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already seen that the chance of a crash itself is higher for drinking drivers.

Control of a Vehicle You have three systems that make your vehicle go where you want it to go. They are the brakes, the steering and the accelerator. All three systems have to do their work at the places where the tires meet the road.


Sometimes, as when you’re driving on snow or ice, it’s easy to ask more of those control systems than the tires and road can provide. That means you can lose control of your vehicle. Braking Brakmg action involves perception time and reaction time. First, you have to decide to push on the brake pedal. That’s perception. time. Then you have to bring up your foot and do it. That’s reaction time. Average reaction time is about 314 of a second. But that’s only an average. It might be less with one driver and as long as two or three seconds or more with another. Age, physical condition, alertness, coordination, and eyesight all play a part. So do alcohol, drugs and frustration. But even in 3/4 of a second, a vehicle moving at 60 mph ( 100 k d h ) travels 66 feet (20 m). That could be a lot of distance in an emergency, so keeping enough space between your vehicle and others is important. And, of course, actual stopping distances vary greatly with the surface of the road (whether it’s pavement or gravel); the condition of the road (wet, dry, icy); tire tread; and the condition of your brakes. Avoid needless heavy braking. Some people drive in spurts - heavy acceleration followed by heavy braking - rather than keeping pace with traffic. This is a mistake. Your brakes may not have time to cool between hard stops. Your brakes will wear out much faster if you do a lot of heavy braking. If you keep pace with the traffic and allow realistic following distances, you will eliminate a lot of unnecessary braking. That means better braking and longer brake life. If your engine ever stops while you’re driving, brake normally but don’t pump your brakes. If you do, the pedal may get harder to push down. If your engine stops, you will still have some power brake assist. But you will use it when you brake. Once the power assist is used up, it may take longer to stop and the brake pedal will be harder to push.


Anti-Lock Brakes (ABS) Your vehicle has an advanced electronic braking system that can help you keep it under control. When you start your vehicle and begin to drive away, you may hear a momentary motor or clicking noise. This is the ABS system testing itself.

. . >

Here's how anti-lock works. Let's say the road is wet. You're driving safely. Suddenly an animal jumps out in front of you. You slam on the brakes. Here's what happens with ABS. A computer senses that wheels are slowing down. If one of the wheels is about to stop rolling, the computer will separately work the brakes at each front wheel and at the rear wheels. The anti-lock system can change the brake pressure faster than any driver could. The computer is programmed to make the most of available tire and road conditions. You can steer around the obstacle while braking hard.


'.." *!

As you brake, your computer keeps receiving updates on wheel speed and controls braking pressure accordingly.


Remember: Anti-lock doesn’t change the time you need to get your foot up to the brake pedal. If you get too close to the vehicle in front of you, you won’t have time to apply your brakes if that vehicle suddenly slows or stops. Always leave enough room up ahead to stop, even though you have anti-lock brakes. To Use Four-wheel Anti-Lock Don’t pump the brakes. Just hold the brake pedal down and let anti-lock work for you. You may feel the brakes vibrate, or you may notice some noise, but this is normal. Braking in Emergencies Use your anti-lock braking system when you need to. With anti-lock, you can steer and brake at the same time. In many emergencies, steering can help you more than even the very best braking.

Power Steering If you lose power steering assist because the engine stops or the system is not functioning, you can steer but it will take much more effort.

Steering Tips

Driving on Curves It’s important to take curves at a reasonable speed. A lot of the “driver lost control’’ accidents mentioned on the news happen on curves. Here’s why: Experienced driver or beginner, each of us is subject to the same laws of physics when driving on curves. The traction of the tires against the road surface makes it possible for the vehicle to change its path when you turn the front wheels. If there’s no traction, inertia will keep the vehicle going in the same direction. If you’ve ever tried to steer a vehicle on wet ice, you’ll understand this. The traction you can get in a curve depends on the condition of your tires and the road surface, the angle at which the curve is banked, and your speed. While you’re in a curve, speed is the one factor you can control. Suppose you’re steering through a sharp curve. Then you suddenly accelerate. Both control systems - steering and acceleration - have to do their work where the tires meet the road. Adding the sudden acceleration can demand too much of those places. You can lose control.


What should you do if this ever happens? Ease up on the accelerator pedal, steer the vehicle the way you want it to go, and slow down. Speed limit signs near curves warn that you should adjust your speed. Of course, the posted speeds are based on good weather and road conditions. Under less favorable conditions you’ll want to go slower. If you need to reduce your speed as you approach a curve, do it before you enter the curve, while your front wheels are straight ahead. Try to adjust your speed so you can “drive” through the curve. Maintain a reasonable, steady speed. Wait to accelerate until you are out of the curve, and then accelerate gently into the straightaway.

Steering in Emergencies There are times when steering can be more effective than braking. For example, you come over a hill and find a truck stopped in your lane, or a car suddenly pulls out from nowhere, or a child darts out from between parked cars and stops right in front of you. You can avoid these problems by braking - if you can stop in time. But sometimes you can’t; there isn’t room. That’s the time for evasive action - steering around the problem. Your vehicle can perform very well in emergencies like these. First apply your brakes. It is better to remove as much speed as you can from a possible collision. Then steer around the problem, to the left or right depending on the space available. An emergency like this requires close attention and a quick decision. If you are holding the steering wheel at the recommended 9 and 3 o’clock positions, you can turn it a full 180 degrees very quickly without removing either hand. But you have to act fast, steer quickly, and just as quickly straighten the wheel once you have avoided the object.

The fact that such emergency situations are always possible is ii good reason to practice defensive driving at all times and wear safety belts properly.


Off-Road Recovery You may find sometime that your right wheels have dropped off the edge of a road onto the shoulder while you’re driving. If the level of the shoulder is only slightly below the pavement, recovery should be fairly easy. Ease off the accelerator and then, if there is nothing in the way, steer so that your vehicle straddles the edge of the pavement. You can turn the steering wheel up to 114 turn until the right front tire contacts the pavement edge. Then turn your steering wheel to go straight down the roadway.

1. Edge of Road


2. Slow Down 3. Left Approx. Quarter Turn

4. Recover

Passing The driver of a vehicle about to pass another on a two-lane highway waits for just the right moment, accelerates, moves around the vehicle ahead, then goes back into the right lane again. A simple maneuver? Not necessarily! Passing another vehicle on a two-lane highway is a potentially dangerous move, since the passing vehicle occupies the same lane as oncoming traffic for several seconds. A miscalculation, an error in judgment, or a brief surrender to frustration or anger can suddenly put the passing driver face to face with the worst of all traffic accidents - the head-on collision. So here are some tips for passing:

“Drive ahead.” Look down the road, to the sides, and to crossroads for situations that might affect your passing patterns. If you have any doubt whatsoever about making a successful pass, wait for a better time.



Watch for traffic signs, pavement markings, and lines. If you can see a sign up ahead that might indicate a turn or an intersection, delay your pass. A broken center line usually indicates it’s all right to pass (providing the road ahead is clear). Never cross a solid line on your side of the lane or a double solid line, even if the road seems empty of approaching traffic. Do not get too close to the vehicle you want to pass while you’re awaiting an opportunity. For one thing, following too closely reduces your area of vision, especially if you’re following a larger vehicle. Also, you won’t have adequate space if the vehicle ahead suddenly slows or stops. Keep back a reasonable distance. When it looks like a chance to pass is coming up, start to accelerate but stay in the right lane and don’t get too close. Time your move so you will be increasing speed as the time comes to move into the other lane. If the way is clear to pass, you will have a “running start” that more than makes up for the distance you would lose by dropping back. And if something happens to cause you to cancel your pass, you need only slow down and drop back again and wait for another opportunity. If other cars are lined up to pass a slow vehicle, wait your turn. But take care that someone isn’t trying to pass you as you pull out to pass the slow vehicle. Remember to glance over your shoulder and check the blind spot. Check your mirrors , glance over your shoulder, and start your left lane change signal before moving out of the right lane to pass. When you are far enough ahead of the passed vehicle to see its front in your inside mirror, activate your right lane change signal and move back into the right lane. (Remember that if your right outside mirror is convex, the vehicle you just passed may seem to be farther away from you than it really is.) Try not to pass more than one vehicle at a time on two-lane roads. Reconsider before passing the next vehicle. Don’t overtake a slowly moving vehicle too rapidly. Even though the brake lights are not flashing, it may be slowing down or starting to turn. If you’re being passed, make it easy for the following driver to get ahead of you. Perhaps you can ease a little to the right.

Loss of Control Let’s review what driving experts say about what happens when the three control systems (brakes, steering and acceleration) don’t have enough friction where the tires meet the road to do what the driver has asked. In any emergency, don’t give up. Keep trying to steer and constantly seek an escape route or area of less danger.


