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After the cleaning cassette is ejected, the cut tape detection feature will be active again. You may also choose a non-scrubbing action, wet-type cleaner which uses a cassette with a fabric belt to clean the tape head. This type of cleaning cassette will not eject on its own. A non-scrubbing action cleaner may not clean as thoroughly as the scrubbing type cleaner. The use of a non-scrubbing action, dry-type cleaning cassette is not recommended. After you clean the player, press and hold the EJECT button for five seconds to reset the CLN indicator. The radio will display --- or CLEANED to show the indicator was reset. Cassettes are subject to wear and the sound quality may degrade over time. Always make sure the cassette tape is in good condition before you have your tape player serviced.

Care of Your CDs Handle CDs carefully. Store them in their original cases or other protective cases and away from direct sunlight and dust. If the surface of a CD is soiled, dampen a clean, soft cloth in a mild, neutral detergent solution and clean it, wiping from the center to the edge. Be sure never to touch the side without writing when handling CDs. Pick up CDs by grasping the outer edges or the edge of the hole and the outer edge.

Care of Your CD Player The use of CD lens cleaners for CDs is not advised, due to the risk of contaminating the lens of the CD optics with lubricants internal to the CD mechanism.

Fixed Mast Antenna (Z06) The fixed mast antenna can withstand most car washes without being damaged. If the mast should ever become slightly bent, you can straighten it out by hand. If the mast is badly bent, you should replace it. Check occasionally to be sure the mast is still tightened to the rear quarter panel.


Power Antenna Mast Care (Convertible) Your power antenna will look its best and work well if it is cleaned from time to time. To clean the antenna mast do the following: 1. Turn on the ignition and radio to raise the antenna. 2. Dampen a clean cloth with mineral spirits or

equivalent solvent.

3. Wipe the cloth over the mast sections, removing

any dirt.

4. Wipe dry with a clean cloth. 5. Make the antenna go up and down by turning the

radio or ignition off and on.

If you lubricate the power antenna, you may

6. Repeat if necessary. Notice: damage it. Always follow the cleaning instructions listed in this manual to keep the power antenna working properly.

Notice: Before entering an automatic car wash, turn off your radio to make the power antenna go down. This will prevent the mast from possible damage. If the antenna does not go down when you turn the radio off, it may be damaged or need to be cleaned. In either case, lower the antenna by hand by carefully pressing the antenna down. If the mast portion of your antenna is damaged, you can replace it. See your dealer for a replacement kit and follow the instructions in the kit.

Integrated Windshield and Rear Window Antennas (Coupe) The antennas in your vehicle are located in the windshield and the rear window. The front connector is at the top of the windshield and the rear antenna is incorporated in the rear window defogger grid. Notice: Do not apply aftermarket glass tinting with metallic film. The metallic film in some tinting materials will interfere with or distort the incoming radio reception. Any damage caused to your backglass antenna due to metallic tinting materials will not be covered by your warranty.


Section 4

Driving Your Vehicle

Your Driving, the Road, and Your Vehicle ..........4-2
Defensive Driving ...........................................4-2
Drunken Driving .............................................4-3
Control of a Vehicle ........................................4-6
Braking .........................................................4-6
Traction Control System (TCS) .........................4-9
Active Handling System .................................4-10
Limited-Slip Rear Axle ...................................4-12
Selective Ride Control ...................................4-12
Steering ......................................................4-14
Off-Road Recovery .......................................4-16
Passing .......................................................4-16
Loss of Control .............................................4-18
Driving at Night ............................................4-19

Driving in Rain and on Wet Roads ..................4-20
City Driving ..................................................4-23
Freeway Driving ...........................................4-24
Before Leaving on a Long Trip .......................4-25
Highway Hypnosis ........................................4-26
Hill and Mountain Roads ................................4-26
Winter Driving ..............................................4-28
If You Are Stuck: In Sand, Mud,

Ice or Snow ..............................................4-32
Towing ..........................................................4-33
Towing Your Vehicle .....................................4-33
Recreational Vehicle Towing ...........................4-33
Loading Your Vehicle ....................................4-33
Towing a Trailer ...........................................4-38


Your Driving, the Road, and Your Vehicle

Defensive Driving The best advice anyone can give about driving is: Drive defensively. Please start with a very important safety device in your vehicle: Buckle up. See Safety Belts: They Are for Everyone on page 1-6. Defensive driving really means “be ready for anything.” On city streets, rural roads or freeways, it means “always expect the unexpected.” Assume that pedestrians or other drivers are going to be careless and make mistakes. Anticipate what they might do. Be ready for their mistakes.

Rear-end collisions are about the most preventable of accidents. Yet they are common. Allow enough following distance. It is the best defensive driving maneuver, in both city and rural driving. You never know when the vehicle in front of you is going to brake or turn suddenly. Defensive driving requires that a driver concentrate on the driving task. Anything that distracts from the driving task — such as concentrating on a cellular telephone call, reading, or reaching for something on the floor — makes proper defensive driving more difficult and can even cause a collision, with resulting injury. Ask a passenger to help do things like this, or pull off the road in a safe place to do them yourself. These simple defensive driving techniques could save your life.


Drunken Driving Death and injury associated with drinking and driving is a national tragedy. It is the number one contributor to the highway death toll, claiming thousands of victims every year. Alcohol affects four things that anyone needs to drive a vehicle: • Judgment • Muscular Coordination • Vision • Attentiveness. Police records show that almost half of all motor vehicle-related deaths involve alcohol. In most cases, these deaths are the result of someone who was drinking and driving. In recent years, more than 16,000 annual motor vehicle-related deaths have been associated with the use of alcohol, with more than 300,000 people injured.

Many adults — by some estimates, nearly half the adult population — choose never to drink alcohol, so they never drive after drinking. For persons under 21, it is against the law in every U.S. state to drink alcohol. There are good medical, psychological and developmental reasons for these laws. The obvious way to eliminate the leading highway safety problem is for people never to drink alcohol and then drive. But what if people do? How much is “too much” if someone plans to drive? It is a lot less than many might think. Although it depends on each person and situation, here is some general information on the problem. The Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of someone who is drinking depends upon four things: • The amount of alcohol consumed • The drinker’s body weight • The amount of food that is consumed before and

during drinking

• The length of time it has taken the drinker to

consume the alcohol.


According to the American Medical Association, a 180 lb (82 kg) person who drinks three 12 ounce (355 ml) bottles of beer in an hour will end up with a BAC of about 0.06 percent. The person would reach the same BAC by drinking three 4 ounce (120 ml) glasses of wine or three mixed drinks if each had 1-1/2 ounces (45 ml) of liquors like whiskey, gin or vodka.

It is the amount of alcohol that counts. For example, if the same person drank three double martinis (3 ounces or 90 ml of liquor each) within an hour, the person’s BAC would be close to 0.12 percent. A person who consumes food just before or during drinking will have a somewhat lower BAC level. There is a gender difference, too. Women generally have a lower relative percentage of body water than men. Since alcohol is carried in body water, this means that a woman generally will reach a higher BAC level than a man of her same body weight will when each has the same number of drinks. The law in an increasing number of U.S. states, and throughout Canada, sets the legal limit at 0.08 percent. In some other countries, the limit is even lower. For example, it is 0.05 percent in both France and Germany. The BAC limit for all commercial drivers in the United States is 0.04 percent. The BAC will be over 0.10 percent after three to six drinks (in one hour). Of course, as we have seen, it depends on how much alcohol is in the drinks, and how quickly the person drinks them.


But the ability to drive is affected well below a BAC of 0.10 percent. Research shows that the driving skills of many people are impaired at a BAC approaching 0.05 percent, and that the effects are worse at night. All drivers are impaired at BAC levels above 0.05 percent. Statistics show that the chance of being in a collision increases sharply for drivers who have a BAC of 0.05 percent or above. A driver with a BAC level of 0.06 percent has doubled his or her chance of having a collision. At a BAC level of 0.10 percent, the chance of this driver having a collision is 12 times greater; at a level of 0.15 percent, the chance is 25 times greater! The body takes about an hour to rid itself of the alcohol in one drink. No amount of coffee or number of cold showers will speed that up. “I will be careful” is not the right answer. What if there is an emergency, a need to take sudden action, as when a child darts into the street? A person with even a moderate BAC might not be able to react quickly enough to avoid the collision.

There is something else about drinking and driving that many people do not know. Medical research shows that alcohol in a person’s system can make crash injuries worse, especially injuries to the brain, spinal cord or heart. This means that when anyone who has been drinking — driver or passenger — is in a crash, that person’s chance of being killed or permanently disabled is higher than if the person had not been drinking.


