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controls braking pressure accordingly.


Remember: Anti-lock doesn’t change the time you need to get your foot up to the brake pedal. If you get too close to the vehicle in front of you, you won’t have time to apply your brakes if that vehicle suddenly slows or stops. Always leave enough room up ahead to stop, even though you have anti-lock brakes.

To Use Anti-Lock Don’t pump the brakes. Just hold the brake pedal down and let anti-lock work for you. You may feel the brakes vibrate, or you may notice some noise, but this is normal. On vehicles with four-wheel drive, your anti-lock brakes work at all times -- whether you are in two-wheel drive or four-wheel drive. Braking in Emergencies Use your anti-lock braking system when you need to. With anti-lock, you can steer and brake at the same time. In many emergencies, steering can help you more than even the very best braking.

Power Steering If you lose power steering assist because the engine stops or the system is not functioning, you can steer but it will take much more effort. Steering lips

Driving on Curves It’s important to take curves at a reasonable speed. A lot of the “driver lost control” accidents mentioned on the news happen on curves. Here’s why: Experienced driver or beginner, each of us is subject to the same laws of physics when driving on curves. The traction of the tires against the road surface makes it possible for the vehicle to change its path when you turn the front wheels. If there’s no traction, inertia will keep the vehicle going in the same direction. If you’ve ever tried to steer a vehicle on wet ice, you’ll understand this. The traction you can get in a curve depends on the condition of your tires and the road surface, the angle at which the curve is banked, and your speed. While you’re in a curve, speed is the one factor you can control. Suppose you’re steering through a sharp curve. Then you suddenly accelerate. Both control systems - steering and acceleration - have to do their work where the tires meet the road. Adding the can demand too much of those places. You can lose control.

sudden acceleration


What should you do if this ever happens? Ease up on the accelerator pedal, steer the vehicle the way you want it to go, and slow down. Speed limit signs near curves warn that you should adjust your speed. Of course, the posted speeds are based on good weather and road conditions. Under less favorable conditions you’ll want to go slower. If you need to reduce your speed as you approach a curve, do it before you enter the curve, while your front wheels are straight ahead. Try to adjust your speed so you can “drive” through the curve. Maintain a reasonable, steady speed. Wait to accelerate until you are out of the curve, and then accelerate gently into the straightaway.

Steering in Emergencies There are times when steering can be more effective than braking. For example, you come over a hill and find a truck stopped in your lane, or a car suddenly pulls out from nowhere, or a child darts out from between parked cars and stops right in front of you. You can avoid these problems by braking - if you can stop in time. But sometimes you can’t; there isn’t room. That’s the time for evasive action - steering around the problem. Your vehicle can perform very well in emergencies like these. First apply your brakes. (See “Braking in Emergencies’’ earlier in this section.) It is better to remove as much speed as you can from a possible collision. Then steer around the problem, to the left or right depending on the space available. If you An emergency like this requires close attention and a quick decision. are holding the steering wheel at the recommended 9 and 3 o’clock positions, you can turn it a full 1 SO degrees very quickly without removing either hand. But you have to act fast, steer quickly, and straighten the wheel once you have avoided the object.

just as quickly

The fact that such emergency situations are always possible is a good reason to practice defensive driving at all times and wear safety belts properly.


Off-Road Recovery You may find sometime that your right wheels have dropped off the edge of a road onto the shoulder while you’re driving. If the level of the shoulder is only slightly below the pavement, recovery should be fairly easy. Ease off the accelerator and then, if there is nothing in the way, steer so that your vehicle straddles the edge of the pavement. You can turn the steering wheel up to 1/4 turn until the right front tire contacts the pavement edge. Then turn your steering wheel to go straight down the roadway.

1. Edge of Road


2. Slow Down 3. Left Approx. Quarter Turn

4. Recover

Passing The driver of a vehicle about to pass another on a two-lane highway waits for just the right moment, accelerates, moves around the vehicle ahead, then goes back into the right lane again. A simple maneuver? Not necessarily! Passing another vehicle on a t w d a n e highway is a potentially dangerous move, since the passing vehicle occupies the same lane as oncoming traffic for several seconds. A miscalculation, an error in judgment, or a brief surrender to frustration or anger can suddenly put the passing ‘driver face to face with the worst of all traffic accidents - the head-on collision.


So here are some tips for passing:

to the sides, and to crossroads for

If you have any doubt for a better time.