Skidding In a skid, a driver can lose control of the vehicle. Defensive drivers avoid most skids by taking reasonable care suited to existing conditions, and by not “overdriving” those conditions. But skids are always possible. The three types of skids correspond to your vehicle’s three control systems. In the braking skid your wheels aren’t rolling. In the steering or cornering skid, too much speed or steering in a curve causes tires to slip and lose cornering force. And in the acceleration skid too much throttle causes the driving wheels to spin. A cornering skid and an acceleration skid are best handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal. If your vehicle starts to slide, ease your foot off the accelerator pedal and quickly steer the way you want the vehicle to go. If you start steering quickly enough, your vehicle may straighten out. Always be ready for a second skid if it occurs. Of course, traction is reduced when water, snow, ice, gravel, or other material is on the road. For safety, you’ll want to slow down and adjust your driving to these conditions. It is important to slow down on slippery surfaces because stopping distance will be longer and vehicle control more limited. While driving on a surface with reduced traction, try your best to avoid sudden steering, acceleration, or braking (including engine braking by shifting to a lower gear). Any sudden changes could cause the tires to slide. You may not realize the surface is slippery until your vehicle is skidding. Learn to recognize warning clues - such as enough water, ice or packed snow on the road to make a “mirrored surface” - and slow down when you have any doubt. Remember: Any anti-lock braking system (ABS) helps avoid only the braking skid. Driving Guidelines This multipurpose passenger vehicle is defined as a utility vehicle in Consumer Information Regulations issued by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the United States Department of Transportation. Utility vehicles have higher ground clearance and a narrower track to make them capable of performing in a wide variety of off-road applications. Specific design characteristics give them a higher center of gravity than ordinary cars. An advantage of the higher ground clearance is a better view of the road allowing you to anticipate problems. They are not designed for cornering at the same speeds as conventional 2-wheel drive vehicles any more than low-slung sports cars are designed to perform satisfactorily under off-road conditions. If at all possible, avoid sharp turns or abrupt maneuvers. As with other vehicles of this type, failure to operate this vehicle correctly may result in loss of control or vehicle rollover.


Off-Road Driving with Your Four- Wheel Drive Vehicle This off-road guide is for vehicles that have four-wheel drive. Also, see “Anti-lock Brakes” in the Index. If your vehicle doesn’t have four-wheel drive, you shouldn’t drive off-road unless you’re on a level, solid surface. Off-road driving can be great fun. But it does have some definite hazards. The greatest of these is the terrain itself. “Off-roading” means you’ve left the great North American road system behind. Traffic lanes aren’t marked. Curves aren’t banked. There are no road signs. Surfaces can be slippery, rough, uphill or downhill. In short, you’ve gone right back to nature. Off-road driving involves some new skills. And that’s why it’s very important that you read this guide. You’ll find many driving tips and suggestions. These will help make your off-road driving safer and more enjoyable. Before You Go Off-Roading There are some things to do before you go out. For example, be sure to have all necessary maintenance and service work done. Be sure you read all the information about your four-wheel drive vehicle in this manual. Is there enough fuel? Is the spare tire fully inflated? Are the fluid levels up where they should be? What are the local laws that apply to off-roading where you’ll be driving? If you don’t know, you should check with law enforcement people in the area. Will you be on someone’s private land? If so, be sure to get the necessary permission. Loading Your Vehicle for Off-Road Driving There are some important things to remember about how to load your vehicle.

The heaviest things should be on the load floor and forward of your rear axle. Put heavier items as far forward as you can. Be sure the load is secured properly, so driving on the off-road terrain doesn’t toss things around.


You’ll find other important information in this manual. See “Vehicle Loading,’’ “Luggage Carrier” and “Tires” in the Index.

Traveling to Remote Areas It makes sense to plan your trip, especially when going to a remote area. Know the terrain and plan your route. You are much less likely to get bad surprises. Get accurate maps of trails and terrain. Try to learn of any blocked or closed roads. It’s also a good idea to travel with at least one other vehicle. If something happens to one of them, the other can help quickly. Does your vehicle have a winch? If so, be sure to read the winch instructions. In a remote area, a winch can be handy if you get stuck. But you’ll want to know how to use it properly. Getting Familiar with Off-Road Driving It’s a good idea to practice in an area that’s safe and close to home before you go into the wilderness. Off-road driving does require some new and different driving skills. Here’s what we mean. Tune your senses to different kinds of signals. Your eyes, for example, need to constantly sweep the terrain for unexpected obstacles. Your ears need to listen for unusual tire or engine sounds. With your arms, hands, feet, and body you’ll need to respond to vibrations and vehicle bounce.


Controlling your vehicle is the key to successful off-road driving. One of the best ways to control your vehicle is to control your speed. Here are some things to keep in mind. At higher speeds:

you approach things faster and you have less time to scan the terrain for obstacles. you have less time to react.

0 you have more vehicle bounce when you drive over obstacles. 0 you'll need more distance for braking, especially since you're on an

unpaved surface.

Scanning the Terrain Off-road driving can take you over many different kinds of terrain. You need to be familiar with the terrain and its many different features. Here are some things to consider. Surface Conditions. Off-roading can take you over hard-packed dirt, gravel, rocks, grass, sand, mud, snow or ice. Each of these surfaces affects the steering, acceleration, and braking of your vehicle in different ways. Depending upon the kind of surface you are on, you may experience slipping, sliding, wheel spinning, delayed acceleration, poor traction, and longer braking distances. Surface Obstacles. Unseen or hidden obstacles can be hazardous. A rock, log, hole, rut, or bump can startle you if you're not prepared for them. Often these obstacles are hidden by grass, bushes, snow or even the rise and fall of the terrain itself. Here are some things to consider:

Is the path ahead clear?

0 Will the surface texture change abruptly up ahead? 0 Does the travel take you uphill or downhill? (There's more discussion

of these subjects later.) Will you have to stop suddenly or change direction quickly?

When you drive over obstacles or rough terrain, keep a firm grip on the steering wheel. Ruts, troughs, or other surface features can jerk the wheel out of your hands if you're not prepared.

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When you drive over bumps, rocks, or other obstacles, your wheels can leave the ground. If this happens, even with one or two wheels, you can’t control the vehicle as well or at all. Because you will be on an unpaved surface, it’s especially important to avoid sudden acceleration, sudden turns, or sudden braking. In a way, off-road driving requires a different kind of alertness from driving on paved roads and highways. There are no road signs, posted speed limits or signal lights. You have to use your own good judgment about what is safe and what isn’t. Drinking and driving can be very dangerous on any road. And this is certainly true for off-road driving. At the very time you need special alertness and driving skills, your reflexes, perceptions and judgment can be affected by even a small amount of alcohol. You could have a serious - or even fatal - accident if you drink and drive or ride with a driver who has been drinking. (See “Drunken Driving” in the Index.) Driving On Off-Road Hills Off-road driving often takes you up, down, or across a hill. Driving safely on hills requires good judgment and an understanding of what your vehicle can and can’t do. There are some hills that simply can’t be driven, no matter how well built the vehicle.

Approaching a Hill When you approach a hill, you need to decide if it’s one of those hills that’s just too steep to climb, descend, or cross. Steepness can be hard to judge. On a very small hill, for example, there may be a smooth, constant incline with only a small change in elevation where you can easily see all the way to the top. On a large hill, the incline may get steeper as you near the top, but you may not see this because the crest of the hill is hidden by bushes, grass, or shrubs.


Here are some other things to consider as you approach a hill.

Is there a constant incline, or does the hill get sharply steeper in places?

0 Is there good traction on the hillside, or will the surface cause tire

slipping? Is there a straight path up or down the hill so you won’t have to make turning maneuvers? Are there obstructions on the hill that can block your path (boulders, trees, logs or ruts)? What’s beyond the hill? Is there a cliff, an embankment, a drop-off, a fence? Get out and walk the hill if you don’t know. It’s the smart way to find out. Is the hill simply too rough? Steep hills often have ruts, gullies, troughs and exposed rocks because they are more susceptible to the effects of erosion.

Driving Uphill Once you decide you can safely drive up the hill, you need to take some special steps.

Use a low gear and get a firm grip on the steering wheel. Get a smooth start up the hill and try to maintain your speed. Don’t use more power than you need, because you don’t want your wheels to start spinning or sliding. Try to drive straight up the hill if at all possible. If the path twists and turns, you might want to find another route.

Ease up on your speed as you approach the top of the hill. Attach a flag to the vehicle to make you more visible to approaching traffic on trails or hills.


0 Sound the horn as you approach the top of the hill to let opposing

traffic know you’re there. Use your headlights even during the day. They make you more visible to oncoming traffic.

Q: What should I do if my vehicle stalls, or is about to stall, and I

can’t make it up the hill?

A: If this happens, there are some things you should do, and there are

some things you must not do. First, here’s what you should do: Push the brake pedal to stop the vehicle and keep it from rolling backwards. Also, apply the parking brake. If your engine is still running, shift the transmission into reverse, release the parking brake, and slowly back down the hill in reverse. If your engine has stopped running, you’ll need to restart it. With the brake pedal depressed and the parking brake still applied, shift the transmission to “P” (Park) (or, shift to “ N ’ (Neutral) if your vehicle has a manual transmission) and restart the engine. Then, shift to reverse, release the parking brake, and slowly back down the hill as straight as possible in reverse. As you are backing down the hill, put your left hand on the steering wheel at the 12 o’clock position. This way, you’ll be able to tell if your wheels are straight and maneuver as you back down. It’s best that you back down the hill with your wheels straight rather than in the left or right direction. Turning the wheel too far to the left or right will increase the possibility of a rollover. Here are some things you must not do if you stall, or are about to stall, when going up a hill.

0 Never attempt to prevent a stall by shifting into “N” (Neutral) (or

depressing the clutch, if you have a manual transmission) to “rev-up” the engine and regain forward momentum. This won’t work. Your

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vehicle will roll backwards very quickly and you could go out of control. Instead, apply the regular brake to stop the vehicle. Then apply the parking brake. Shift into reverse, release the parking brake, and slowly back straight down. Never attempt to turn around if you are about to stall when going up a hill. If the hill is steep enough to stall your vehicle, it’s steep enough to cause you to roll over if you turn around. If you can’t make it up the hill, you must back straight down the hill.

Q: Suppose, after stalling, I try to back down the hill and decide I just

can’t do it. What should I do?

