your vehicle has to have extra wiring (included in the optional trailering package). The green arrows on your instrument panel will flash whenever you signal a turn or lane change. Properly hooked up, the trailer lamps will also flash, telling other drivers you’re about to turn, change lanes or stop. When towing a trailer, the green arrows on your instrument panel will flash for turns even if the bulbs on the trailer are burned out. Thus, you may think drivers behind you are seeing your signal when they are not. It’s important to check occasionally to be sure the trailer bulbs are still working. Driving On Grades Reduce speed and shift to a lower gear before you start down a long or steep downgrade. If you don’t shift down, you might have to use your brakes so much that they would get hot and no longer work well. On a long uphill grade, shift down and reduce your speed to around 45 mph (70 kmh) to reduce the possibility of engine and transmission overheating. If you have an automatic transmission you should use DRIVE (3) (or, as you need to, a lower gear) when towing a trailer. Operating your vehicle in DRIVE (3) when towing a trailer will minimize heat build-up and extend the life of your transmission. If you have a manual transmission and you are towing a trailer, it’s better not to use FIFTH ( 5 ) gear. Just drive in FOURTH (4) gear (or, as you need to, a lower gear).


When towing at high altitude on steep uphill grades, consider the following: Engine coolant will boil at a lower temperature than at normal altitudes. If you turn your engine off immediately after towing at high altitude on steep uphill grades, your vehicle may show signs similar to engine overheating. To avoid this, let the engine run while parked (preferably on level ground) with the automatic transmission in PARK (Pj (or the manual transmission out of gear and the parking brake applied) for a few minutes before turning the engine off. If you do get the overheat warning, see “Engine Overheating” in the Index.

Parking on Hills You really should not park your vehicle, with a trailer attached, on a hill. If something goes wrong, your rig could start to move. People can be injured, and both your vehicle and the trailer can be damaged. But if you ever have to park your rig on a hill, here’s how to do it: 1 .

Apply your regular brakes, but don’t shift into PARK (P) yet, or in gear for a manual transmission. Have someone place chocks under the trailer wheels. When the wheel chocks are in place, release the regular brakes until the chocks absorb the load. Re-apply the regular brakes. Then apply your parking brake, and then shift to PARK (P), or REVERSE (Rj for a manual transmission. If you have a four-wheel-drive vehicle, be sure the transfer case is in a drive gear-not in NEUTRAL (N). Release the regular brakes.

2. 3.





It can be dangerous to get out of your vehicle if the shift lever is not fully in PARK (P) with the parking brake firmly set. Your vehicle can rofl. If you have Ieft the engine running, the vehicle can move suddenly. You or others could be injured. To be sure your vehicle won’t move, even when you’re on fairly level ground, use the steps that follow. If you have four-wheel drive and your transfer case is in NEUTRAL (N), your vehicle will be free to roll, even if your shift lever is in PARK (P). So, be sure the transfer case is in a drive gear - not in NEUTRAL (N).


When You Are Ready to Leave After Parking on a Hill 1. Apply your regular brakes and hold the pedal down while you:

Start your engine: Shift into a gear; and Release the parking brake.

2. Let up on the brake pedal. 3. Drive slowly until the trailer is clear of the chocks. 4. Stop and have someone pick up and store the chocks.

Maintenance When Trailer Towing Your vehicle will need service more often when you’re pulling a trailer. See the Maintenance Schedule for more on this. Things that are especially important in trailer operation are automatic transmission fluid (don’t overfill), engine oil, axle lubricant, belt, cooling system, and brake adjustment. Each of these is covered in this manual, and the Index will help you find them quickly. If you’re trailering, it’s a good idea to review these sections before you start your trip. Check periodically to see that all hitch nuts and bolts are tight.

Trailer Lighting Systems Wiring See “Trailer Wiring Harness” in the Index.



Problems on the Road


Here you’ll find what to do about some problems that can occur on the road. Hazard Warning Flashers

Your hazard warning flashers let you warn others. They also let police know you have a problem. Your front and rear turn signal lamps will flash on and off. But they won’t flash if you’re braking.


Push the button at the top of the steering column all the way down to make your front and rear turn signals flash on and off.

Your hazard warning flashers work no matter what position your key is in, and even if the key isn’t in. To turn off the flashers, push the button until the first click and release. When the hazard warning flashers are on, your turn signals won’t work. Other Warning Devices If you carry reflective triangles, you can use them to warn others. Set one up at the side of the road about 300 feet (100 m) behind your vehicle. Jump Starting If your battery (or batteries) has run down, you may want to use another vehicle and some jumper cables to start your vehicle. But please follow the steps below to do it safely.


Batteries can hurt you. They can be dangerous because:

They contain acid that can burn you. They contain gas that can explode or ignite. 0 They contain enough electricity to burn you. If you don’t follow these steps exactly, some or all of these can hurt you.




If your vehicle has air conditioning, the auxiliary electric fan under the hood can start up even when the engine is not running and can injure you. Keep hands, clothing and tools away from any underhood electric fan.

NOTICE: Ignoring these steps could result in costly damage to your vehicle that wouldn’t be covered by your vehicle warranty. Trying to start your vehicle by pushing or pulling it could damage your vehicle, even if you have a manual transmission. And if you have an automatic transmission, it won’t start that way.

To Jump Start Your Vehicle 1. Check the other vehicle. It must have a 12-volt battery with a negative

ground system.

NOTICE: If the other system isn’t a 12-volt system with a negative ground, both vehicles can be damaged.