Drinking and then driving is very dangerous. Your reflexes, perceptions, attentiveness and judgment can be affected by even a small amount of alcohol. You can have a serious — or even fatal — collision if you drive after drinking. Please do not drink and drive or ride with a driver who has been drinking. Ride home in a cab; or if you are with a group, designate a driver who will not drink.


Control of a Vehicle You have three systems that make your vehicle go where you want it to go. They are the brakes, the steering and the accelerator. All three systems have to do their work at the places where the tires meet the road.

Braking Braking action involves perception time and reaction time. First, you have to decide to push on the brake pedal. That is perception time. Then you have to bring up your foot and do it. That is reaction time. Average reaction time is about 3/4 of a second. But that is only an average. It might be less with one driver and as long as two or three seconds or more with another. Age, physical condition, alertness, coordination and eyesight all play a part. So do alcohol, drugs and frustration. But even in 3/4 of a second, a vehicle moving at 60 mph (100 km/h) travels 66 feet (20 m). That could be a lot of distance in an emergency, so keeping enough space between your vehicle and others is important. And, of course, actual stopping distances vary greatly with the surface of the road (whether it is pavement or gravel); the condition of the road (wet, dry, icy); tire tread; the condition of your brakes; the weight of the vehicle and the amount of brake force applied.

Sometimes, as when you are driving on snow or ice, it is easy to ask more of those control systems than the tires and road can provide. That means you can lose control of your vehicle. Also see Traction Control System (TCS) on page 4-9 and Active Handling System on page 4-10.


Avoid needless heavy braking. Some people drive in spurts — heavy acceleration followed by heavy braking — rather than keeping pace with traffic. This is a mistake. Your brakes may not have time to cool between hard stops. Your brakes will wear out much faster if you do a lot of heavy braking. If you keep pace with the traffic and allow realistic following distances, you will eliminate a lot of unnecessary braking. That means better braking and longer brake life. If your engine ever stops while you are driving, brake normally but do not pump your brakes. If you do, the pedal may get harder to push down. If your engine stops, you will still have some power brake assist. But you will use it when you brake. Once the power assist is used up, it may take longer to stop and the brake pedal will be harder to push.

Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) Your vehicle has anti-lock brakes. ABS is an advanced electronic braking system that will help prevent a braking skid. When you start your engine and begin to drive away, your anti-lock brake system will check itself. You may hear a momentary motor or clicking noise while this test is going on, and you may even notice that your brake pedal moves a little. This is normal.

If there is a problem with the anti-lock brake system, this warning light will stay on. See Anti-Lock Brake System Warning Light on page 3-39.


The anti-lock system can change the brake pressure faster than any driver could. The computer is programmed to make the most of available tire and road conditions. This can help you steer around the obstacle while braking hard.

Let us say the road is wet and you are driving safely. Suddenly, an animal jumps out in front of you. You slam on the brakes and continue braking. Here is what happens with ABS: A computer senses that wheels are slowing down. If one of the wheels is about to stop rolling, the computer will separately work the brakes at each wheel.


As you brake, your computer keeps receiving updates on wheel speed and controls braking pressure accordingly.

Remember: Anti-lock does not change the time you need to get your foot up to the brake pedal or always decrease stopping distance. If you get too close to the vehicle in front of you, you will not have time to apply your brakes if that vehicle suddenly slows or stops. Always leave enough room up ahead to stop, even though you have anti-lock brakes. Using Anti-Lock Do not pump the brakes. Just hold the brake pedal down firmly and let anti-lock work for you. You may hear a motor or clicking noise and feel the brake pedal move a little during a stop, but this is normal. Braking in Emergencies With anti-lock, you can steer and brake at the same time. In many emergencies, steering can help you more than even the very best braking.

Traction Control System (TCS) Your vehicle has a traction control system called TCS that limits wheel spin. This is especially useful in slippery road conditions. The system operates only if it senses that the rear wheels are spinning too much or are beginning to lose traction. When this happens, the system works the rear brakes and reduces engine power (by closing the throttle and managing engine spark) to limit wheel spin. The TRACTION SYS ACTIVE message will come on when the TCS system is limiting wheel spin. See DIC Warnings and Messages on page 3-58. You may feel or hear the system working, but this is normal. If your vehicle is in cruise control when the TCS system begins to limit wheel spin, the cruise control will automatically disengage. When road conditions allow you to safely use it again, you may re-engage the cruise control. See Turn Signal/Multifunction Lever on page 3-6.


The SERVICE TRACTION SYSTEM message and the TCS warning light will come on to let you know if there is a problem with your TCS system. See DIC Warnings and Messages on page 3-58.

When this light and the SERVICE TRACTION SYSTEM message are on, the system will not limit wheel spin. Adjust your driving accordingly. The TCS system automatically comes on whenever you start your vehicle. To limit wheel spin, especially in slippery road conditions, you should always leave the system on. But you can turn the TCS system off if you ever need to.

To turn the system off, press the button located on the console. You can turn the system on or off at any time by pressing the ACTIVE HANDLING button. The DIC will display the appropriate message when you push the button.


Active Handling System The Active Handling System is a computer controlled system that helps the driver maintain directional control of the vehicle in difficult driving conditions. This is accomplished by selectively applying any one of the vehicle’s brakes. When you first start your vehicle and begin to drive away (6 mph (10 km/h)), the message ACT HNDLG WARMING UP may be displayed in the DIC, the instrument cluster light will be on, and a chime will sound. This is normal. You can acknowledge this message by pressing the RESET button. The Active Handling System performance is affected until the message, WARM UP COMPLETE, is displayed in the DIC. The ACT HNDLG WARMING UP message may be displayed in the DIC after exceeding 12 mph (20 km/h) for 30 seconds. The Active Handling System is off until the WARM UP COMPLETE message is displayed. The ACTIVE HANDLING message will come on when the system is operating. See DIC Warnings and Messages on page 3-58 for more information. You may also feel or hear the system working. This is normal.

The SERVICE ACTIVE HNDLG message will be displayed, the instrument cluster light will come on, and a chime will sound to let you know if there is a problem with the system. See DIC Warnings and Messages on page 3-58
for more information.

When this light and the SERVICE ACTIVE HNDLG message are on, the system is not operational. Adjust your driving accordingly.

The Active Handling System comes on automatically whenever you start your vehicle. To help maintain directional control of the vehicle, you should always leave the system on. You can turn the system off if you ever need to. If you turn the Active Handling System off, the Traction Control System will also be turned off. Adjust your driving accordingly.

To turn the system off, press the ACTIVE HANDLING button on the console. You can turn the system on and off at any time by pressing the button. The DIC will display the appropriate message when you push the button.


Competitive Driving Mode The driver can select this optional handling mode by pressing the ACTIVE HANDLING button on the console for more than five seconds. A chime will sound and COMPETITIVE DRIVING will be displayed in the DIC. Competitive Driving mode allows the driver to have full control of the rear wheels while the Active Handling System helps steer the vehicle by selective brake application. The instrument cluster light will not be on. The Traction Control System will not be operating. Adjust your driving accordingly. When you press the ACTIVE HANDLING button again, or turn the ignition to ACC, the Active Handling and Traction Control Systems will be on. The TRAC/ACT HNDLG-ON message will be displayed temporarily in the DIC and a chime will be heard.

Limited-Slip Rear Axle Your limited-slip rear axle can give you additional traction on snow, mud, ice, sand or gravel. It works like a standard axle most of the time, but when one of the rear wheels has no traction and the other does, this feature will allow the wheel with traction to move the vehicle.

Selective Ride Control You may have a ride control system on your vehicle called Selective Ride Control. The system provides the following performance benefits: • Reduced Impact Harshness • Improved Road Isolation • Improved High-Speed Stability • Improved Handling Response • Better Control of Body Ride Motions


This knob is located on the center console. Turn it to select the suspension of your choice.

TOUR: Use for normal city and highway driving. This setting provides a smooth, soft ride.

SPORT: Use where road conditions or personal preference demand more control. This setting provides more “feel”, or response to the road conditions. You can select a setting at any time. Based on road conditions, steering wheel angle and your vehicle speed, the system automatically adjusts to provide the best ride and handling. Select a new setting whenever driving conditions change. There are three Driver Information Center (DIC) messages that are displayed when a malfunction occurs with the Selective Ride Control system. Refer to DIC Warnings and Messages on page 3-58.


Steering Power Steering If you lose power steering assist because the engine stops or the system is not functioning, you can steer but it will take much more effort. Magnetic Speed Variable Assist Steering Your vehicle is equipped with a steering system that continuously adjusts the effort you feel when steering at all vehicle speeds. It provides ease when parking, yet a firm, solid feel at highway speeds. Steering Tips Driving on Curves It is important to take curves at a reasonable speed. A lot of the “driver lost control” accidents mentioned on the news happen on curves. Here is why: Experienced driver or beginner, each of us is subject to the same laws of physics when driving on curves. The traction of the tires against the road surface makes it possible for the vehicle to change its path when you turn the front wheels. If there is no traction, inertia will keep the vehicle going in the same direction. If you have ever tried to steer a vehicle on wet ice, you will understand this.