“Drive ahead.” Look down the road, situations that might affect your passing patterns. whatsoever about making a successful pass, wait If you can see a Watch for traffic signs, pavement markings, and lines. turn or an intersection, delay your sign up ahead that might indicate a pass. A broken center line usually indicates it’s all right to pass (providing the road ahead is clear). Never cross a solid line on your side of the lane or a double solid line, even if the road seems empty of approaching traffic. Do not get too close to the vehicle you want to pass while you’re awaiting an opportunity. For one thing, following too closely reduces your area of vision, especially if you’re following a larger vehicle. Also, you won’t have adequate space if the vehicle ahead suddenly slows or stops. Keep back a reasonable distance. When it looks like a chance to pass is coming up, start to accelerate but stay in the right lane and don’t get too close. Time your move so you, will be increasing speed as the time comes to move into the other lane. If the way is clear to pass, you will have a “running start” that more than makes up for the distance you would lose by dropping back. And if something happens to cause you to cancel your pass, you need only slow down and drop back again and wait for another opportunity. If other cars are lined up to pass a slow vehicle, wait your turn. But take care that someone isn’t trying to pass you as you pull out to pass the slow vehicle. Remember to glance over your shoulder and check the blind spot. Check your mirrors, glance over your shoulder, and start your left lane change signal before moving out of the right lane to pass. When you are far enough ahead of the passed vehicle to see its front in your inside mirror, activate your right lane change signal and move back into the right lane. (Remember that your right outside mirror is convex. The vehicle you just passed may seem to be farther away from you than it really is.) Try not to pass more than one vehicle at a time on two-lane roads. Reconsider before passing the next vehicle. Don’t overtake a slowly moving vehicle too rapidly. Even though the brake lamps are not flashing, it may be slowing down or starting to turn. If you’re being passed, make it easy for the following driver to get ahead of you. Perhaps you can ease a little to the right.


Loss of Control Let’s review what driving experts say about what happens when the three control systems (brakes, steering and acceleration) don’t have enough friction where the tires meet the road to do what the driver has asked. In any emergency, don’t give up. Keep trying to steer and constantly seek an escape route or area of less danger. Skidding In a skid, a driver can lose control of the vehicle. Defensive drivers avoid most skids by taking reasonable care suited to existing conditions, and by not “overdriving” those conditions. But skids are always possible. The three types of skids correspond to your vehicle’s three control systems. In the braking skid your wheels aren’t rolling. In the steering or cornering skid, too much speed or steering in a curve causes tires to slip and lose cornering force. And in the acceleration skid too much throttle causes the driving wheels to spin. A cornering skid and an acceleration skid are best handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal. If your vehicle starts to slide, ease your foot off the accelerator pedal and quickly steer the way you want the vehicle to go. If you start steering quickly enough, your vehicle may straighten out. Always be ready for a second skid if it occurs. Of course, traction is reduced when water, snow, material is on the road. For safety, you’ll want driving to these conditions. It is important to slow down on slippery surfaces because stopping distance will be longer and vehicle control more limited. While driving on a surface with reduced traction, try your best to avoid sudden steering, acceleration, or braking (including engine braking by shifting to a lower gear). Any sudden changes could cause the tires to slide. You may not realize the surface is slippery until your vehicle is skidding. Learn to recognize warning clues - such as enough water, ice or packed snow on the road to make a “mirrored surface” - and slow down when you have any doubt. Remember: Any anti-lock brake system (ABS) helps avoid only the braking skid.