A: Set the parking brake, put your transmission in “P” (Park) (or the

manual transmission in first gear), and turn off the engine. Leave the vehicle and go get some help. Exit on the uphill side and stay clear of the path the vehicle would take if it rolled downhill. Do not shift the transfer case to “N” (Neutral) when you leave the vehicle. Leave it in some gear.

Driving 50 wnhill When off-roading takes you downhill, you’ll want to consider a number of things:

0 How steep is the downhill? Will I be able to maintain vehicle control? What’s the surface like? Smooth? Rough? Slippery? Hard-packed dirt? Gravel?

0 Are there hidden surface obstacles? Ruts? Logs? Boulders? 0 What’s at the bottom of the hill? Is there a hidden creek bank or even a

river bottom with large rocks?

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If you decide you can go down a hill safely, then try to keep your vehicle headed straight down, and use a low gear. This way, engine drag can help your brakes and they won’t have to do all the work. Descend slowly, keeping your vehicle under control at all times.

Q: Are there some things I should not do when driving down a hill? A: Yes! These are important because if you ignore them you could lose

control and have a serious accident.

0 When driving downhill, avoid turns that take you across the incline of

the hill. A hill that’s not too steep to drive down may be too steep to drive across. You could roll over if you don’t drive straight down.

0 Never go downhill with the transmission in “ N ’ (Neutral) , or with the

clutch pedal depressed in a manual shift . This is called “free-wheeling.” Your brakes will have to do all the work and could overheat and fade.

Q: Am 1 likely to stall when going downhill? A: It’s much more likely to happen going uphill. But if it happens going

downhill, here’s what to do. Stop your vehicle by applying the regular brakes. Apply the parking brake. Shift to “P,’ (Park) (or to Neutral with the manual transmission) and, while still braking, restart the engine. Shift back to a low gear, release the parking brake, and drive straight down. If the engine won’t start, get out and get help.

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Driving Across an lncline Sooner or later, an off-road trail will probably go across the incline of a hill. If this happens, you have to decide whether to try to drive across the incline. Here are some things to consider:

A hill that can be driven straight up or down may be too steep to drive across. When you go straight up or down a hill, the length of the wheel base (the distance from the front wheels to the rear wheels) reduces the likelihood the vehicle will tumble end over end. But when you drive across an incline, the much more narrow track width (the distance between the left and right wheels) may not prevent the vehicle from tilting and rolling over. Also, driving across an incline puts more weight on the downhill wheels. This could cause a downhill slide or a rollover. Surface conditions can be a problem when you drive across a hill. Loose gravel, muddy spots, or even wet grass can cause your tires to slip sideways, downhill. If the vehicle slips sideways, it can hit something that will trip it (a rock, a rut, etc.) and roll over. Hidden obstacles can make the steepness of the incline even worse. If you drive across a rock with the uphill wheels, or if the downhill wheels drop into a rut or depression, your vehicle can tilt even more. For reasons like these, you need to decide carefully whether to try to drive across an incline. Just because the trail goes across the incline doesn’t mean you have to drive it. The last vehicle to try it might have rolled over.

Q: What if I’m driving across an incline that’s not too

steep, but I hit

some loose gravel and start to slide downhill. What should I do? A: If you feel your vehicle starting to slide sideways, turn downhill. This

should help straighten out the vehicle and prevent the side slipping. However, a much better way to prevent this is to get out and “walk the course” so you know what the surface is like before you drive it.


Stalling on an Incline If your vehicle stalls when you’re crossing an incline, be sure you (and your passengers) get out on the uphill side, even if the door there is harder to open. If you get out on the downhill side and the vehicle starts to roll over, you’ll be right in its path.

Driving In Mud, Sand, Snow, Or Ice When you drive in mud, snow or sand, your wheels won’t get good traction. You can’t accelerate as quickly, turning is more difficult, and you’ll need longer braking distances. It’s best to use a low gear when you’re in mud - the deeper the mud, the lower the gear. In really deep mud, the idea is to keep your vehicle moving so you don’t get stuck. When you drive on sand, you’ll sense a change in wheel traction. But it will depend upon how loosely packed the sand is. On loosely packed sand (as on beaches or sand dunes) your tires will tend to sink into the sand. This has an effect on steering, accelerating, and braking. You may want to reduce the air pressure in your tires slightly when driving on sand. This will improve traction.


Hard packed snow and ice offer the worst tire traction. On these surfaces, it’s very easy to lose control. On wet ice, for example, the traction is so poor that you will have difficulty accelerating. And if you do get moving, poor steering and difficult braking can cause you to slide out of control.

Driving In Water Light rain causes no special off-road driving problems. But heavy rain can mean flash flooding, and flood waters demand extreme caution. Find out how deep the water is before you drive through it. If it’s deep enough to cover your wheel hubs, axles, or exhaust pipe, don’t try it - you probably won’t get through. Also, water that deep can damage your axle and other vehicle parts. If the water isn’t too deep, then drive through it slowly. At fast speeds, water splashes on your ignition system and your vehicle can stall. Stalling can also occur if you get your tailpipe under water. And, as long as your tailpipe is under water, you’ll never be able to start your engine. When you go through water, remember that when your brakes get wet, it may take you longer to stop.

If you have a diesel engine, see “Driving Through Water (Diesel Engines)” in the Index for more information on driving through water.


After Off-Road Driving Remove any brush or debris that has collected on the underbody, chassis or under the hood. These accumulations can be a fire hazard. After operation in mud or sand, have the brake linings cleaned and checked. These substances can cause glazing and uneven braking. Check the body structure, steering, suspension, wheels, tires, and exhaust system for damage. Also, check the fuel lines and cooling system for any leakage. Your vehicle will require more frequent service due to off-road use. Refer to the Maintenance Schedule for additional information. Driving at Night

Night driving is more dangerous than day driving. One reason is that some drivers are likely to be impaired - by alcohol or drugs, with night vision problems, or by fatigue. Here are some tips on night driving.

0 Drive defensively. 0 Don't drink and drive. 0 Adjust your inside rearview mirror to reduce the glare from headlights

behind you. Since you can't see as well, you may need to slow down and keep more space between you and other vehicles. Slow down, especially on higher speed roads. Your headlights can light up only so much road ahead.

0 In remote areas, watch for animals.

If you're tired, pull off the road in a safe place and rest.


Night Vision No one can see as well at night as in the daytime. But as we get older these differences increase. A 50-year-old driver may require at least twice as much light to see the same thing at night as a 20-year-old. What you do in the daytime can also affect your night vision. For example, if you spend the day in bright sunshine you are wise to wear sunglasses. Your eyes will have less trouble adjusting to night. But if you’re driving, don’t wear sunglasses at night. They may cut down on glare from headlights, but they also make a lot of things invisible. You can be temporarily blinded by approaching lights. It can take a second or two, or even several seconds, for your eyes to readjust to the dark. When you are faced with severe glare (as from a driver who doesn’t lower the high beams, or a vehicle with misaimed headlights), slow down a little. Avoid staring directly into the approaching lights. Keep your windshield and all the glass on your vehicle clean - inside and out. Glare at night is made much worse by dirt on the glass. Even the inside of the glass can build up a film caused by dust. Dirty glass makes lights dazzle and flash more than clean glass would, making the pupils of your eyes contract repeatedly. Remember that your headlights light up far less of a roadway when you are in a turn or curve. Keep your eyes moving; that way, it’s easier to pick out dimly lighted objects. Just as your headlights should be checked regularly for proper aim, so should your eyes be examined regularly. Some drivers suffer from night blindness - the inability to see in dim light - and aren’t even aware of it. Driving in the Rain

Rain and wet roads can mean driving trouble. On a wet road you can’t stop, accelerate or turn as well because your tire-to-road traction isn’t as good as on dry roads. And, if your tires don’t have much tread left, you’ll get even


less traction. It’s always wise to go slower and be cautious if rain starts to fall while you are driving. The surface may get wet suddenly when your reflexes are tuned for driving on dry pavement. The heavier the rain, the harder it is to see. Even if your windshield wiper blades are in good shape, a heavy rain can make it harder to see road signs and traffic signals, pavement markings, the edge of the road, and even people walking. It’s wise to keep your wiping equipment in good shape and keep your windshield washer tank filled. Replace your windshield wiper inserts when they show signs of streaking or missing areas on the windshield, or when strips of rubber start to separate from the inserts.

_: ,

Driving too fast through large water puddles or even going through some car washes can cause problems, too. The water may affect your brakes. Try to avoid puddles. But if you can’t, try to slow down before you hit them.


Hydroplaning is dangerous. So much water can build up under your tires that they can actually ride on the water. This can happen if the road is wet enough and you’re going fast enough. When your vehicle is hydroplaning, it has little or no contact with the road. Hydroplaning doesn’t happen often. But it can if your tires haven’t much tread or if the pressure in one or more is low. It can happen if a lot of water is standing on the road. If you can see reflections from trees, telephone poles, or other vehicles, and raindrops “dimple” the water’s surface, there could be hydroplaning. Hydroplaning usually happens at higher speeds. There just isn’t a hard and fast rule about hydroplaning. The best advice is to slow down when it is raining. Some Other Rainy Weather Tips

Turn on ybur low-beam headlights - not just your parKing lights - to help make you more visible to others. Besides slowing down, allow some extra following distance. And be especially careful when you pass another vehicle. Allow yourself more clear room ahead, and be prepared to have your view restricted by road spray. Have good tires with proper tread depth. (See “Tires” in the Index.)