The traction you can get in a curve depends on the condition of your tires and the road surface, the angle at which the curve is banked, and your speed. While you are in a curve, speed is the one factor you can control. Suppose you are steering through a sharp curve. Then you suddenly accelerate. Both control systems — steering and acceleration — have to do their work where the tires meet the road. Adding the sudden acceleration can demand too much of those places. You can lose control. See Traction Control System (TCS) on page 4-9. What should you do if this ever happens? Ease up on the accelerator pedal, steer the vehicle the way you want it to go, and slow down. Speed limit signs near curves warn that you should adjust your speed. Of course, the posted speeds are based on good weather and road conditions. Under less favorable conditions you will want to go slower. If you need to reduce your speed as you approach a curve, do it before you enter the curve, while your front wheels are straight ahead. Try to adjust your speed so you can “drive” through the curve. Maintain a reasonable, steady speed. Wait to accelerate until you are out of the curve, and then accelerate gently into the straightaway.

Steering in Emergencies There are times when steering can be more effective than braking. For example, you come over a hill and find a truck stopped in your lane, or a car suddenly pulls out from nowhere, or a child darts out from between parked cars and stops right in front of you. You can avoid these problems by braking — if you can stop in time. But sometimes you can not; there is not room. That is the time for evasive action — steering around the problem. Your vehicle can perform very well in emergencies like these. First apply your brakes. See Braking on page 4-6. It is better to remove as much speed as you can from a possible collision. Then steer around the problem, to the left or right depending on the space available.

An emergency like this requires close attention and a quick decision. If you are holding the steering wheel at the recommended 9 and 3 o’clock positions, you can turn it a full 180 degrees very quickly without removing either hand. But you have to act fast, steer quickly, and just as quickly straighten the wheel once you have avoided the object. The fact that such emergency situations are always possible is a good reason to practice defensive driving at all times and wear safety belts properly.


Off-Road Recovery You may find that your right wheels have dropped off the edge of a road onto the shoulder while you’re driving.

If the level of the shoulder is only slightly below the pavement, recovery should be fairly easy. Ease off the accelerator and then, if there is nothing in the way, steer so that your vehicle straddles the edge of the pavement. You can turn the steering wheel up to one-quarter turn until the right front tire contacts the pavement edge. Then turn your steering wheel to go straight down the roadway.


Passing The driver of a vehicle about to pass another on a two-lane highway waits for just the right moment, accelerates, moves around the vehicle ahead, then goes back into the right lane again. A simple maneuver? Not necessarily! Passing another vehicle on a two-lane highway is a potentially dangerous move, since the passing vehicle occupies the same lane as oncoming traffic for several seconds. A miscalculation, an error in judgment, or a brief surrender to frustration or anger can suddenly put the passing driver face to face with the worst of all traffic accidents — the head-on collision. So here are some tips for passing: • “Drive ahead.” Look down the road, to the sides and to crossroads for situations that might affect your passing patterns. If you have any doubt whatsoever about making a successful pass, wait for a better time.

• Watch for traffic signs, pavement markings and lines. If you can see a sign up ahead that might indicate a turn or an intersection, delay your pass. A broken center line usually indicates it is all right to pass (providing the road ahead is clear). Never cross a solid line on your side of the lane or a double solid line, even if the road seems empty of approaching traffic.

• Do not get too close to the vehicle you want to

pass while you are awaiting an opportunity. For one thing, following too closely reduces your area of vision, especially if you are following a larger vehicle. Also, you will not have adequate space if the vehicle ahead suddenly slows or stops. Keep back a reasonable distance.

• When it looks like a chance to pass is coming up,

start to accelerate but stay in the right lane and do not get too close. Time your move so you will be increasing speed as the time comes to move into the other lane. If the way is clear to pass, you will have a “running start” that more than makes up for the distance you would lose by dropping back. And if something happens to cause you to cancel your pass, you need only slow down and drop back again and wait for another opportunity.

• If other vehicles are lined up to pass a slow vehicle,

wait your turn. But take care that someone is not trying to pass you as you pull out to pass the slow vehicle. Remember to glance over your shoulder and check the blind spot.

• Check your mirrors, glance over your shoulder, and start your left lane change signal before moving out of the right lane to pass. When you are far enough ahead of the passed vehicle to see its front in your inside mirror, activate your right lane change signal and move back into the right lane. (Remember that your right outside mirror is convex. The vehicle you just passed may seem to be farther away from you than it really is.)

• Try not to pass more than one vehicle at a time on

two-lane roads. Reconsider before passing the next vehicle.

• Do not overtake a slowly moving vehicle too rapidly.

Even though the brake lamps are not flashing, it may be slowing down or starting to turn.

• If you are being passed, make it easy for the following driver to get ahead of you. Perhaps you can ease a little to the right.


Loss of Control Let us review what driving experts say about what happens when the three control systems (brakes, steering and acceleration) do not have enough friction where the tires meet the road to do what the driver has asked. In any emergency, do not give up. Keep trying to steer and constantly seek an escape route or area of less danger. Skidding In a skid, a driver can lose control of the vehicle. Defensive drivers avoid most skids by taking reasonable care suited to existing conditions, and by not “overdriving” those conditions. But skids are always possible. The three types of skids correspond to your vehicle’s three control systems. In the braking skid, your wheels are not rolling. In the steering or cornering skid, too much speed or steering in a curve causes tires to slip and lose cornering force. And in the acceleration skid, too much throttle causes the driving wheels to spin. A cornering skid is best handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal.

Remember: Any traction control system helps avoid only the acceleration skid. If your TCS system is off, then an acceleration skid is also best handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal. If your vehicle starts to slide, ease your foot off the accelerator pedal and quickly steer the way you want the vehicle to go. If you start steering quickly enough, your vehicle may straighten out. Always be ready for a second skid if it occurs. Of course, traction is reduced when water, snow, ice, gravel or other material is on the road. For safety, you will want to slow down and adjust your driving to these conditions. It is important to slow down on slippery surfaces because stopping distance will be longer and vehicle control more limited. While driving on a surface with reduced traction, try your best to avoid sudden steering, acceleration or braking (including engine braking by shifting to a lower gear). Any sudden changes could cause the tires to slide. You may not realize the surface is slippery until your vehicle is skidding. Learn to recognize warning clues — such as enough water, ice or packed snow on the road to make a “mirrored surface” — and slow down when you have any doubt. Remember: Any anti-lock brake system (ABS) helps avoid only the braking skid.


Driving at Night

Night driving is more dangerous than day driving. One reason is that some drivers are likely to be impaired — by alcohol or drugs, with night vision problems, or by fatigue.

Here are some tips on night driving. • Drive defensively. • Do not drink and drive. • Adjust your inside rearview mirror to reduce the

glare from headlamps behind you.

• Since you can not see as well, you may need to

slow down and keep more space between you and other vehicles.

• Slow down, especially on higher speed roads. Your headlamps can light up only so much road ahead.

• In remote areas, watch for animals. • If you are tired, pull off the road in a safe place

and rest.

No one can see as well at night as in the daytime. But as we get older these differences increase. A 50-year-old driver may require at least twice as much light to see the same thing at night as a 20-year-old. What you do in the daytime can also affect your night vision. For example, if you spend the day in bright sunshine you are wise to wear sunglasses. Your eyes will have less trouble adjusting to night. But if you are driving, do not wear sunglasses at night. They may cut down on glare from headlamps, but they also make a lot of things invisible.


You can be temporarily blinded by approaching headlamps. It can take a second or two, or even several seconds, for your eyes to readjust to the dark. When you are faced with severe glare (as from a driver who does not lower the high beams, or a vehicle with misaimed headlamps), slow down a little. Avoid staring directly into the approaching headlamps. Keep your windshield and all the glass on your vehicle clean — inside and out. Glare at night is made much worse by dirt on the glass. Even the inside of the glass can build up a film caused by dust. Dirty glass makes lights dazzle and flash more than clean glass would, making the pupils of your eyes contract repeatedly. Remember that your headlamps light up far less of a roadway when you are in a turn or curve. Keep your eyes moving; that way, it is easier to pick out dimly lighted objects. Just as your headlamps should be checked regularly for proper aim, so should your eyes be examined regularly. Some drivers suffer from night blindness — the inability to see in dim light — and are not even aware of it.