If you have a diesel engine vehicle with two batteries (or more), you should know before you begin that, especially in cold weather, you may not be able to get enough power from a single battery in another vehicle to start your diesel engine. If your vehicle has more than one battery, use the battery that’s on the passenger side of the vehicle - this will reduce electrical resistance. 2. Get the vehicles close enough so the jumper cables can reach, but be

sure the vehicles aren’t touching each other. If they are, it could cause a ground connection you don’t want. You wouldn’t be able to start your vehicle, and the bad grounding could damage the electrical systems.


You could be injured if the vehicles roll. Set the parking brake firmly on each vehicle. Put an automatic transmission in PARK (P) or a manual transmission in NEUTRAL (N). If you have a four-wheel-drive vehicle, be sure the transfer case is not i n NEUTRAL (N).

3. Turn off the ignition on both vehicles. Turn off all lights that aren’t

needed, and radios. This will avoid sparks and help save both batteries. And it could save your radio!

NOTICE: If you leave your radio on, it could be badly damaged. The repairs wouldn’t be covered by your warranty.

4. Open the hoods and locate the batteries. Find the positive (+) and

negative (-) terminals on each battery.


Using a match near a battery can cause battery gas to explode. People have been hurt doing this, and some have been blinded. Use a flashlight if you need more light. Be sure the batteries have enough water. You don’t need to add water to the Delco Freedom@ battery (or batteries) installed in every new GM vehicle. But if a battery has filler caps, be sure the right amount of fluid is there. If it is low, add water to take care of that first. If you don’t, explosive gas could be present. Battery fluid contains acid that can burn you. Don’t get it on you. ff you accidentally get it in your eyes or on your skin, flush the place with water and get medical help immediately.

5. Check that the jumper cables don’t have loose or missing insulation. If

they do, you could get a shock. The vehicles could be damaged, too. Before you connect the cables, here are some basic things you should know. Positive (+) will go to positive (+) and negative (-) will go to negative (-) or a metal engine part. Don’t connect (+) to (-) or you’ll get a short that would damage the battery and maybe other parts, too.



Fans or other moving engine parts can injure you badly. Keep your hands away from moving parts once the engines are running.

6. Connect the red positive (+) cable to the positive (+) terminal of the

vehicle with the dead battery. Use a remote positive (+) terminal if the vehicle has one.

Dead Battery


Good Battery (+)

7. Don’t let the other end touch metal. Connect it to the positive (+)

terminal of the good battery. Use a remote positive (+) terminal if the vehicle has one.

8. Now connect the black negative (-) cable to the good battery’s negative

(-) cable. Don‘t let the other end touch anything until the next step. The other end of the negative cable DOESN’T go to the dead battery. It goes to a heavy unpainted metal part of the vehicle with the dead battery.


Good Battery (-)

Heavy Metal Engine





Attach the cable at leas1 18 inches (45 cm) away from the dead battery, but not near engine parts that move. The electrical connection is just as good there, but the chance of sparks getting back to the battery is much less. Now start the vehicle with the good battery and run the engine for awhile. Try to start the vehicle with the dead battery. If it won’t start after a few tries, it probably needs service. Remove Cables in this Order: - +

1. Heavy Metal Engine Part

2. Good

Battery (-)

.. .

3. Good

Battery (+)

4. Dead Battery


12. Remove the cables in reverse order to prevent electrical shorting.

Take care that they don’t touch each other or any other metal.


To wing Your Vehicle Try to have your GM dealer or a professional towing service tow your vehicle. They can provide the right equipment and know how to tow it without damage. If your vehicle has been changed since it was factory-new. by adding such things like fog lamps, aero skirting, or special tires and wheels, these things could be damaged during towing. Before you do anything, turn on the hazard warning flashers. When you call, tell the towing service:

0 That your vehicle has rear-wheel drive, or that it has the four-wheel

drive option. The make, model, and year of your vehicle.

0 Whether you can move the shift lever for the transmission and transfer

case, if you have one. If there was an accident. what was damaged.


To help avoid injury to you or others:

Never let passengers ride in a vehicle that is being towed.

0 Never tow faster than safe or posted speeds. 0 Never tow with damaged parts not fuIly secured. 0 Never get under your vehicle after it has been lifted by the

tow truck.

0 Always use separate safety chains on each side when towing a


0 For pickups (except cab chassis models), use T-hooks on front

of vehicle, J-hooks on rear. For cab chassis models, use J-hooks on front and rear of vehicle.

When your vehicle is being towed, have the ignition key off. The steering wheel should be clamped in a straight-ahead position, with a clamping device designed for towing, service. Do not use the vehicle’s steering column lock for this. The transmission and transfer case, if you have one, should be in NEUTRAL (N) and the parking brake released.



A vehicle can fall from a car carrier if it isn’t adequately secured. This can cause a collision, serious personal injury and vehicle damage. The vehicle should be tightly secured with chains or steel cables before it is transported. Don’t use substitutes (ropes, leather straps, canvas webbing, etc.) that can be cut by sharp edges underneath the towed vehicle.

Towing From the Front

If you have a two-wheel drive vehicle, don’t have your vehicle towed on the rear wheels, unless you must. If the vehicle must be towed on the rear wheels, don’t go more than 35 mph (56 km/h) or farther than 50 miles (80 km) or your transmission will be damaged. If these limits must be exceeded, then the rear wheels have to be supported on a dolly. If your vehicle has the four-wheel drive option and the transfer case is engaged, a dolly must be used under the rear wheels when towing from the front .


lowing From the Rear

NOTICE: Towing pickup models from the rear while loaded with heavy cargo may cause the frame side rails to flex sufficiently to allow the pickup box to contact the cab and could cause damage to the cab and/or box.


Engine Overheating YOU will find a coolant temperature gage on your vehicle instrument panel.