City Driving

One of the biggest problems with city streets is the amount of traffic on them. You’ll want to watch out for what the other drivers are doing and pay attention to traffic signals. Here are ways to increase your safety in city driving:



Know the best way to get to where you are going. Get a city map and plan your trip into an unknown part of the city just as you would for a cross-country trip. Try to use the freeways that rim and crisscross most large cities. You’ll save time and energy. (See the next section, “Freeway Driving.”) Treat a green light as a warning signal. A traffic light is there because the corner is busy enough to need it. When a light turns green, and just before you start to move, check both ways for vehicles that have not cleared the intersection or may be running the red light.

Freeway Driving

Mile for mile, freeways (also called thruways, parkways, expressways, turnpikes, or superhighways) are the safest of all roads. But they have their own special rules. The most important advice on freeway driving is: Keep up with traffic and keep to the right. Drive at the same speed most of the other drivers are driving. Too-fast or too-slow driving breaks a smooth traffic flow. Treat the left lane on a freeway as a passing lane. At the entrance there is usually a ramp that leads to the freeway. If you have a clear view of the freeway as you drive along the entrance ramp, you should begin to check traffic. Try to determine where you expect to blend with the flow. Try to merge into the gap at close to the prevailing speed. Switch on your turn signal, check your mirrors and glance over your shoulder as often as necessary. Try to blend smoothly with the traffic flow. Once you are on the freeway, adjust your speed to the posted limit or to the prevailing rate if it’s slower. Stay in the right lane unless you want to pass. Before changing lanes, check your mirrors, Then use your turn signal. Just before you leave the lane, glance quickly over your shoulder to make sure there isn’t another vehicle in your “blind” spot.


Once you are moving on the freeway, make certain you allow a reasonable following distance. Expect to move slightly slower at night. When you want to leave the freeway, move to the proper lane well in advance. If you miss your exit do not, under any circumstances, stop and back up. Drive on to the next exit. The exit ramp can be curved, sometimes quite sharply. The exit speed is usually posted. Reduce your speed according to your speedometer, not to your sense of motion. After driving for any distance at higher speeds, you may tend to think you are going slower than you actually are. Before Leaving on a Long Trip Make sure you’re ready. Try to be well rested. If you must start when you’re not fresh - such as after a day’s work - don’t plan to make too many miles that first part of the journey. Wear comfortable clothing and shoes you can easily drive in. Is your vehicle ready for a long trip? If you keep it serviced and maintained, it’s ready to go. If it needs service, have it done before starting out. Of course, you’ll find experienced and able service experts in vehicle dealerships all across North America. They’ll be ready and willing to help if you need it. Here are some things you can check before a trip:

Windshield Washer Fluid: Is the reservoir full? Are all windows clean inside and outside? Wiper Blades: Are they in good shape? Fuel, Engine OiZ, Other Fluids: Have you checked all levels? Lights: Are they all working? Are the lenses clean? Tires: They are vitally important to a safe, trouble-free trip. Is the tread good enough for long-distance driving? Are the tires all inflated to the recommended pressure? Weather Forecasts: What’s the weather outlook along your route? Should you delay your trip a short time to avoid a major storm system? Maps: Do you have up-to-date maps?


Highway Hypnosis Is there actually such a condition as “highway hypnosis”? Or is it just plain falling asleep at the wheel? Call it highway hypnosis, lack of awareness, or whatever. There is something about an easy stretch of road with the same scenery, along with the hum of the tires on the road, the drone of the engine, and the rush of the wind against the vehicle that can make you sleepy. Don’t let it happen to you! If it does, your vehicle can leave the road in less than a second, and you could crash and be injured. What can you do about highway hypnosis? First, be aware that it can happen. Then here are some tips:

0 Make sure your vehicle is well ventilated, with a comfortably cool


0 Keep your eyes moving. Scan the road ahead and to the sides. Check

your mirrors and your instruments frequently. If you get sleepy, pull off the road into a rest, service, or parking area and take a nap, get some exercise, or both. For safety, treat drowsiness on the highway as an emergency.

Hill and Mountain Roads

Driving on steep hills or mountains is different from driving in flat or rolling terrain. If you drive regularly in steep country, or if you’re planning to visit there, here are some tips that can make your trips safer and more enjoyable. (See “Off-Road Driving” in the Index for information about driving off-road.)


Keep your vehicle in good shape. Check all fluid levels and also the brakes, tires, cooling system and transmission. These parts can work hard on mountain roads. Know how to go down hills. The most important thing to know is this: let your engine do some of the slowing down. Shift to a lower gear when you go down a steep or long hill.

0 Know how to go uphill. You may want to shift down to a lower gear. The lower gears help cool your engine and transmission, and you can climb the hill better.

0 Stay in your own lane when driving on two-lane roads in hills or

mountains. Don’t swing wide or cut across the center of the road. Drive at speeds that let you stay in your own lane. As you go over the top of a hill, be alert. There could be something in your lane, like a stalled car or an accident. You may see highway signs on mountains that warn of special problems. Examples are long grades, passing or no-passing zones, a falling rocks area, or winding roads. Be alert to these and take appropriate action.


Winter Driving

Here are some tips for winter driving:

0 Have your vehicle in good shape for winter. Be sure your engine

coolant mix is correct.

0 You may want to put winter emergency supplies in your vehicle. Include an ice scraper, a small brush or broom, a supply of windshield washer fluid, a rag, some winter outer clothing, a small shovel, a flashlight, a red cloth, and a couple of reflective warning triangles. And, if you will be driving under severe conditions, include a small bag of sand, a piece of old carpet or a couple of burlap bags to help provide traction. Be sure you properly secure these items in your vehicle. Driving on Snow or Ice Most of the time, those places where your tires meet the road probably have good traction. However, if there is snow or ice between your tires and the road, you can have a very slippery situation. You’ll have a lot less traction or “grip” and will need to be very careful.


What’s the worst time for this? “Wet ice.” Very cold snow or ice can be slick and hard to drive on. But wet ice can be even more trouble because it may offer the least traction of all. You can get “wet ice” when it’s about freezing (32°F; 0°C) and freezing rain begins to fall. Trv to avoid driving on wet ice until salt and sand crews can get there. Whatever the condition - smooth ice, packed, blowing ,or loose snow - drive with caution. Accelerate gently. Try not to break the fragile traction. If you accelerate too fast, the drive wheels will spin and polish the surface under the tires even more. Your anti-lock brakes improve your ability to make a hard stop on a slippery road. Even though you have an anti-lock braking system, you’ll want to begin stopping sooner than you would on dry pavement. See “Anti-lock” in the Index.

Allow greater following distance on any slippery road. Watch for slippery spots. The road might be fine until you hit a spot that’s covered with ice. On an otherwise clear road, ice patches may appear in shaded areas where the sun can’t reach: around clumps of trees, behind buildings, or under bridges. Sometimes the surface of a curve or an overpass may remain icy when the surrounding roads are clear. If you see a patch of ice ahead of you, brake before you are on it. Try not to brake while you’re actually on the ice, and avoid sudden steering maneuvers.


If You’re Caught in a Blizzard

If you are stopped by heavy snow, you could be in a serious situation. You should probably stay with your vehicle unless you know for sure that you are near help and you can hike through the snow. Here are some things to do to summon help and keep yourself and your passengers safe: Turn on your hazard flashers. Tie a red cloth to your vehicle to alert police that you’ve been stopped by the snow. Put on extra clothing or wrap a blanket around you. If you have no blankets or extra clothing, make body insulators from newspapers, burlap bags, rags, floor mats - anything you can wrap around yourself or tuck under your clothing to keep warm. You can run the engine to keep warm, but be careful.


Run your engine only as long as you must. This saves fuel. When you run the engine, make it go a little faster than just idle. That is, push the accelerator slightly. This uses less fuel for the heat that you get and it keeps the battery (or batteries) charged. You will need a well-charged battery (or batteries) to restart the vehicle, and possibly for signaling later on with your headlights. Let the heater run for awhile. If you have a diesel engine, you may have to run it at a higher speed to get enough heat. Then, shut the engine off and close the window almost all the way to preserve the heat. Start the engine again and repeat this only when you feel really uncomfortable from the cold. But do it as little as possible. Preserve the fuel as long as you can. To help keep warm, you can get out of the vehicle and do some fairly vigorous exercises every half hour or so until help comes. Power Winches If you wish to use a power winch on your vehicle, only use it when your vehicle is stationary or anchored.

NOTICE: When operating a power winch on your vehicle, always leave the transmission in “N” (Neutral). Leaving a automatic transmission in “P”(Park) while using a power winch may damage the transmission. Also, leaving a automatic or manual transmission in gear while using an power winch may damage the transmission.

Use the regular brakes, set the parking brake, or block the wheels to keep your vehicle from rolling.


Power Take-Off (PTO)

NOTICE: If you will be using the PTO while the vehicle remains in one place, drive the vehicle to warm it up before operating the PTO. Don’t use the PTO for more than four hours without driving your vehicle again. If you don’t follow these guidelines, your transfer case or transmission could be damaged.

NOTICE: Don’t have a PTO that will exceed 35 horsepower installed on your vehicle. It could damage your transmission or transfer case.

Before using a power take-off, refer to the manufacturer’s or installer’s instructions. To engage a power take-off: 1. Set the parking brake. 2. Shift the transmission into “N” (Neutral). 3. Hold the clutch pedal down and engage the power take-off.

If you are going to drive the vehicle, shift the transmission into the gear you want. Then shift the transfer case into the range you want (if you have four-wheel drive), apply the regular brakes and release the parking brake.