Driving in Rain and on Wet Roads

Rain and wet roads can mean driving trouble. On a wet road, you can not stop, accelerate or turn as well because your tire-to-road traction is not as good as on dry roads. And, if your tires do not have much tread left, you will get even less traction. It is always wise to go slower and be cautious if rain starts to fall while you are driving. The surface may get wet suddenly when your reflexes are tuned for driving on dry pavement.

The heavier the rain, the harder it is to see. Even if your windshield wiper blades are in good shape, a heavy rain can make it harder to see road signs and traffic signals, pavement markings, the edge of the road and even people walking. It is wise to keep your windshield wiping equipment in good shape and keep your windshield washer tank filled with washer fluid. Replace your windshield wiper inserts when they show signs of streaking or missing areas on the windshield, or when strips of rubber start to separate from the inserts.

Driving too fast through large water puddles or even going through some car washes can cause problems, too. The water may affect your brakes. Try to avoid puddles. But if you can not, try to slow down before you hit them.


Wet brakes can cause accidents. They will not work as well in a quick stop and may cause pulling to one side. You could lose control of the vehicle. After driving through a large puddle of water or a car wash, apply your brake pedal lightly until your brakes work normally.


Hydroplaning Hydroplaning is dangerous. So much water can build up under your tires that they can actually ride on the water. This can happen if the road is wet enough and you are going fast enough. When your vehicle is hydroplaning, it has little or no contact with the road. Hydroplaning does not happen often. But it can if your tires do not have much tread or if the pressure is one or more is low. It can happen if a lot of water is standing on the road. If you can see reflections from trees, telephone poles, or other vehicles, and raindrops “dimple” the water’s surface, there could be hydroplaning. Hydroplaning usually happens at higher speeds. There just is not a hard and fast rule about hydroplaning. The best advice is to slow down when it is raining. Driving Through Deep Standing Water Notice: If you drive too quickly through deep puddles or standing water, water can come in through your engine’s air intake and badly damage your engine. Never drive through water that is slightly lower than the underbody of your vehicle. If you can not avoid deep puddles or standing water, drive through them very slowly.


Driving Through Flowing Water


Flowing or rushing water creates strong forces. If you try to drive through flowing water, as you might at a low water crossing, your vehicle can be carried away. As little as six inches of flowing water can carry away a smaller vehicle. If this happens, you and other vehicle occupants could drown. Do not ignore police warning signs, and otherwise be very cautious about trying to drive through flowing water.

Some Other Rainy Weather Tips • Besides slowing down, allow some extra following

distance. And be especially careful when you pass another vehicle. Allow yourself more clear room ahead, and be prepared to have your view restricted by road spray.

• Have good tires with proper tread depth.

See Tires on page 5-55.

City Driving

Here are ways to increase your safety in city driving: • Know the best way to get to where you are going. Get a city map and plan your trip into an unknown part of the city just as you would for a cross-country trip.

• Try to use the freeways that rim and crisscross most large cities. You will save time and energy. See Freeway Driving on page 4-24.

• Treat a green light as a warning signal. A traffic light is there because the corner is busy enough to need it. When a light turns green, and just before you start to move, check both ways for vehicles that have not cleared the intersection or may be running the red light.

One of the biggest problems with city streets is the amount of traffic on them. You will want to watch out for what the other drivers are doing and pay attention to traffic signals.


Freeway Driving

Mile for mile, freeways (also called thruways, parkways, expressways, turnpikes or superhighways) are the safest of all roads. But they have their own special rules. The most important advice on freeway driving is: Keep up with traffic and keep to the right. Drive at the same speed most of the other drivers are driving. Too-fast or too-slow driving breaks a smooth traffic flow. Treat the left lane on a freeway as a passing lane.


At the entrance, there is usually a ramp that leads to the freeway. If you have a clear view of the freeway as you drive along the entrance ramp, you should begin to check traffic. Try to determine where you expect to blend with the flow. Try to merge into the gap at close to the prevailing speed. Switch on your turn signal, check your mirrors and glance over your shoulder as often as necessary. Try to blend smoothly with the traffic flow. Once you are on the freeway, adjust your speed to the posted limit or to the prevailing rate if it is slower. Stay in the right lane unless you want to pass. Before changing lanes, check your mirrors. Then use your turn signal. Just before you leave the lane, glance quickly over your shoulder to make sure there is not another vehicle in your “blind” spot. Once you are moving on the freeway, make certain you allow a reasonable following distance. Expect to move slightly slower at night. When you want to leave the freeway, move to the proper lane well in advance. If you miss your exit, do not, under any circumstances, stop and back up. Drive on to the next exit.

The exit ramp can be curved, sometimes quite sharply. The exit speed is usually posted. Reduce your speed according to your speedometer, not to your sense of motion. After driving for any distance at higher speeds, you may tend to think you are going slower than you actually are.

Before Leaving on a Long Trip Make sure you are ready. Try to be well rested. If you must start when you are not fresh — such as after a day’s work — do not plan to make too many miles that first part of the journey. Wear comfortable clothing and shoes you can easily drive in. Is your vehicle ready for a long trip? If you keep it serviced and maintained, it is ready to go. If it needs service, have it done before starting out. Of course, you will find experienced and able service experts in GM dealerships all across North America. They will be ready and willing to help if you need it.

Here are some things you can check before a trip: • Windshield Washer Fluid: Is the reservoir full?

Are all windows clean inside and outside?

• Wiper Blades: Are they in good shape? • Fuel, Engine Oil, Other Fluids: Have you checked

all levels?

• Lamps: Are they all working? Are the lenses clean? • Tires: They are vitally important to a safe,

trouble-free trip. Is the tread good enough for long-distance driving? Are the tires all inflated to the recommended pressure?

• Weather Forecasts: What is the weather outlook

along your route? Should you delay your trip a short time to avoid a major storm system?

• Maps: Do you have up-to-date maps?


Hill and Mountain Roads

Driving on steep hills or mountains is different from driving in flat or rolling terrain.

Highway Hypnosis Is there actually such a condition as “highway hypnosis”? Or is it just plain falling asleep at the wheel? Call it highway hypnosis, lack of awareness, or whatever. There is something about an easy stretch of road with the same scenery, along with the hum of the tires on the road, the drone of the engine, and the rush of the wind against the vehicle that can make you sleepy. Do not let it happen to you! If it does, your vehicle can leave the road in less than a second, and you could crash and be injured. What can you do about highway hypnosis? First, be aware that it can happen. Then here are some tips: • Make sure your vehicle is well ventilated, with a

comfortably cool interior.

• Keep your eyes moving. Scan the road ahead and to the sides. Check your rearview mirrors and your instruments frequently.

• If you get sleepy, pull off the road into a rest,

service or parking area and take a nap, get some exercise, or both. For safety, treat drowsiness on the highway as an emergency.


If you drive regularly in steep country, or if you are planning to visit there, here are some tips that can make your trips safer and more enjoyable. • Keep your vehicle in good shape. Check all fluid levels and also the brakes, tires, cooling system and transmission. These parts can work hard on mountain roads.

• Know how to go down hills. The most important thing to know is this: let your engine do some of the slowing down. Shift to a lower gear when you go down a steep or long hill.


If you do not shift down, your brakes could get so hot that they would not work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Shift down to let your engine assist your brakes on a steep downhill slope.


Coasting downhill in NEUTRAL (N) or with the ignition off is dangerous. Your brakes will have to do all the work of slowing down. They could get so hot that they would not work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Always have your engine running and your vehicle in gear when you go downhill.

• Know how to go uphill. You may want to shift down to a lower gear. The lower gears help cool your engine and transmission, and you can climb the hill better.

• Stay in your own lane when driving on two-lane

roads in hills or mountains. Do not swing wide or cut across the center of the road. Drive at speeds that let you stay in your own lane.

• As you go over the top of a hill, be alert. There could

be something in your lane, like a stalled car or an accident.

• You may see highway signs on mountains that warn

of special problems. Examples are long grades, passing or no-passing zones, a falling rocks area or winding roads. Be alert to these and take appropriate action.


Winter Driving

Here are some tips for winter driving: • Have your vehicle in good shape for winter. • You may want to put winter emergency supplies in

your vehicle.

Include an ice scraper, a small brush or broom, a supply of windshield washer fluid, a rag, some winter outer clothing, a small shovel, a flashlight, a red cloth and a couple of reflective warning triangles. And, if you will be driving under severe conditions, include a small bag of sand, a piece of old carpet or a couple of burlap bags to help provide traction. Be sure you properly secure these items in your vehicle.


Driving On Snow or Ice Most of the time, those places where your tires meet the road probably have good traction. However, if there is snow or ice between your tires and the road, you can have a very slippery situation. You will have a lot less traction or “grip” and will need to be very careful.