to slow down and adjust your

ice, gravel, or other



Driving Guidelines This multipurpose passenger vehicle is defined as a utility vehicle in Consumer Information Regulations issued by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the United States Department of Transportation. Utility vehicles have higher ground clearance and a narrower track to make them capable of performing in a wide variety of off-road applications. Specific design characteristics give them a higher center of gravity than ordinary cars. An advantage of the higher ground clearance is a better view of the road allowing you to anticipate problems. They are not designed for cornering at the same speeds as conventional 2-wheel drive vehicles any more than low-slung sports cars are designed perform satisfactorily under off-road conditions. If at all possible, avoid sharp turns or abrupt maneuvers. As with other vehicles of this type, failure to operate this vehicle correctly may result in loss of control or vehicle rollover. Off-Road Driving with Your Four-wheel Drive Vehicle This off-road guide is for vehicles that have four-wheel drive. Also, see “Anti-Lock Brakes” in the Index. If your vehicle doesn’t have four-wheel drive, you shouldn’t drive off-road unless you’re on a level, solid surface. Off-road driving can be great fun. But it does have some definite hazards. The greatest of these is the terrain itself. “Off-roading” means you’ve left the great North American road system behind. Traffic lanes aren’t marked. Curves aren’t banked. There are no road signs. Surfaces can be slippery, rough, uphill or downhill. In short, you’ve gone right back to nature. Off-road driving involves some new skills. And that’s why it’s very important that you read this guide. You’ll find many driving tips and suggestions. These will help make your off-road driving safer and more enjoyable. Before You Go Off-Roading There are some things to do before you go out. For example, be sure to have all necessary maintenance and service work done. Check to make sure all underbody shields (if so equipped) are properly attached. Be sure you read all the information about your four-wheel drive vehicle in this manual. Is there enough fuel? Is the spare tire fully inflated? Are the fluid levels up where they should be? What are the local laws that apply to off-roading where you’ll be driving? If you don’t know, you should check with law enforcement people in the area. Will you be on someone’s private land? If so, be sure to get the necessary permission.

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Loading Your Vehicle for Off-Road Driving There are some important things to remember about how to load your vehicle.

0 The heaviest things should be on the load floor and forward of your

rear axle. Put heavier items as far forward as you can. Be sure the load is secured properly, so driving on the off-road terrain doesn’t toss things around.

You’ll find other important information in this manual. See “Vehicle Loading,’’ “Luggage Carrier” and “Tires” in the Index.

Traveling to Remote Areas It makes sense to plan your trip, especially when going to a remote area. Know the terrain and plan your route. You are much less likely to get bad surprises. Get accurate maps of trails and terrain. Try to learn of any blocked or closed roads. It’s also a good idea to travel with at least one other vehicle. If something happens to one of them, the other can help quickly. Does your vehicle have a winch? If so, be sure to read the winch instructions. In a remote area, a winch can be handy if you get stuck. But you’ll want to know how to use it properly.

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Getting Familiar with Off-Road Driving It’s a good idea to practice in an area that’s safe and close to home before you go into the wilderness. Off-road driving does require some new and different driving skills. Here’s what we mean. Tune your senses to different kinds of signals. Your eyes, for example, need to constantly sweep the terrain for unexpected obstacles. Your ears need to listen for unusual tire or engine sounds. With your arms, hands, feet, and body you’ll need to respond to vibrations and vehicle bounce. Controlling your vehicle is the key to successful off-road driving. One of the best ways to control your vehicle is to control your speed. Here are things to keep in mind. At higher speeds:


0 you approach things faster and you have less time to scan the terrain for


0 you have less time to react.

you have more vehicle bounce when you drive over obstacles.

0 you’ll need more distance for braking , especially since you’re on an

unpaved surface.

Scanning the Terrain Off-road driving can take you over many different kinds of terrain. You need to be familiar with the terrain and its many different some things to consider. Surface Conditions. Off-roading can take you over hard-packed dirt, gravel, rocks , grass, sand, mud, snow or ice. Each of these surfaces affects the steering, acceleration, and braking of your vehicle in different ways. Depending upon the kind of surface you are on, you may experience slipping, sliding, wheel spinning, delayed acceleration, poor traction , and longer braking distances.

features. Here are


Surface Obstacles. Unseen or hidden obstacles can be hazardous. A rock, log, hole, rut, or bump can startle you if you’re not prepared for them. Often these obstacles are hidden by grass, bushes, snow or even the rise and fall of the terrain itself. Here are some things to consider:

Is the path ahead clear? Will the surface texture change abruptly up ahead?

@ Does the travel take you uphill or downhill? (There’s more discussion

of these subjects later.)

0 Will you have to stop suddenly or change direction quickly?

When you drive over obstacles or rough terrain, keep a firm grip on the steering wheel. Ruts, troughs, or other surface features can jerk the wheel out of your hands if you’re not prepared. When you drive over bumps, rocks, or other obstacles, your wheels can leave the ground. If this happens, even with one or two wheels, you can’t control the vehicle as well or at all. Because you will be on an unpaved surface, it’s especially important to avoid sudden acceleration, sudden turns, or sudden braking. In a way, off-road driving requires a different kind of alertness from driving on paved roads and highways. There are no road signs, posted speed limits or signal lights. You have to use your own good judgment about what is safe and what isn’t. Drinking and driving can be very dangerous on any road. And this is certainly true for off-road driving. At the very time you need special alertness and driving skills, your reflexes, perceptions and judgment can be affected by even a small amount of alcohol. You could have a serious - or even fatal - accident if you drink and drive or ride with a driver who has been drinking. (See “Drunken Driving” in the Index.) Driving On Off-Road Hills Off-road driving often takes you up, down, or across a hill. Driving safely on hills requires good judgment and an understanding of what your vehicle can and can’t do. There are some hills that simply can’t be driven, no matter how well built the vehicle.