4. Release the clutch (and the regular brakes) as you normally would.

When you release the clutch, the power take-off will start.

Using a Transfer Case Mounted Power Take-Off (Manual Transmission) I . Set the parking brake. 2. Shift the transfer case into “N” (Neutral). 3. Hold the clutch pedal down. If the vehicle will remain in the same

place, shift the transmission into the highest gear.


4. Engage the power take-off.

If you are going to drive the vehicle, shift the transmission into the gear you want. Then shift the transfer case into the range you want, apply the regular brakes and release the parking brake.

5. Release the clutch (and the regular brakes) as you normally would.

When you release the clutch, the power take-off will start.

Using a Transfer Case Mounted Power Take-Off (Automatic Transmission) 1. Set the parking brake. 2. Shift the transfer case into “N” (Neutral). 3. Shift the transmission into “ N ’ (Neutral). 4. Engage the power take-off.

If you are going to drive the vehicle, shift the transfer case into the range you want. Then apply the regular brakes and release the parking brake.

5. Shift the transmission to “D” (Drive) to start the power take-off. 6. Release the regular brakes to drive the vehicle. Towing a Trailer



Pulling a trailer improperly can damage your vehicle and result in costly repairs not covered by your warranty. To pull a trailer correctly, follow the advice in this section, and see your GM dealer for important information about towing a trailer with your vehicle.

Every vehicle is ready for some trailer towing. If it was built with trailering options, as many are, it’s ready for heavier trailers. But trailering is different than just driving your vehicle by itself. Trailering means changes in handling, durability, and fuel economy. Successful, safe trailering takes correct equipment, and it has to be used properly. That’s the reason for this section. In it are many time-tested, important trailering tips and safety rules. Many of these are important for your safety and that of your passengers. So please read this section carefully before you pull a trailer. r f You Do Decide To Pull A Trailer If you do, here are some important points.

There are many different laws having to do with trailering. Make sure your rig will be legal, not only where you live but also where you’ll be driving. A good source for this information can be state or provincial police. Consider using a sway control with a utility model if your trailer will weigh 3,000 pounds (1 36 1 kg) or less, or with a wagon model if your trailer will weigh 4,000 pounds (1 800 kg) or less. You should always use a sway control with a utility model if your trailer will weigh more than 3,000 pounds (I 361 kg), or with a wagon model if your trailer will weigh more than 4,000 pounds (1 800 kg).

You can ask a hitch dealer about sway controls.

Don’t tow a trailer at all during the first 500 miles (800 km) your new vehicle is driven. Your engine, axle or other parts could be damaged. Then, during the first 500 miles (800 km) that you tow a trailer, don’t drive over 50 mph (80 km/h) and don’t make starts at full throttle. This helps your engine and other parts of your vehicle wear in at the heavier loads.


Three important considerations have to do with weight: Weight of the Trailer How heavy can a trailer safely be? It depends on how you plan to use your rig. For example, speed, altitude, road grades, outside temperature and how much your vehicle is used to pull a trailer are all important. And, it can also depend on any special equipment that you have on your vehicle. You can ask your dealer for our trailering information or advice, or you can write us at the address listed in your Warranty and Owner Assistance Information Booklet. In Canada, write to General Motors of Canada Limited, Customer Assistance Center, 1908 Colonel Sam Drive, Oshawa, Ontario L I H 8P7.

Weight of the Trailer Tongue The tongue load (A) of any trailer is an important weight to measure because it affects the total or gross weight of your vehicle. The gross vehicle weight (GVW) includes the curb weight of the vehicle, any cargo you may carry in it, and the people who will be riding in the vehicle. And if you will tow a trailer, you must add the tongue load to the GVW because your vehicle will be carrying that weight, too. See “Loading Your Vehicle” in the Index for more information about your vehicle’s maximum load capacity.

If you’re using a “dead-weight” hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 10% of the total loaded trailer weight (B). If you have a “weight-distributing” hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 12% of the total loaded trailer weight (B).


After you’ve loaded your trailer, weigh the trailer and then the tongue, separately, to see if the weights are proper. If they aren’t, you may be able to get them right simply by moving some items around in the trailer. Total Weight on Your Vehicle’s Tires Be sure your vehicle’s tires are inflated to the limit for cold tires. You’ll find these numbers on the Certification label at the rear edge of the driver’s door or see “Tire Loading” in the Index. Then be sure you don’t go over the GVW limit for your vehicle.

Hitches It’s important to have the correct hitch equipment. Crosswinds, large trucKs going by, and rough roads are a few reasons why you’ll need the right hitch. Here are some rules to follow:

If you use a step bumper hitch, and your trailer tongue has a V-shaped foot, your bumper could be damaged in sharp turns. Check the distance from the front edge of the foot to the middle of the hitch ball socket. If the distance is less than 12 inches, take the foot off the trailer tongue. If you’ll be pulling a trailer with a utility model that, when loaded, will weigh more than 3,000 pounds (1 361 kg); or with a wagon model that, when loaded, will weigh more than 4000 pounds (1 800 kg), be sure to use a properly mounted, weight-distributing hitch and sway control of the proper size. This equipment is very important for proper vehicle loading and good handling when you’re driving.

0 Will you have to make any holes in the body of your vehicle when you

install a trailer hitch? If you do, then be sure to seal the holes later when you remove the hitch. If you don’t seal them, deadly carbon monoxide (CO) from your exhaust can get into your vehicle (see “Carbon Monoxide” in the Index). Dirt and water can, too.

Safety Chains You should always attach chains between your vehicle and your trailer. Cross the safety chains under the tongue of the trailer so that the tongue will not drop to the road if it becomes separated from the hitch. Instructions about safety chains may be provided by the hitch manufacturer or by the trailer manufacturer. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendation for attaching safety chains. Always leave just enough slack so you can turn with your rig. And, never allow safety chains to drag on the ground.


Trailer Brakes If your trailer weighs more than 1,000 pounds (450 kg) loaded, then it needs its own brakes - and they must be adequate. Be sure to read and follow the instructions for the trailer brakes so you’ll be able to install, adjust and maintain them properly. Your trailer brake system can tap into your vehicle’s hydraulic brake system, but consider the following:

Will the trailer brake system use more than 0.02 cubic inch (0.3 cc) of fluid from your vehicle’s master cylinder? If it will, don’t tap into your vehicle’s brake system. Both braking systems won’t work well, and you could even lose your brakes altogether. Will the trailer brake parts take 3,000 psi (20 650 kPa) of pressure? If not, the trailer brake system must not be used with your vehicle. If everything checks out this far, make the brake tap at the port on the master cylinder that sends the fluid to the rear brakes. But don’t use copper tubing for this. if you do, it will bend and finally break off. Use steel brake tubing. Driving with a Trailer Towing a trailer requires a certain amount of experience. Before setting out for the open road, you’ll want to get to know your rig. Acquaint yourself with the feel of handling and braking with the added weight of the trailer. And always keep in mind that the vehicle you are driving is now a good deal longer and not nearly so responsive as your vehicle is by itself. Before you start, check the trailer hitch and platform, safety chains, electrical connector, lights, tires and mirror adjustment. If the trailer has electric brakes, start your vehicle and trailer moving and then apply the trailer brake controller by hand to be sure the brakes are working. This lets you check your electrical connection at the same time.


During your trip, check occasionally to be sure that the load is secure, and that the lights and any trailer brakes are still working. Following Distance Stay at least twice as far behind the vehicle ahead as you would when driving your vehicle without a trailer. This can help you avoid situations that require heavy braking and sudden turns.

Passing You’ll need more passing distance up ahead when you’re towing a trailer. And, because you’re a good deal longer, you’ll need to go much farther beyond the passed vehicle before you can return to your lane.

Backing Up Hold the bottom of the steering wheel with one hand. Then, to move the trailer to the left, just move that hand to the left. To move the trailer to the right, move your hand to the right. Always back up slowly and, if possible, have someone guide you.


Making Turns When you’re turning with a trailer, make wider turns than normal. Do this so your trailer won’t strike soft shoulders, curbs, road signs, trees, or other objects. Avoid jerky or sudden maneuvers. Signal well in advance. Turn Signals When Towing a Trailer When you tow a trailer, your vehicle has to have a different turn signal flasher and extra wiring, The green arrows on your instrument panel will flash whenever you signal a turn or lane change. Properly hooked up, the trailer lights will also flash, telling other drivers you’re about to turn, change lanes or stop. When towing a trailer, the green arrows on your instrument panel will flash for turns even if the bulbs on the trailer are burned out. Thus, you may think drivers behind you are seeing your signal when they are not. It’s important to check occasionally to be sure the trailer bulbs are still working. Driving On Grades Reduce speed and shift to a lower gear before you start down a long or steep downgrade. If you don’t shift down, you might have to use your brakes so much that they would get hot and no longer work well. On a long uphill grade, shift down and reduce your speed to around 45 mph (70 k d h ) to reduce the possibility of engine and transmission overheating. If you have an automatic transmission, you should use “D” (or, as you need to, a lower gear) when towing a trailer. Operating your vehicle in “D” when towing a trailer will minimize heat buildup and extend the life of your transmission. If you have a manual transmission and you are towing a trailer, it’s better not to use fifth gear. Just drive in fourth gear (or, as you need to, a lower gear). Parking on Hills You really should not park your vehicle, with a trailer attached, on a hill. If something goes wrong, your rig could start to move. People can be injured, and both your vehicle and the trailer can be damaged. But if you ever have to park your rig on a hill, here’s how to do it:

1. Apply your regular brakes, but don’t shift into “P’ (Park) yet, or in gear

for a manual transmission.