What is the worst time for this? “Wet ice.” Very cold snow or ice can be slick and hard to drive on. But wet ice can be even more trouble because it may offer the least traction of all. You can get wet ice when it is

about freezing (32°F; 0°C) and freezing rain begins to fall. Try to avoid driving on wet ice until salt and sand crews can get there. Whatever the condition — smooth ice, packed, blowing or loose snow — drive with caution. Keep your traction control system on. It improves your ability to accelerate when driving on a slippery road. Even though your vehicle has the TCS system, you will want to slow down and adjust your driving to the road conditions. The Active Handling System may also activate. See Traction Control System (TCS) on page 4-9 and Active Handling System on page 4-10. Your anti-lock brakes improve your vehicle’s stability when you make a hard stop on a slippery road. Even though you have the anti-lock braking system, you will want to begin stopping sooner than you would on dry pavement. See Braking on page 4-6. • Allow greater following distance on any slippery road. • Watch for slippery spots. The road might be fine until you hit a spot that is covered with ice. On an otherwise clear road, ice patches may appear in shaded areas where the sun can not reach: around clumps of trees, behind buildings or under bridges. Sometimes the surface of a curve or an overpass may remain icy when the surrounding roads are clear. If you see a patch of ice ahead of you, brake before you are on it. Try not to brake while you are actually on the ice, and avoid sudden steering maneuvers.


If You Are Caught in a Blizzard

• Put on extra clothing or wrap a blanket around you.

If you have no blankets or extra clothing, make body insulators from newspapers, burlap bags, rags, floor mats — anything you can wrap around yourself or tuck under your clothing to keep warm.

If you are stopped by heavy snow, you could be in a serious situation. You should probably stay with your vehicle unless you know for sure that you are near help and you can hike through the snow. Here are some things to do to summon help and keep yourself and your passengers safe: • Turn on your hazard flashers. • Tie a red cloth to your vehicle to alert police that

you have been stopped by the snow.


You can run the engine to keep warm, but be careful.


Snow can trap exhaust gases under your vehicle. This can cause deadly CO (carbon monoxide) gas to get inside. CO could overcome you and kill you. You can not see it or smell it, so you might not know it is in your vehicle. Clear away snow from around the base of your vehicle, especially any that is blocking your exhaust pipe. And check around again from time to time to be sure snow does not collect there. Open a window just a little on the side of the vehicle that is away from the wind. This will help keep CO out.

Run your engine only as long as you must. This saves fuel. When you run the engine, make it go a little faster than just idle. That is, push the accelerator slightly. This uses less fuel for the heat that you get and it keeps the battery charged. You will need a well-charged battery to restart the vehicle, and possibly for signaling later on with your headlamps. Let the heater run for a while. Then, shut the engine off and close the window almost all the way to preserve the heat. Start the engine again and repeat this only when you feel really uncomfortable from the cold. But do it as little as possible. Preserve the fuel as long as you can. To help keep warm, you can get out of the vehicle and do some fairly vigorous exercises every half hour or so until help comes.


Rocking Your Vehicle To Get It Out First, turn your steering wheel left and right. That will clear the area around your front wheels. You should turn your TCS System off. See Traction Control System (TCS) on page 4-9. Then shift back and forth between REVERSE (R) and a forward gear, spinning the wheels as little as possible. For a manual transmission, shift slowly between either FIRST (1) or SECOND (2) and REVERSE (R), allowing the wheels to stop before shifting into gear. Release the accelerator pedal while you shift, and press lightly on the accelerator pedal when the transmission is in gear. By slowly spinning your wheels in the forward and reverse directions, you will cause a rocking motion that may free your vehicle. If that does not get you out after a few tries, you may need to be towed out. If you do need to be towed out, see Towing Your Vehicle on page 4-33.

If You Are Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow In order to free your vehicle when it is stuck, you will need to spin the wheels, but you do not want to spin your wheels too fast. The method known as “rocking” can help you get out when you are stuck, but you must use caution.


If you let your tires spin at high speed, they can explode, and you or others could be injured. And, the transmission or other parts of the vehicle can overheat. That could cause an engine compartment fire or other damage. When you are stuck, spin the wheels as little as possible. Do not spin the wheels above 35 mph (55 km/h) as shown on the speedometer.

Notice: Spinning your wheels can destroy parts of your vehicle as well as the tires. If you spin the wheels too fast while shifting your transmission back and forth, you can destroy your transmission. For information about using tire chains on your vehicle, see Tire Chains on page 5-71.



Towing Your Vehicle Consult your dealer or a professional towing service if you need to have your disabled vehicle towed. See Roadside Assistance Program on page 7-6.

Recreational Vehicle Towing Recreational vehicle towing means towing your vehicle behind another vehicle — such as behind a motorhome. The two most common types of recreational vehicle towing are known as “dinghy towing” (towing your vehicle with all four wheels on the ground) and “dolly towing” (towing your vehicle with two wheels on the ground and two wheels up on a device known as a “dolly”). Your vehicle was not designed to be towed with any of its wheels on the ground. If your vehicle must be towed, see “Towing Your Vehicle” earlier in this section.

Loading Your Vehicle It is very important to know how much weight your vehicle can carry. This weight is called the vehicle capacity weight and includes the weight of all occupants, cargo and all nonfactory-installed options. Two labels on your vehicle show how much weight it may properly carry, the Tire and Loading Information label and the Certification label.


Do not load your vehicle any heavier than the GVWR, or either the maximum front or rear GAWR. If you do, parts on your vehicle can break, and it can change the way your vehicle handles. These could cause you to lose control and crash. Also, overloading can shorten the life of your vehicle.


Tire and Loading Information Label

Example 1

A. Vehicle Capacity Weight

Example 2

A. Vehicle Capacity Weight


The Tire and Loading Information label shows the seating capacity and the total weight your vehicle can properly carry. This weight is called the vehicle capacity weight. If your vehicle has the Tire and Loading Information label, Example 1, the label is attached to the center pillar, near the driver’s door latch. If your vehicle has the Tire-Loading Information label, Example 2, the label is on the rear edge of the driver’s door.

The Tire and Loading Information label also gives you the size and recommended inflation pressure for the factory-installed, original equipment tires on your vehicle. For more information on tires and inflation see Tires on page 5-55 and Inflation - Tire Pressure on page 5-62. There is also important loading information on the Certification label. It tells you the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) and the Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) for the front and rear axle; see “Certification Label” later in this section. Steps for Determining Correct Load Limit 1. Locate the statement “The combined weight of occupants and cargo should never exceed XXX pounds” on your vehicle placard.

2. Determine the combined weight of the driver and

passengers that will be riding in your vehicle.

3. Subtract the combined weight of the driver and

passengers from XXX kilograms or XXX pounds.

4. The resulting figure equals the available amount of

cargo and luggage load capacity. For example, if the “XXX” amount equals 1400 lbs. and there will be five 150 lb. passengers in your vehicle, the amount of available cargo and luggage load capacity is 650 lbs. (1400 − 750 (5 x 150) = 650 lbs).

5. Determine the combined weight of luggage and cargo being loaded on the vehicle. That weight may not safely exceed the available cargo and luggage load capacity calculated in Step 4.

6. If your vehicle will be towing a trailer, the load from

your trailer will be transferred to your vehicle. Consult this manual to determine how this reduces the available cargo and luggage load capacity of your vehicle. Your vehicle is neither designed nor intended to tow a trailer.


Example 2

Loading Your Vehicle Description


Vehicle Capacity Weight for Example 2 = Subtract Occupant Weight 150 lbs (68 kg) x 2 =

400 lbs (181 kg)

300 lbs (136 kg)


C Available Cargo Weight =

100 lbs (45 kg)

Example 1

Loading Your Vehicle Description


400 lbs (181 kg)

150 lbs (68 kg)

250 lbs (113 kg)


Vehicle Capacity Weight for Example 1 = Subtract Occupant Weight 150 lbs (68 kg) x 1 =

C Available Occupant and

Cargo Weight =


Certification Label

Example 3

Loading Your Vehicle Description


Vehicle Capacity Weight for Example 3 = Subtract Occupant Weight 200 lbs (91 kg) x 2 =

400 lbs (181 kg)

400 lbs (181 kg)


C Available Cargo Weight =

0 lbs (0 kg)

Refer to your vehicle’s tire and loading information label for specific information about your vehicle’s capacity weight and seating positions. The combined weight of the driver, passengers and cargo should never exceed your vehicle’s capacity weight.

The other label is the Certification label, found on the rear edge of the driver’s door. It tells you the gross weight capacity of your vehicle, called the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR). The GVWR includes the weight of the vehicle, all occupants, fuel and cargo. Never exceed the GVWR for your vehicle, or the Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) for either the front or rear axle.