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Approaching a Hill When you approach a hill, you need to decide if it’s one of those hills that’s just too steep to climb, descend, or cross. Steepness can be hard to judge. On a very small hill, for example, there may be a smooth, constant incline with only a small change in elevation where you can easily see all the way to the top. On a large hill, the incline may get steeper as you near the top, but you may not see this because the crest of the hill is hidden by bushes, grass, or shrubs. Here are some other things to consider as you approach a hill.

Is there a constant incline, or does the hill get sharply steeper in places?

0 Is there good traction on the hillside, or will the surface cause tire


0 Is there a straight path up or down the hill so you won’t have to make

turning maneuvers?

0 Are there obstructions on the hill that can block your path (boulders,

trees, logs or ruts)? What’s beyond the hill? Is there a cliff, an embankment, a drop-off, a fence? Get out and walk the hill if you don’t know. It’s the smart way to find out.

0 Is the hill simply too rough? Steep hills often have ruts, gullies, troughs and exposed rocks because they are more susceptible to the effects of erosion.

Driving Uphi// Once you decide you can safely drive up the hill, you need to take some special steps.

0 Use a low gear and get a firm grip on the steering wheel. 0 Get a smooth start up the hill and try to maintain your speed. Don’t use more power than you need, because you don’t want your wheels to start spinning or sliding.

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Try to drive straight up the hill if at all possible. If the path twists and turns, you might want to find another route.

Ease up on’your speed as you approach the top of the hill. Attach a flag to the vehicle to make you more visible to approaching traffic on trails or hills. Sound the horn as you approach the top of the hill to let opposing traffic know you’re there. Use your headlights even during the day. They make you more visible to oncoming traffic.

Q: What should I do if my vehicle stalls, or is about to stall, and I

can’t make it up the hill?

A: If this happens, there are some things you should do, and there are

some things you must not do. First, here’s what you should do: Push the brake pedal to stop the vehicle and keep it from rolling backwards. Also, apply the parking brake. If your engine is still running, shift the transmission into reverse, release the parking brake, and slowly back down the hill in reverse. If your engine has stopped running, you’ll need to restart it. With the brake pedal depressed and the parking brake still applied, shift the transmission to PARK (P) (or, shift to NEUTRAL (N) if your vehicle has a manual transmission) and restart the engine. Then, shift to reverse, release the parking brake, and slowly back down the hill as straight as possible in reverse.


0 As you are backing down the hill, put your left hand on the steering wheel at the 12 o’clock position. This way, you’ll be able to tell if your wheels are straight and maneuver as you back down. It’s best that you back down the hill with your wheels straight rather than in the left or right direction. Turning the wheel too far to the left or right will increase the possibility of a rollover. Here are some things you must not do if you stall, or are about to stall, when going up a hill. Never attempt to prevent a stall by shifting into NEUTRAL (N) (or depressing the clutch, if you have a manual transmission) to “rev-up” the engine and regain forward momentum. This won’t work. Your vehicle will roll backwards very quickly and you could go out of control.

Instead, apply the regular brake to stop the vehicle. Then apply the parking brake. Shift into reverse, release the parking brake, and slowly back straight down.

Never attempt to turn around if you are about to stall when going up a hill. If the hill is steep enough to stall your vehicle, it’s steep enough to cause you to roll over if you turn around. If you can’t make it up the hill, you must back straight down the hill.

Q: Suppose, after stalling, I try to back down the hill and decide I just

can’t do it. What should I do?

A: Set the parking brake, put your transmission in PARK (P) (or the

manual transmission in first gear), and turn off the engine. Leave the vehicle and go get some help. Exit on the uphill side and stay clear of the path the vehicle would take if it rolled downhill. Do not shift the transfer case to NEUTRAL (N) when you leave the vehicle. Leave it in some gear.


Driving Downhill When off-roading takes you downhill, you’ll want to consider a number of things:

0 How steep is the downhill? Will I be able to maintain vehicle control? What’s the surface like? Smooth? Rough? Slippery? Hard-packed dirt? Gravel? Are there hidden surface obstacles? Ruts? Logs? Boulders?