2. Have someone place chocks under the trailer wheels. 3. When the wheel chocks are in place, release the regular brakes until the

chocks absorb the load.


4. Re-apply the regular brakes. Then apply your parking brake, and then

shift to “P” (Park), or “ R ’ (Reverse) for a manual transmission.

5. If you have a four-wheel-drive vehicle, be sure the transfer case is in a

drive gear-not

in “N” (Neutral).

6. Release the regular brakes.

When You Are Ready to Leave After Parking on a Hill 1. Apply your regular brakes and hold the pedal down while you:

Start your engine; Shift into a gear; and Release the parking brake.

2. Let up on the brake pedal. 3. Drive slowly until the trailer is clear of the chocks. 4. Stop and have someone pick up and store the chocks.


Maintenance When Trailer Towing Your vehicle will need service more often when you’re pulling a trailer. See the Maintenance Schedule for more on this. Things that are especially important in trailer operation are automatic transmission fluid (don’t overfill), engine oil, axle lubricant, belt, cooling system, and brake adjustment. Each of these is covered in this manual, and the Index will help you find them quickly. If you’re trailering, it’s a good idea to review these sections before you start your trip. Check periodically to see that all hitch nuts and bolts are tight.

Trailer Light Wiring See “Trailer Wiring Harness” in the Index.


Problems On The Road


Here you’ll find what to do about some problems that can occur on the road . Hazard Warning Flasher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 Other Warning Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 Jumpstarting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 TowingYourVehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 Engine Overheating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24 Engine Fan Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If a Tire Goes Flat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24 Changing a Flat Tire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25 SpareTire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26 Jackstorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26 If You’re Stuck: In Sand. Mud. Ice or Snow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-40


Hazard Warning Flashers

1 others. They also let

police know you have a problem. Your front and rear turn signal lights will flash on and off. But they won’t flash if you’re braking.

Your hazard warning flashers let you warn

Press the button in to make your front and rear turn signals flash on and off.

Your hazard warning flashers work no matter what position your key is in, and even if the key isn’t in.

P P . . lo turn orr me flashers, pull out on the collar.

When the hazard warning flashers are on, your turn signals won’t work.


Other Warning Devices If you carry reflective triangles, you can use them to warn others. Set one up at the side of the road about 300 feet (100 m) behind your vehicle. Jump Starting If your battery (or batteries) has run down, you may want to use another vehicle and some jumper cables to start your vehicle. But please follow the steps below to do it safely.

NOTICE: Ignoring these steps could result in costly damage to your vehicle that wouldn’t be covered by your vehicle warranty. Trying to start your vehicle by pushing or pulling it could damage your vehicle, even if you have a manual transmission. And if you have an automatic transmission, it won’t start that way.


Tu Jump Start Your Vehicle; 1. Check the other vehicle. It must have a 12-volt battery with a negative

ground system.

I NOTICE: I If the other system isn’t a 12-volt system with a negative

ground, both vehicles can be damaged.

If you have a diesel engine vehicle with two batteries (or more), you should know before you begin that, especially in cold weather, you may not be able to get enough power from a single battery in another vehicle to start your diesel engine. If your vehicle has more than one battery, use the battery that’s on the passenger side of the vehicle - this will reduce electrical resistance. 2. Get the vehicles close enough so the jumper cables can reach, but be sure the vehicle’s aren’t touching each other. If they are, it could cause a ground connection you don’t want. You wouldn’t be able to start your vehicle, and the bad grounding could damage the electrical systems. You could be injured if the vehicles roll. Set the parking brake firmly on each vehicle. Put an automatic transmission in “P’ (Park) or a manual transmission in “ N ’ (Neutral). If you have a four-wheel-drive vehicle, be sure the transfer case is not in “N” (Neutral).

3. Turn off the ignition on both vehicles. Turn off all lights that aren’t

needed, and radios. This will avoid sparks and help save both batteries. And it could save your radio!

NOTICE: If you leave your radio on, it could be badly damaged. The repairs wouldn’t be covered by your warranty.

4. Open the hoods and locate the batteries. Find the positive (+) and

negative (-) terminals on each battery.


5. Check that the jumper cables don’t have loose or missing insulation. If

they do, you could get a shock. The vehicles could be damaged, too. Before you connect the cables, here are some basic things you should know. Positive (+) will go to positive (+) and negative (-) will go to negative (-) or a metal engine part. Don’t connect (+) to (-) or you’ll get a short that would damage the battery and maybe other parts, too.


6. Connect the red positive (+) cable to the positive (+) terminal of the

vehicle with the dead battery. Use a remote positive (+> terminal if the vehicle has one.

Dead Battery (+)

Good Battery (+)

7. Don't let the other end touch metal. Connect it to the positive (+)

terminal of the good battery. Use a remote positive (+) terminal if the vehicle has one.

8. Now connect the black negative (-) cable to the good battery's negative

(-) cable. Don't let the other end touch anything until the next step. The other end of the negative cable doesn't go to the dead battery. It goes to a heavy unpainted metal part of the vehicle with the dead battery.

Good Battery (-)

Heavy Metal Engine Part

.: . .


9. Attach the cable at least 18 inches (45 cm) away from the dead battery, but not near engine parts that move. The electrical connection is just as good there, but the chance of sparks getting back to the battery is much less.

10. Now start the vehicle with the good battery and run the engine for


1 1 . Try to start the vehicle with the dead battery.

If it won't start after a few tries, it probably needs service.

Remove Cables in this Order

1. Heavy Metal Engine Part

2. Good Battery (-) 3. Good Battery (+) 4. Dead Battery (+)

12. Remove the cables in reverse order to prevent electrical shorting.

Take care that they don't touch each other or any other metal.

Towing Your Vehicle Try to have your GM dealer or a professional towing service tow your vehicle. They can provide the right equipment and know how to tow it without damage. If your vehicle has been changed since it was factory-new, by adding such things like fog lamps, aero skirting, or special tires and wheels, these things could be damaged during towing. Before you do anything, turn on the hazard warning flashers. When you call, tell the towing service:

That your vehicle has rear-wheel drive, or that it has the four-wheel drive option. The make, model, and year of your vehicle.


0 Whether you can move the shift lever for the transmission and transfer

case, if you have one. If there was an accident, what was damaged.

When your vehicle is being towed, have the ignition key off. The steering wheel should be clamped in a straight-ahead position, with a clamping device designed for towing service, Do not use the vehicle’s steering column lock for this. The transmission and transfer case, if you have one, should be in Neutral and the parking brake released.


Towing From the Front

If you have a two-wheel drive vehicle, don’t have your vehicle towed on the rear wheels, unless you must. If the vehicle must be towed on the rear wheels, don’t go more than 35 mph (56 km/h) or farther than 50 miles (80 km) or your transmission will be damaged. If these limits must be exceeded, then the rear wheels have to be supported on a dolly. If your vehicle has the four-wheel drive option and the transfer case is engaged, a dolly must be used under the rear wheels when towing from the front.


Towing From the Rear

Engine Overheating You will find a coolant temperature gage on your vehicle instrument panel. If you have a diesel engine, you will also find a low coolant light on your instrument panel.


If Steam Is Coming From Your Engine


If your engine catches fire because you keep driving with no coolant, your vehicle can be badly damaged. The costly repairs would not be covered by your warranty.


If No Steam Is Coming From Your Engine If you get the overheat warning but see or hear no steam, the problem may not be too serious. Sometimes the engine can get a little too hot when you:

Climb a long hill on a hot day. Stop after high speed driving. Idle for long periods in traffic. Tow a trailer.

If you get the overheat warning with no sign of steam, try this for a minute or so:

1. If you have an air conditioner, turn it off. 2. Turn on your heater to full hot at the highest fan speed and open the

window as necessary.

3. If you’re in a traffic jam, shift to “ N ’ (Neutral). If you no longer have the overheat warning, you can drive. Just to be safe, drive slower for about ten minutes. If the warning doesn’t come back on, you can drive normally. If the warning continues, pull over, stop, and park your vehicle right away. If there’s still no sign of steam, push the accelerator until the engine speed is about twice as fast as normal idle speed. Bring the engine speed back to normal idle speed after two or three minutes. Now see if the warning stops. But then, if you still have the warning, TURN OFF THE ENGINE AND GET EVERYONE OUT OF THE VEHICLE until it cools down. You may decide not to lift the hood but to get service help right away. Cooling System -Gas Engines

“ I

When you decide it’s safe to lift the hood, here’s what you’ll see: A. Coolant recovery


B. Engine fan(s) C. Radiator pressure



If the coolant inside the coolant recovery tank is boiling, don’t do anything else until it cools down.

The coolant level should be at or above the COLD mark. If it isn’t, you may have a leak in the radiator hoses, heater hoses, radiator, water pump or somewhere else in the cooling system.

NOTICE: Engine damage from running your engine without coolant isn’t covered by your warranty.

If there seems to be no leak, start the engine again. See if the fan speed increases when idle speed is doubled by pushing the accelerator pedal down. If it doesn’t, your vehicle needs service. Turn off the engine.


How to Add Coolant to the Coolant Recovery Tank If you haven’t found a problem yet, but the coolant level isn’t at or above the COLD mark, add a 50/50 mixture of clean water (preferably distilled) and a proper antifreeze at the coolant recovery tank. (See “Engine Coolant” in the Index for more information about the proper coolant mix.)

NOTICE: In cold weather, water can freeze and crack the engine, radiator, heater core and other parts. Use the recommended coolant.