And, if you do have a heavy load, you should spread it out. Do not carry more than 100 lbs. (45 kg) in your rear area.


Things you put inside your vehicle can strike and injure people in a sudden stop or turn, or in a crash.

(cid:127) Put things in the rear area of your vehicle.

Try to spread the weight evenly.

(cid:127) Never stack heavier things, like suitcases,

inside the vehicle so that some of them are above the tops of the seats.

(cid:127) Do not leave an unsecured child restraint

in your vehicle.

(cid:127) When you carry something inside the vehicle, secure it whenever you can.

Towing a Trailer Your Corvette is neither designed nor intended to tow a trailer.


Do not load your vehicle any heavier than the GVWR, or either the maximum front or rear GAWR. If you do, parts on your vehicle can break, and it can change the way your vehicle handles. These could cause you to lose control and crash. Also, overloading can shorten the life of your vehicle.

Notice: Overloading your vehicle may cause damage. Repairs would not be covered by your warranty. Do not overload your vehicle. If you put things inside your vehicle – like suitcases, tools, packages or anything else – they will go as fast as the vehicle goes. If you have to stop or turn quickly, or if there is a crash, they will keep going.


Section 5

Service and Appearance Care

Service ............................................................5-3
Doing Your Own Service Work .........................5-3
Adding Equipment to the Outside

of Your Vehicle ...........................................5-4
Fuel ................................................................5-4
Gasoline Octane ............................................5-4
Gasoline Specifications ....................................5-5
California Fuel ...............................................5-5
Additives .......................................................5-6
Fuels in Foreign Countries ...............................5-6
Filling Your Tank ............................................5-7
Filling a Portable Fuel Container .....................5-10
Checking Things Under the Hood ....................5-10
Hood Release ..............................................5-11
Engine Compartment Overview .......................5-12
Engine Oil ...................................................5-13
Engine Air Cleaner/Filter ................................5-18
Automatic Transmission Fluid .........................5-20
Manual Transmission Fluid .............................5-21
Hydraulic Clutch ...........................................5-22
Engine Coolant .............................................5-23
Coolant Surge Tank Pressure Cap ..................5-26
Engine Overheating .......................................5-26

Cooling System ............................................5-29
Power Steering Fluid .....................................5-35
Windshield Washer Fluid ................................5-36
Brakes ........................................................5-37
Battery ........................................................5-40
Jump Starting ...............................................5-41
Rear Axle .......................................................5-47
Bulb Replacement ..........................................5-48
Halogen Bulbs ..............................................5-48
Headlamps ..................................................5-48
Taillamps and Turn Signal Lamps ...................5-50
Back-Up Lamps ............................................5-52
Windshield Wiper Blade Replacement ..............5-52
Tires ..............................................................5-55
Extended Mobility Tires (Except Z06) .................5-61
Inflation - Tire Pressure .................................5-62
Tire Pressure Monitor Operation (Except Z06) .....5-64
Tire Rotation ................................................5-65
When It Is Time for New Tires .......................5-65
Buying New Tires .........................................5-66
Uniform Tire Quality Grading ..........................5-67
Wheel Alignment and Tire Balance ..................5-68


Section 5

Service and Appearance Care

Wheel Replacement ......................................5-68
Tire Chains ..................................................5-71
Lifting Your Vehicle .......................................5-71
If a Tire Goes Flat ........................................5-75
Tire Inflator Kit (Z06 Only) .............................5-77
Appearance Care ............................................5-82
Cleaning the Inside of Your Vehicle .................5-83
Care of Safety Belts ......................................5-85
Weatherstrips ...............................................5-85
Cleaning the Outside of Your Vehicle ..............5-85
Finish Damage .............................................5-89
Carbon Fiber Hood (Z06 Commemorative

Edition Model Only) ...................................5-89
Magnesium Wheel Finish ...............................5-89
Underbody Maintenance ................................5-89

Titanium Exhaust System (Z06 Only) .................5-89
Fiberglass Springs ........................................5-90
Chemical Paint Spotting .................................5-90
Vehicle Care/Appearance Materials ..................5-90
Vehicle Identification ......................................5-91
Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) .................5-91
Service Parts Identification Label .....................5-92
Electrical System ............................................5-92
Add-On Electrical Equipment ..........................5-92
Headlamp Wiring ..........................................5-92
Windshield Wiper Fuses ................................5-92
Power Windows and Other Power Options .......5-92
Fuses and Circuit Breakers ............................5-93
Capacities and Specifications ..........................5-99


Service Your dealer knows your vehicle best and wants you to be happy with it. We hope you will go to your dealer for all your service needs. You will get genuine GM parts and GM-trained and supported service people. We hope you will want to keep your GM vehicle all GM. Genuine GM parts have one of these marks:

Doing Your Own Service Work If you want to do some of your own service work, you will want to use the proper service manual. It tells you much more about how to service your vehicle than this manual can. To order the proper service manual, see Service Publications Ordering Information on page 7-11. Your vehicle may have an air bag system. If it does, see Servicing Your Air Bag-Equipped Vehicle on page 1-49
before attempting to do your own service work. You should keep a record with all parts receipts and list the mileage and the date of any service work you perform. See Maintenance Record on page 6-15.


You can be injured and your vehicle could be damaged if you try to do service work on a vehicle without knowing enough about it.

(cid:127) Be sure you have sufficient knowledge,

experience, the proper replacement parts and tools before you attempt any vehicle maintenance task.






(cid:127) Be sure to use the proper nuts, bolts and

other fasteners. “English” and “metric” fasteners can be easily confused. If you use the wrong fasteners, parts can later break or fall off. You could be hurt.

Adding Equipment to the Outside of Your Vehicle Things you might add to the outside of your vehicle can affect the airflow around it. This may cause wind noise and affect windshield washer performance. Check with your dealer before adding equipment to the outside of your vehicle.

Fuel Use of the recommended fuel is an important part of the proper maintenance of your vehicle.

Gasoline Octane Use premium unleaded gasoline with a posted octane of 91 or higher for best performance. You may also use middle grade or regular unleaded gasoline rated at 87 octane or higher, but your vehicle’s acceleration may be slightly reduced. If the octane is less than 87, you may get a heavy knocking noise when you drive. If this occurs, use a gasoline rated at 87 octane or higher as soon as possible. Otherwise, you might damage your engine.


Gasoline Specifications It is recommended that gasoline meet specifications which were developed by automobile manufacturers around the world and contained in the World-Wide Fuel Charter which is available from the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers at Gasoline meeting these specifications could provide improved driveability and emission control system performance compared to other gasoline.

In Canada, look for the “Auto Makers’ Choice” label on the pump.

California Fuel If your vehicle is certified to meet California Emission Standards (see the underhood emission control label), it is designed to operate on fuels that meet California specifications. If this fuel is not available in states adopting California emissions standards, your vehicle will operate satisfactorily on fuels meeting federal specifications, but emission control system performance may be affected. The malfunction indicator lamp may turn on (see Malfunction Indicator Lamp on page 3-41) and your vehicle may fail a smog-check test. If this occurs, return to your authorized GM dealer for diagnosis. If it is determined that the condition is caused by the type of fuel used, repairs may not be covered by your warranty.

Canada Only


Additives To provide cleaner air, all gasolines in the United States are now required to contain additives that will help prevent engine and fuel system deposits from forming, allowing your emission control system to work properly. You should not have to add anything to your fuel. However, some gasolines contain only the minimum amount of additive required to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations. General Motors recommends that you buy gasolines that are advertised to help keep fuel injectors and intake valves clean. If your vehicle experiences problems due to dirty injectors or valves, try a different brand of gasoline. Gasolines containing oxygenates, such as ethers and ethanol, and reformulated gasolines may be available in your area to contribute to clean air. General Motors recommends that you use these gasolines, particularly if they comply with the specifications described earlier. Notice: Your vehicle was not designed for fuel that contains methanol. Do not use fuel containing methanol. It can corrode metal parts in your fuel system and also damage the plastic and rubber parts. That damage would not be covered under your warranty.

Some gasolines that are not reformulated for low emissions may contain an octane-enhancing additive called methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT); ask the attendant where you buy gasoline whether the fuel contains MMT. General Motors does not recommend the use of such gasolines. Fuels containing MMT can reduce the life of spark plugs and the performance of the emission control system may be affected. The malfunction indicator lamp may turn on. If this occurs, return to your authorized GM dealer for service.

Fuels in Foreign Countries If you plan on driving in another country outside the United States or Canada, the proper fuel may be hard to find. Never use leaded gasoline or any other fuel not recommended in the previous text on fuel. Costly repairs caused by use of improper fuel would not be covered by your warranty. To check the fuel availability, ask an auto club, or contact a major oil company that does business in the country where you will be driving.