0 What’s at the bottom of the hill? Is there a hidden creek bank or even a

river bottom with large rocks?

If you decide you can go down a hill safely, then try to keep your vehicle headed straight down, and use a low gear. This way, engine drag can help your brakes and they won’t have to do all the work. Descend slowly, keeping your vehicle under control at all times.


Q: Are there some things I should not do when driving down a hill? A: Yes? These are important because if you ignore them you could lose

control and have a serious accident. When driving downhill, avoid turns that take you across the incline of the hill. A hill that’s not too steep to drive down may be too steep to drive across. You could roll over if you don’t drive straight down. Never go downhill with the transmission in NEUTRAL (N), or with the clutch pedal depressed in a manual shift. This is called “free-wheeling.” Your brakes will have to do all the work and could overheat and fade.

Q: Am I likely to stall when going downhill? A: It’s much more likely to happen going uphill. But if it happens going

downhill, here’s what to do.

0 Stop your vehicle by applying the regular brakes. Apply the parking


0 Shift to PARK (P) (or to Neutral with the manual transmission) and,

while still braking, restart the engine.

0 Shift back to a low gear, release the parking brake, and drive straight


0 If the engine won’t start, get out and get help. Driving Across an Incline Sooner or later, an off-road trail will probably go across the incline of a hill. If this happens, you have to decide whether to try to drive across the incline. Here are some things to consider:

0 A hill that can be driven straight up or down may be too steep to drive across. When you go straight up or down a hill, the length of the wheel base (the distance from the front wheels to the rear wheels) reduces the likelihood the vehicle will tumble end over end. But when you drive across an incline, the much more narrow track width (the distance between the left and right wheels) may not prevent the vehicle from tilting and rolling over. Also, driving across an incline puts more weight on the downhill wheels. This could cause a downhill slide or a rollover.

0 Surface conditions can be a problem when you drive across a hill.

Loose graveI, muddy spots, or even wet grass can cause your tires to slip sideways, downhill. If the vehicle slips sideways, it can hit something that will trip it (a rock, a rut, etc.) and roll over.


Hidden obstacles can make the steepness of the incline even worse. If you drive across a rock with the uphill wheels, or if the downhill wheels drop into a rut or depression, your vehicle can tilt even more. For reasons like these, you need to decide carefully whether to try to drive across an incline. Just because the trail goes across the incline doesn’t mean you have to drive it. The last vehicle to try it might have rolled over.

Q: A:

I hit What if I’m driving across an incline that’s not too steep, but I do? some loose gravel and start to slide downhill. What should If you feel your vehicle starting to slide sideways, turn downhill. This should help straighten out the vehicle and prevent the side slipping. However, a much better way to prevent this is to get out and “walk the course” so you know what the surface is like before you drive it.

Stalling on an Incline If your vehicle stalls when you’re crossing an passengers) get out on the uphill side, even if the door there is harder to open. If you get out on the downhill side and the vehicle starts to roll over, you’ll be right in its path. If you have to walk down the slope, stay out of the path the vehicle will take if it does roll over.

incline, be sure you (and your


Driving In Mud, Sand, Snow, Or Ice When you drive in mud, snow or sand, your wheels won’t get good traction. You can’t accelerate as quickly, turning is more difficult, and you’ll need longer braking distances. It’s best to use a low gear when you’re in mud - the deeper the mud, the lower the gear. In really deep mud, the idea is to keep your vehicle moving so you don’t get stuck. When you drive on sand, you’ll sense a change in wheel traction. But it will depend upon how loosely packed the sand is. On loosely packed sand (as on beaches or sand dunes) your tires will tend to sink into the sand. This has an effect on steering, accelerating, and braking. You may want to reduce the air pressure in your tires slightly when driving on sand. This will improve traction. Hard packed snow and ice offer the worst tire traction. On these it’s very easy to lose control. On wet ice, for example, the traction is so poor that you will have difficulty accelerating. And if you do get moving, poor steering and difficult braking can cause you to slide out of control.



Driving In .Water Light rain causes no special off-road driving problems. But heavy rain can mean flash flooding, and flood waters demand extreme caution. Find out how deep the water is before you drive through it. If it’s deep enough to cover your wheel hubs, axles, or exhaust pipe, don’t try it - you probably won’t get through. Also, water that deep can damage your axle and other vehicle parts. If the water isn’t too deep, then drive through it slowly. At fast speeas, water splashes on your ignition system and your vehicle can stall. Stalling can also occur if you get your tailpipe under water. And, as long as your tailpipe is to start your engine. When you go through under water, you’ll never be able water, remember that when your brakes get wet, it may take you longer to stop.