When the coolant in the coolant recovery tank is at or above the COLD mark, start your vehicle. If the overheat warning continues, there’s one more thing you can try. You can add the proper coolant mix directly to the radiator but be sure the cooling system is cool before you do it.

” .


How to Add Coolant to the Radiator 1. You can remove the radiator pressure cap when the cooling system,

including the radiator pressure cap and upper radiator hose, is no longer hot.

Turn the pressure cap slowly to the left until it first stops. (Don't press down while turning the pressure cap.) If you hear a hiss, wait for that to stop. A hiss means there is still some pressure left.

2. Then keep turning the pressure cap, but now push down as you turn it. Remove the pressure cap.


3. Fill the radiator with the proper mix, up to the base of the filler neck.

4. Then fill the

coolant recovery tank to the COLD mark.

5. Put the cap back

on the coolant recovery tank, but leave the radiator pressure cap off.

5- 17

6. Start the engine

and let it run until you can feel the upper radiator hose getting hot. Watch out for the engine fan(s).

By this time the coolant level inside the radiator filler neck may be lower. If the level is lower, add more of the proper mix through the filler neck until the level reaches the base of the filler neck.

8. Then replace the pressure cap. At any time during this procedure if coolant begins to flow out of the filler neck, reinstall the pressure cap. Be sure the arrows on pressure cap line up like this.

Cooling System -Diesel Engines

When you decide it's safe to lift the hood, here's what you'll see: A. Coolant surge

tank pressure cap

B. Engine fan(s) C . Radiator


If the coolant inside the coolant surge tank is boiling, don't do anything else until it cools down.

The coolant level should be at or above the COLD mark. If it isn't, you may have a leak in the radiator hoses, heater hoses, radiator, water pump or somewhere else in the cooling system.

NOTICE: Engine damage from running your engine without coolant isn't covered by your warranty.

If there seems to be no leak, start the engifie again. See if the fan speed increases when idle speed is doubled by pushing the accelerator pedal down If it doesn't, your vehicle needs service. Turn off the engine.


How to Add Coolant to the Coolant Surge Tank If you haven’t found a problem yet, but the coolant level isn’t at the COLD mark add a 50/50 mixture of clean water (preferably distilled) and a proper antifreeze at the coolant surge tank, but be sure the cooling system, including the coolant surge tank pressure cap, is cool before you do it. (See “Engine Coolant” in the Index for more information about the proper coolant mix.)


NOTICE: In cold weather, water can freeze and crack the engine, radiator, heater core and other parts. So use the recommended coolant.

1. You can remove the coolant surge tank pressure cap when the cooling

system, including the coolant surge tank pressure cap and upper radiator hose, is no longer hot.


Turn the pressure cap slowly to the left until it first stops. (Don't press down while turning the pressure cap.) If you hear a hiss, wait for that to stop. A hiss means there is still some pressure left.

2. Then keep

turning the cap, but now push down as you turn it. Remove the pressure cap.

3. Open the air bleed valve located on the thermostat housing.

4. Fill the coolant surge tank with the proper mix, up to the COLD mark.


While filling the surge tank, watch to see if coolant begins to stream out the air bleed valve. When coolant begins to stream out, close the valve. 5. With the air bleed valve closed and the coolant surge tank pressure cap off, start the engine and let it run until you can feel the upper radiator hose getting hot. Watch out for the engine fan( s).

6. By this time, the coolant level inside the coolant surge tank may be

lower. If the level is lower, add more of the proper mix to the coolant surge tank until the level reaches the COLD mark.

7. Then replace the pressure cap. Be sure the arrows on the pressure cap line up like this.


Engine Fan Noise Your vehicle has a clutched engine cooling fan. When the clutch is engaged, the fan spins faster to provide more air to cool the engine. In most every day driving conditions the fan is spinning slower and clutch is not fully engaged. This improves fuel economy and reduces fan noise. Under heavy vehicle loading, trailer towing and/or high outside temperatures, the fan speed increases as the clutch more fully engages. So you may hear an increase in fan noise. This is normal and should not be mistaken as the transmission slipping or making extra shifts. It is merely the cooling system functioning properly. The fan will slow down when additional cooling is not required and the clutch partially disengages. You may also hear this fan noise when you start the engine. It will go away as the fan clutch partially disengages. If a Tire Goes Flat It’s unusual for a tire to “blow out” while you’re driving, especially if you maintain your tires properly. If air goes out of a tire, it’s much more likely to leak out slowly. But if you should ever have a “blowout,” here are a few tips about what to expect and what to do: If a front tire fails, the flat tire will create a drag that pulls the vehicle toward that side. Take your foot off the accelerator pedal and grip the steering wheel firmly. Steer to maintain lane position, then gently brake to a stop well out of the traffic lane. A rear blowout, particularly on a curve, acts much like a skid and may require the same correction you’d use in a skid. In any rear blowout, remove your foot from the accelerator pedal. Get the vehicle under control by steering the way you want the vehicle to go. It may be very bumpy and noisy, but you can still steer. Gently brake to a stop, well off the road if possible. If a tire goes flat, the next section shows how to use your jacking equipment to change a flat tire safely.


Changing a Flat Tire If a tire goes flat, avoid further tire and wheel damage by driving slowly to a level place. Turn on your hazard warning flashers.

The following steps will tell you how to use the jack and change a tire.

The equipment you’ll need is located in the rear cargo area. You’ll also find your spare tire there.


Spare Tire

Your spare tire is mounted on the driver side inside cargo area wall, at the rear of the vehicle

First open the tire cover, if you have one. Turn the wing nut to the left and take it, and the adapter, off the bolt. Take the tire out of the vehicle and remove the tire cover.

Jack and Tools -Utiliiy Models

I If your utility model has a jack cover, turn the wing nut to the left I to take it off, then take

the cover off.



To take the jack out, turn the wing nut to the left and take it and the retainer off. Take the jack and storage box out and then take the tools out of the box.

Your vehicle may have a pair of emergency gloves secured to the jack. You can use them when changing the tire, or during other emergency situations. Remember to replace them with the jack, so you will have them handy if needed later.

Jack and Tools -Wagon Models

If your wagon model has a jack cover, lift the tab up to release the cover. Slide your hand under the edge of the cover, swing the cover open and then take it off.


.... .. . . ..

...... . ... ..

Your vehicle’s jack and jacking tools are stored in the compartment. To take the jack out, turn the wing nut to the left and take it and the retainer off. Take the jack and storage box out and then take the tools out of the box.

Your vehicle may have a pair of emergency gloves secured to the jack. You can use them when changing the tire, or during other emergency situations. Remember to replace them with the jack, so you will have them handy if needed later. Jacking Tool Storage - All Models

1. Socket 2. Jack Handle 3. Ratchet

4. Jacking Tool Storage Box 5. Jack Handle Extension


Jack Storage - Utility Models


1. Retainer 2. Nut 3. Jack - Secure Jack in Vehicle as Shown Jack Storage - Wagon Models

4. Jack Stbrage Box 5. Bracket.

1. Retainer 2. Nut 3. Jack - Secure Jack in Vehicle as Shown

4. Jack Storage Box 5. Bracket.


UP Marking

DOWN Marking

.:: . ,.... " .....,....., (./ . ., .. .. ,~ i..... '."I"' .? ..,...

The ratchet has an UP and a DOWN marking.


With the UP marking on the ratchet facing you, rotate the ratchet to the right.

That will lift the jack head a little. Before raising the vehicle, do the following things. Put your spare tire near the flat tire. Remove the wheel trim.


If there is a wheel cover, pry along the edge until it comes off.

Be careful; the rim edges may be sharp. Don’t try to remove it with your bare hands.


If your vehicle has wheel nut caps, use the wheel wrench and ratchet, with DOWN facing you, to unscrew and take them off.

Then take the hub cap off. If the wheel has a trim ring, remove it by using the flat end of the wheel wrench.


If the wheel has a smooth center piece or a center piece with recessed nuts, place the flat end of the wheel wrench in the slot on the wheel and pry out gently.

Using the wheel wrench and ratchet, with DOWN facing you, loosen all the wheel nuts. Don’t remove them yet. Position the jack under the vehicle.


NOTICE: Raising your vehicle with the jack improperly positioned will damage the vehicle or may allow the vehicle to fall off the jack. Be sure to fit the jack lift head into the proper location before raising your vehicle.

Front Position



Raise the vehicle by rotating the ratchet to the right. Make sure the UP if the flat is on the rear of marking faces you. Use the jack handle extentions the vehicle. Raise the vehicle far enough off the ground so there is enough room for the spare tire to fit.


Remove all the wheel nuts and take off the flat tire.

Remove any rust or dirt from the wheel bolts, mounting surfaces and spare wheel. Place the spare on the wheel mounting surface.

Replace the wheel nuts with the rounded end of the nuts toward the wheel. Tighten each wheel nut by hand until the wheel is held against the hub.

Front Position

Rear Position

Lower the vehicle by rotating the ratchet to the left. Lower the jack completely.

5 -35

Tiqhten to the Left

Tightening Sequence

Tighten the nuts firmly in a criss-cross sequence as shown. Rotate the ratchet to the right with the UP marking facing you.

For proper torque, see “Wheel Nut Torque” in the Index. Put the wheel trim back on. For vehicles with plastic nut caps, tighten the caps until they are finger tight, then tighten them an additional one-half turn with the ratchet. Remove any wheel blocks. Kernember, the jack and tire must be properly stored in their original stbfige position before you begin driving again. The next part, “Storing the Jack and Tire,” will show you how.