Filling Your Tank


Fuel vapor burns violently and a fuel fire can cause bad injuries. To help avoid injuries to you and others, read and follow all the instructions on the pump island. Turn off your engine when you are refueling. Do not smoke if you are near fuel or refueling your vehicle. Keep sparks, flames and smoking materials away from fuel. Do not leave the fuel pump unattended when refueling your vehicle — this is against the law in some places. Keep children away from the fuel pump; never let children pump fuel.

The fuel filler door is located on the driver’s side of the vehicle. The fuel cap is attached by a tether for your convenience.

The fuel filler door release button is located inside of the center console storage compartment.


If your fuel filler door release will not operate, there is a manual release tab. The tab is located against the upper trim on the driver’s side in the rear compartment. Pull the tab to manually release the fuel filler door.

While refueling, rest the tether across the tab on the fuel filler door to prevent damage to your vehicle’s finish. To remove the fuel cap, turn it slowly to the left (counterclockwise). The fuel cap has a spring in it; if you let go of the cap too soon, it will spring back to the right.



If you spill fuel and then something ignites it, you could be badly burned. Fuel can spray out on you if you open the fuel cap too quickly. This spray can happen if your tank is nearly full, and is more likely in hot weather. Open the fuel cap slowly and wait for any “hiss” noise to stop. Then unscrew the cap all the way.

Be careful not to spill fuel. Do not top off or overfill your tank, and wait a few seconds after you have finished pumping before you remove the nozzle. Clean fuel from painted surfaces as soon as possible. See Cleaning the Outside of Your Vehicle on page 5-85.

When you put the fuel cap back on, turn it to the right (clockwise) until you hear a clicking sound. Make sure you fully install the cap. The diagnostic system can determine if the fuel cap has been left off or improperly installed. This would allow fuel to evaporate into the atmosphere. See Malfunction Indicator Lamp on page 3-41.


If a fire starts while you are refueling, do not remove the nozzle. Shut off the flow of fuel by shutting off the pump or by notifying the station attendant. Leave the area immediately.

If you need a new fuel cap, be sure to get

Notice: the right type. Your dealer can get one for you. If you get the wrong type, it may not fit properly. This may cause your malfunction indicator lamp to light and may damage your fuel tank and emissions system. See Malfunction Indicator Lamp on page 3-41.


Filling a Portable Fuel Container


Never fill a portable fuel container while it is in your vehicle. Static electricity discharge from the container can ignite the gasoline vapor. You can be badly burned and your vehicle damaged if this occurs. To help avoid injury to you and others:

(cid:127) Dispense gasoline only into approved


(cid:127) Do not fill a container while it is inside a

vehicle, in a vehicle’s trunk, pickup bed or on any surface other than the ground. (cid:127) Bring the fill nozzle in contact with the

inside of the fill opening before operating the nozzle. Contact should be maintained until the filling is complete.

(cid:127) Do not smoke while pumping gasoline.

Checking Things Under the Hood


An electric fan under the hood can start up and injure you even when the engine is not running. Keep hands, clothing and tools away from any underhood electric fan.


Things that burn can get on hot engine parts and start a fire. These include liquids like fuel, oil, coolant, brake fluid, windshield washer and other fluids, and plastic or rubber. You or others could be burned. Be careful not to drop or spill things that will burn onto a hot engine.


If the hood comes into contact with the

Hood Release Notice: headlamp doors when you raise the hood, you could damage the hood and/or the headlamp doors. Always close the headlamp doors before opening the hood. To open the hood, do the following:

1. Pull the handle located inside the vehicle below the instrument panel on the driver’s side.

2. Go to the side of the vehicle and pull up on the rear

edge of the hood, near the windshield.

Before closing the hood, be sure all the filler caps are on properly. Then, just pull the hood down and close it firmly.


Engine Compartment Overview When you open the hood, you will see the following:


A. Coolant Surge Tank and Pressure Cap. See Engine

Coolant on page 5-23.

B. Battery. See Battery on page 5-40. C. Engine Oil Dipstick. See Engine Oil on page 5-13. D. Engine Oil Fill Cap. See Engine Oil on page 5-13. E. Engine Air Cleaner/Filter. See Engine Air

Cleaner/Filter on page 5-18.

F. Power Steering Fluid Reservoir. See Power Steering

Fluid on page 5-35.

G. Brake Fluid Reservoir. See Brakes on page 5-37. H. Clutch Master Cylinder Reservoir. See Hydraulic

Clutch on page 5-22.

I. Windshield Washer Fluid Reservoir. See Windshield

Washer Fluid on page 5-36.

Engine Oil If the LOW OIL LEVEL message on the Driver Information Center comes on, it means you need to check your engine oil level right away. For more information, see Driver Information Center (DIC) on page 3-48. You should check your engine oil level regularly; this is an added reminder. Checking Engine Oil It is a good idea to check your engine oil level every time you get fuel. In order to get an accurate reading, the oil must be warm and the vehicle must be on level ground. The engine oil dipstick handle is a yellow loop. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12 for the location of the engine oil dipstick. Turn off the engine and give the oil a few minutes to drain back into the oil pan. If you don’t, the oil dipstick might not show the actual level. Pull out the dipstick and clean it with a paper towel or a cloth, then push it back in all the way. Remove it again, keeping the tip down.


See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12 for the location of the engine oil fill cap.

When to Add Engine Oil If the oil is below the cross-hatched area at the tip of the dipstick, you will need to add at least one quart of oil. But you must use the right kind. This section explains what kind of oil to use. For engine oil crankcase capacity, see Capacities and Specifications on page 5-99. See “Racing or Other Competitive Driving” under Starting Your Engine on page 2-21 for additional information on engine oil. Notice: Do not add too much oil. If your engine has so much oil that the oil level gets above the cross-hatched area that shows the proper operating range, your engine could be damaged.

Be sure to add enough oil to put the level somewhere in the proper operating range. Push the dipstick all the way back in when you are through. What Kind of Engine Oil to Use Look for two things: • GM4718M

Your vehicle’s engine requires a special oil meeting GM Standard GM4718M. Oils meeting this standard may be identified as synthetic. However, not all synthetic oils will meet this GM standard. You should look for and use only an oil that meets GM Standard GM4718M.

If you use oils that do not have the

Notice: GM4718M Standard designation, you can cause engine damage not covered by your warranty.


• SAE 5W-30

As shown in the viscosity chart, SAE 5W-30 is best for your vehicle. However, you can use SAE 10W-30 if it is going to be 0°F (-18°C) or above. These numbers on an oil container show its viscosity, or thickness. Do not use other viscosity oils such as SAE 20W-50.

Oils meeting these requirements should also have the starburst symbol on the container. This symbol indicates that the oil has been certified by the American Petroleum Institute (API).

You should look for this on the oil container, and use only those oils that are identified as meeting GM Standard GM4718M and have the starburst symbol on the front of the oil container.


Your vehicle’s engine is filled at the factory with a Mobil 1® synthetic oil, which meets all requirements for your vehicle. Substitute Engine Oil: When adding oil to maintain engine oil level, oil meeting GM Standard GM4718M may not be available. You can add substitute oil designated SAE 5W-30 with the starburst symbol at all temperatures. If temperatures are above 0°F (-18°C), you may substitute SAE 10W-30 with the starburst symbol. Substitute oil not meeting GM Standard GM4718M should not be used for an oil change. Engine Oil Additives Do not add anything to your oil. The recommended oils with the starburst symbol that meet GM Standard GM4718M are all you will need for good performance and engine protection.

When to Change Engine Oil (GM Oil Life System) Your vehicle has a computer that lets you know when to change your engine oil and filter. This is based on engine revolutions and engine temperature, and not on mileage. Based on driving conditions, the mileage at which an oil change will be indicated can vary considerably. For the oil life system to work properly, you must reset the system every time the oil is changed. When the system has calculated that oil life has been diminished, it will indicate that an oil change is necessary. A CHANGE OIL SOON message will come on. Change your oil as soon as possible within the next two times you stop for fuel. It is possible that, if you are driving under the best conditions, the oil life system may not indicate that an oil change is necessary for over a year. However, your engine oil and filter must be changed at least once a year and at this time the system must be reset. Your dealer has GM-trained service people who will perform this work using genuine GM parts and reset the system. It is also important to check your oil regularly and keep it at the proper level. If the system is ever reset accidentally, you must change your oil at 3,000 miles (5 000 km) since your last oil change. Remember to reset the oil life system whenever the oil is changed.


How to Reset the CHANGE OIL SOON Message The GM Oil Life System calculates when to change your engine oil and filter based on vehicle use. Anytime your oil is changed, reset the system so it can calculate when the next oil change is required. If a situation occurs where you change your oil prior to a CHANGE OIL SOON message being turned on, reset the system. To reset the CHANGE OIL SOON message after an oil change, do the following: 1. Turn the ignition to ON, with the engine off. 2. Press the TRIP button so the OIL LIFE percentage

is displayed.

3. Press RESET and hold for two seconds.

OIL LIFE REMAIN 100% will appear.

4. Turn the key to OFF. If the CHANGE OIL SOON message comes back on when you start your vehicle, the engine oil life system has not reset. Repeat the procedure.

What to Do with Used Oil Used engine oil contains certain elements that may be unhealthy for your skin and could even cause cancer. Do not let used oil stay on your skin for very long. Clean your skin and nails with soap and water, or a good hand cleaner. Wash or properly dispose of clothing or rags containing used engine oil. See the manufacturer’s warnings about the use and disposal of oil products. Used oil can be a threat to the environment. If you change your own oil, be sure to drain all the oil from the filter before disposal. Never dispose of oil by putting it in the trash, pouring it on the ground, into sewers, or into streams or bodies of water. Instead, recycle it by taking it to a place that collects used oil. If you have a problem properly disposing of your used oil, ask your dealer, a service station or a local recycling center for help.


Engine Air Cleaner/Filter See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12 for location of the engine air cleaner/filter.

How to Inspect the Engine Air Cleaner/Filter To inspect the air cleaner/filter, remove the filter from the vehicle and lightly shake the filter to release loose dust and dirt. If the filter remains caked with dirt, a new filter is required. To inspect or replace the filter, do the following:

When to Inspect the Engine Air Cleaner/Filter Inspect the air cleaner/filter at every oil change and replace at the first oil change after 25,000 miles (40 000 km).

1. Pull up on the clips on each side to release the



2. Pull the assembly out. 3. Replace the filter. See Normal Maintenance

Replacement Parts on page 6-13.

4. Push the assembly back into place. 5. Fasten the clips.


Operating the engine with the air cleaner/filter off can cause you or others to be burned. The air cleaner not only cleans the air, it helps to stop flame if the engine backfires. If it is not there and the engine backfires, you could be burned. Do not drive with it off, and be careful working on the engine with the air cleaner/filter off.

If the air cleaner/filter is off, a backfire

Notice: can cause a damaging engine fire. And, dirt can easily get into your engine, which will damage it. Always have the air cleaner/filter in place when you are driving.


Automatic Transmission Fluid How to Check It is not necessary to check the transmission fluid level. A transmission fluid leak is the only reason for fluid loss. If a leak occurs, take the vehicle to your dealer service department and have it repaired as soon as possible. There is a special procedure for checking and changing the transmission fluid. Because this procedure is difficult, you should have this done at your dealer service department. Contact your dealer for additional information or the procedure can be found in the service manual. To purchase a service manual, see Service Publications Ordering Information on page 7-11. Notice: We recommend you use only fluid labeled DEXRON®-III, because fluid with that label is made especially for your automatic transmission. Damage caused by fluid other than DEXRON®-III is not covered by your new vehicle warranty.

Change both the fluid and filter every 50,000 miles (80 000 km) if the vehicle is mainly driven under one of these conditions: • In heavy city traffic where the outside temperature

regularly reaches 90°F (32°C) or higher.

• In hilly or mountainous terrain. • High performance operation. If you do not use your vehicle under one of these conditions, change the fluid and filter every 100,000 miles (166 000 km). See Scheduled Maintenance on page 6-4 for the proper service intervals for the transmission fluid and filter.


Manual Transmission Fluid When to Check A good time to have it checked is when the engine oil is changed. However, the fluid in your manual transmission doesn’t require changing. How to Check Because this operation can be difficult, you may choose to have this done at your dealership service department. If you do it yourself, be sure to follow all the instructions here, or you could get a false reading. Notice: Too much or too little fluid can damage your transmission. Too much can mean that some of the fluid could come out and fall on hot engine part or exhaust system parts, starting a fire. Too little fluid could cause the transmission to overheat. Be sure to get an accurate reading if you check your transmission fluid. Check the fluid level only when your engine is off, the vehicle is parked on a level place and the transmission is cool enough for you to rest your fingers on the transmission case.

Then, follow these steps:

1. Remove the filler plug. 2. Check that the lubricant level is up to the bottom of

the filler plug hole.

3. If the fluid level is good, install the plug and be sure

it is fully seated. If the fluid level is low, add more fluid as described in the next steps.


How to Add Fluid Here’s how to add fluid. Refer to the Maintenance Schedule to determine what kind of fluid to use. See Recommended Fluids and Lubricants on page 6-11. 1. Remove the filler plug. 2. Add fluid at the filler plug hole. Add only enough

fluid to bring the fluid level up to the bottom of the filler plug hole.

3. Install the filler plug. Be sure the plug is fully seated. 4. Tighten the plug to 20 lb ft (27 Y).

Hydraulic Clutch The hydraulic clutch linkage in your vehicle is self-adjusting. The master cylinder reservoir is filled with hydraulic fluid. It is not necessary to regularly check the fluid unless you suspect there is a leak in the system. Adding fluid won’t correct a leak. A fluid loss in this system could indicate a problem. Have the system inspected and repaired.


When to Check and What to Use

The clutch master cylinder reservoir is located at the rear of the engine compartment on the driver’s side. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12
for more information on location. Refer to the Maintenance Schedule to determine how often you should check the fluid level in your master cylinder reservoir and for the proper fluid. See Owner Checks and Services on page 6-8 and Recommended Fluids and Lubricants on page 6-11.

How to Check and Add Fluid

Fluid should be added if the fluid level is below the step on the inside of the reservoir. There are additional instructions on the reservoir cap. Put the rubber seal and cap back on. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12 for more information on location.

Engine Coolant The cooling system in your vehicle is filled with DEX-COOL® engine coolant. This coolant is designed to remain in your vehicle for 5 years or 150,000 miles (240 000 km), whichever occurs first, if you add only DEX-COOL® extended life coolant. The following explains your cooling system and how to add coolant when it is low. If you have a problem with engine overheating, see Engine Overheating on page 5-26. A 50/50 mixture of clean, drinkable water and DEX-COOL® coolant will: • Give freezing protection down to −34°F (−37°C). • Give boiling protection up to 265°F (129°C). • Protect against rust and corrosion. • Help keep the proper engine temperature. • Let the warning lights and gages work as they


Notice: Using coolant other than DEX-COOL® may cause premature engine, heater core or radiator corrosion. In addition, the engine coolant may require changing sooner, at 30,000 miles (50 000 km) or 24 months, whichever occurs first. Any repairs would not be covered by your warranty. Always use DEX-COOL®(silicate-free) coolant in your vehicle.


What to Use Use a mixture of one-half clean, drinkable water and one-half DEX-COOL® coolant which will not damage aluminum parts. If you use this coolant mixture, you do not need to add anything else.


Adding only plain water to your cooling system can be dangerous. Plain water, or some other liquid such as alcohol, can boil before the proper coolant mixture will. Your vehicle’s coolant warning system is set for the proper coolant mixture. With plain water or the wrong mixture, your engine could get too hot but you would not get the overheat warning. Your engine could catch fire and you or others could be burned. Use a 50/50 mixture of clean, drinkable water and DEX-COOL® coolant.

If you use an improper coolant mixture,

Notice: your engine could overheat and be badly damaged. The repair cost would not be covered by your warranty. Too much water in the mixture can freeze and crack the engine, radiator, heater core and other parts.


If you use the proper coolant, you do not

If you have to add coolant more than four times a year, have your dealer check your cooling system. Notice: have to add extra inhibitors or additives which claim to improve the system. These can be harmful. Checking Coolant

The coolant surge tank is located in the engine compartment behind the passenger’s side headlamp. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12
for more information on location.


Turning the surge tank pressure cap when the engine and radiator are hot can allow steam and scalding liquids to blow out and burn you badly. Never turn the surge tank pressure cap — even a little — when the engine and radiator are hot.

The vehicle must be on a level surface. When your engine is cold, the coolant level should be at the FULL COLD mark. The FULL COLD mark is on the front of the coolant surge tank. Do not overfill the surge tank. Too much coolant can result in an overflow when the fluid is hot.

Adding Coolant If you need more coolant, add the proper DEX-COOL® coolant mixture at the surge tank, but only when the engine is cool.


You can be burned if you spill coolant on hot engine parts. Coolant contains ethylene glycol, and it will burn if the engine parts are hot enough. Do not spill coolant on a hot engine.

When replacing the pressure cap, make sure it is hand-tight.


Coolant Surge Tank Pressure Cap If the pressure cap is not tightly installed, Notice: coolant loss and possible engine damage may occur.