Storing the Jack and Tire

Storing the Jack Put the tools into the storage box and close it tightly. Fit the storage box into the bracket with the bolt through the box. Put the jack onto the box. Be sure the jack points in the right direction as shown for your model. See the jack and jack tools storage diagrams earlier in this section. Secure the emergency gloves, if your vehicle has them, to the jack using the provided strap. Slide the retainer over the bolt onto the jack and put the wing nut on. Turn the nut to the right until it is tight against the retainer. Replace the jack storage cover, if your vehicle has one, by simply reversing the removal procedure described earlier.


Storing the Tire Be sure the J-bolt is hooked properly for your model or tire size as shown. Tire Storage -Wagon Model If you have a wagon model, use these locations.

1 , I-Bolt 2. J-Bolt 3. Carrier 4. Spare Tire

5. Adapter 6. Nut 7. Cover 8. Use Lower Adapter Hole for

8-Lug Rim Only


Tire Storage -Utility Model If you have a utility model, use these locations.

1. Carrier 2. J-Bolt 3. Adapter 4. Spare Tire 5. Nut

6. Cover 7. Pins 8. J-Bolt 9. Use Upper Hole and Pin for LT265 Tire or Lower Hole and Pin For LT225/245 Tires

Put the cover back on the tire if your vehicle has one. Put the tire into the vehicle, over the bolt. Slide the adapter onto the bolt in the proper location for your model, and put the wing nut on. Turn the wing nut to the right until the adapter is tight against the wheel, then close the cover.


If You’re Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow What you don’t want to do when your vehicle is stuck is to spin your wheels. The method known as “rocking” can help you get out when you’re stuck, but you must use caution.

NOTICE: Spinning your wheels can destroy parts of your vehicle as well as the tires. If you spin the wheels too fast while shifting your transmission back and forth, you can destroy your transmission.

Rocking your vehicle to get it out: First, turn your steering wheel left and right. That will clear the area around your front wheels. Then shift back and forth between “R” (Reverse) and a forward gear (or with a manual transmission, between First or Second gear and Reverse), spinning the wheels as little as possible. Release the accelerator pedal while you shift, and press lightly on the accelerator pedal when the transmission is in gear. If that doesn’t get you out after a few tries, you may need to be towed out. Or, you can use your recovery hooks, if your vehicle has them. If you do need to be towed out, see “Towing Your Vehicle” in the Index.


Using the Recovey Hooks

If you ever get stuck in sand, mud, ice or snow, your vehicle may be equipped with recovery hooks. The recovery hooks are provided at the front of your vehicle. You may need to use them if you're stuck off-road and need to be pulled to some place where you can continue driving.

i.:.:::: .



NOTICE: Never use the recovery hooks to tow the vehicle. Your vehicle could be damaged and it would not be covered by warranty.


Service & Appearance


Here you will find information about the care of your vehicle . This section begins with service and fuel information. and then it shows how to check important fluid and lubricant levels . There is also technical information about your vehicle. and a section devoted to its appearance care . Service ................................................... Fuel (Gasoline Engines) ............................ Diesel Fuel Requirements and Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . Checking Things Under the Hood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

HoodRelease .......................................... Cleaning Your Diesel Engine ............................ Engine Oil (Except Diesel) ................................ Engine Oil (Diesel Engines) ............................... Aircleaner .................... Automatic Transmission Fluid ............................. Manual Transmission Fluid ............................... Hydraulic Clutch ........................................ RearAxle ............................................. Transfer Case .......................................... FrontAxle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engine Coolant ......................................... Power Steering Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Windshield Washer Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6-3 . . . . . . . . 6-4 . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 ......... 6-14 6-14 6-15 6-16 6-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-27 6-28 6-31 6-32 6-33 6-34 6-35 6-35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4 0 6-42

. .


...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Brake Master Cylinder ................................... 6-43 Replacing Brake System Parts .............................. 6-46 Other Maintenance Items .................................... 6 4 6 ..... 6 4 8 Lubrication ............. ....... 6-49 Battery ................ Bulb Replacement ......................................... 6-50 Fuses and Circuit Breakers ................................ 6-56 Exhaust System ....................................... 6-58 Loading Your Vehicle ...................................... 6-59 Tires .................................................... 6-62 Inflation-Tire Pressure .................................. 6-62 Tire Inspection and Rotation ............................... 6-64 When It’s Time for New Tires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-65 Buying New Tires ..................................... 6-66 Uniform Tire Quality Grading ............................. 6-66 Wheel Alignment and Tire Balance ......................... 6-67 Wheel Replacement ..................................... 6-68 Tire Chains ............................................ 6-69 Appearancecare .......................................... 6-69 Cleaning the Inside of Your Vehicle ......................... 6-70 Cleaning the Outside of Your Vehicle ..................... 6-74 Appearance Care Materials .................................. 6-77 Vehicle Identification Number .............................. 6-78 Service Parts Identification Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-80 Specification Charts ...................................... 6-81


Service Your GM dealer knows your vehicle best and wants you to be happy with it. We hope you’ll go to your dealer for all your service needs. You’ll get genuine GM parts and GM-trained and supported service people. We hope you’ll want to keep your GM vehicle all GM. Genuine GM parts have one of these marks:

Doing Your Own Service Work If you want to do some of your own service work, you’ll want to get the proper GM Service Manual. It tells you much more about how to service your vehicle than this manual can. To order the proper service manual, see “Service Publications” in the Index. You should keep a record with all parts receipts and list the mileage and the date of any service work you perform. See “Maintenance Record” in the Index.

I NOTICE: I If you try to do your own service work without knowing enough

about it, your vehicle could be damaged.


Maintenance Schedule Section 7 of this manual, “Scheduled Maintenance Services”, explains the maintenance your new vehicle needs, and when it should be done. It also has a form that you can use to record the maintenance work done on your vehicle. Be sure to read this information. Fuel (Gasoline Engine) If your vehicle has a diesel engine, see “Diesel Fuel Requirements and Fuel System” in this Section. For vehicles with gasoline engines, please read this. Use regular unleaded gasoline rated at 87 octane or higher. It should meet specifications ASTM D4814 in the U.S. and CGSB 3.5-92 in Canada. These fuels should have the proper additives, so you should not have to add anything to the fuel. In the U.S. and Canada, it’s easy to be sure you get the right kind of gasoline (unleaded). You’ll see “UNLEADED” right on the pump. And only unleaded nozzles will fit into your vehicle’s filler neck. Be sure the posted octane is at least 87. If the octane is less than 87, you may get a heavy knocking noise when you drive. If it’s bad enough, it can damage your engine. If you’re using fuel rated at 87 octane or higher and you still hear heavy knocking, your engine needs service. But don’t worry if you hear a little pinging noise when you’re accelerating or driving up a hill. That’s normal and you don’t have to buy a higher octane fuel to get rid of pinging. It’s the heavy, constant knock that means you have a problem. What about gasoline with blending materials that contain oxygen (oxygenates), such as MTBE or alcohol? MTBE is “methyl tertiary-butyl ether.” Fuel that is no more than 15% MTBE is fine for your vehicle. Ethanol is ethyl or grain alcohol. Properly-blended fuel that is no more than 10% ethanol is fine for your vehicle. Methanol is methyl or wood alcohol.

NOTICE: Fuel that is more than 5 % methanol is bad for your vehicle. Don’t use it. It can corrode metal parts in your fuel system and also damage plastic and rubber parts. That damage wouldn’t be covered under your warranty. And even at 5% or less, there must be “cosolvents” and corrosion preventers in this fuel to help avoid these problems.


Gasolines for Cleaner Air Your use of gasoline with deposit control additives will help prevent deposits from forming in your engine and fuel system. That helps keep your engine in tune and your emission control system working properly. It’s good for your vehicle, and you’ll be doing your part for cleaner air. Many gasolines are now blended with oxygenates. General Motors recommends that you use gasolines with these blending materials, such as MTBE and ethanol. By doing so, you can help clean the air, especially in those parts of the country that have high carbon monoxide levels. In addition, some gasoline suppliers are now producing reformulated gasolines. These gasolines are specially designed to reduce vehicle emissions. General Motors recommends that you use reformulated gasoline. By doing so, you can help clean the air, especially in those parts of the country that have high ozone levels. You should ask your service station operators if their gasolines contain deposit control additives and oxygenates, and if they have been reformulated to reduce vehicle emissions. Diesel Fuel Requirements and Fuel System Some states and provinces have restrictions on the purchase of diesel fuel for light-duty vehicles and require you to buy permits or pay special taxes. Some of these restrictions apply only to residents, and others apply to both residents and visitors. These restrictions can change. To learn the current restrictions in any state or province, contact your auto club, the police or other officials.

Fuel Requirements

NOTICE: Diesel fuel or fuel additives not recommended in this manual could damage your fuel system and engine, Your warranty wouldn’t cover this damage, And: 0 Diesel fuel that has been mixed with engine oil could damage

your engine and emission controls. Always check with your service station operator to make sure his diesel fuel has not been mixed with engine oil. If you ever run out of diesel fuel, it can be difficult to restart your engine. “Running Out of Fuel,” later in this section, tells you how to get it started again. To avoid all this, try never to let your tank get empty.


What Fuel to Use You can use either Number 1-D or Number 2-D diesel fuel, but you’ll get better fuel economy using 2-D. Diesel fuel may foam when you fill your tank. This can cause the automatic pump nozzle to shut off, even though your tank isn’t full. If this happens, just wait for the foaming to stop and then continue to fill your tank.

Cold Weather Operation In cold weather (below 20”F, or -7”C), use 1-D or “Winterized” Number