After Off-Road Driving Remove any brush or debris that has collected on the underbody, chassis or under the hood. These accumulations can be a fire hazard. After operation in mud or sand, have the brake linings cleaned and checked. These substances can cause glazing and uneven braking. Check the body structure, steering, suspension, wheels, tires, and exhaust system for damage. Also, check the fuel lines and cooling system for any leakage. Your vehicle will require more frequent service due to off-road use. Refer to the Maintenance Schedule for additional information.


Driving at Night

Night driving is more dangerous than day driving. One reason is that some drivers are likely to be impaired - by alcohol or drugs, with night vision problems, or by fatigue. Here are some tips on night driving.

0 Drive defensively. 0 Don't drink and drive. 0 Adjust your inside rearview mirror to reduce the glare from headlights

behind you.

0 Since you can't see as well, you may need to slow down and keep more

space between you and other vehicles.

0 Slow down, especially on higher speed roads. Your headlights can light

up only so much road ahead. In remote areas, watch for animals. If you're tired, pull off the road in a safe place and rest.

driver may require at least twice as

Night Vision No one can see as well at night as in the daytime. But as we get older these differences increase. A SO-year-ld much light to see the same thing at night as What you do in the daytime can also affect your night vision. For example, if you spend the day in bright sunshine you are wise Your eyes will have less trouble adjusting to night. But don't wear sunglasses at night. They may cut down on glare from headlights, but they also make a lot of things invisible. You can be temporarily blinded by approaching lights. It can take a second or two, or even several seconds, for your eyes to readjust to the dark. When

to wear sunglasses. if you're driving,

a 20-year-old.


you are faced with severe glare (as from a driver who doesn’t lower the high beams, or a vehicle with misaimed headlights), slow down a little. Avoid staring directly into the approaching lights. Keep your windshield and all the glass on your vehicle clean - inside and out. Glare at night is made much worse by dirt on the glass. Even the inside of the glass can build up a film caused by dust. Dirty glass makes lights dazzle and flash more than clean glass would, making the pupils of your eyes contract repeatedly. Remember that your headlights light up far less of a roadway when you are in a turn or curve. Keep your eyes moving; that way, it’s easier to pick out dimly lighted objects. Just as your headlights should be checked regularly for proper aim, so should your eyes be examined regularly. Some drivers suffer from night blindness - the inability to see in dim light - and aren’t even aware of it. Driving in the Rain

Rain and wet roads can mean driving trouble. On a wet road you can’t stop, accelerate or turn as well because your tire-to-road traction isn’t as good as on dry roads. And, if your tires don’t have much tread left, you’ll get even less traction. It’s always wise to go slower and be cautious if rain starts to fall while you are driving. The surface may get wet suddenly when your reflexes are tuned for driving on dry pavement. The heavier the rain, the harder it is to see. Even if your windshield wiper blades are in good shape, a heavy rain can make it harder to see road signs and traffic signals, pavement markings, the edge of the road, and even people walking. It’s wise to keep your wiping equipment in good shape and keep your windshield washer tank filled. Replace your windshield wiper inserts when they show signs of streaking or missing areas on the windshield, or when strips of rubber start to separate from the inserts.



Driving too fast through large water puddles or even going through some car washes can cause problems, too. The water may affect your brakes. Try to avoid puddles. But if you can’t, try to slow down before you hit them.

Hydroplaning Hydroplaning is dangerous. So much water can build up under your tires that they can actually ride on the water. This can happen if the road is wet enough and you’re going‘fast enough. When your vehicle is hydroplaning, it has little or no contact with the road. Hydroplaning doesn’t happen often. But it can if your tires haven’t much if a lot of water tread or if the pressure in one or more is low. It can happen is standing on the road, If you can see reflections from trees, telephone poles, or other vehicles, and raindrops “dimple” the water’s surface, there could be hydroplaning. Hydroplaning usually happens at higher speeds. There just isn’t a hard and fast rule about hydroplaning. The best advice is to slow down when it is raining.


Some Other Rainy Weather Tips 0 Turn on your low-beam headlights - not just your parking lights - to

help make you more visible to others.

0 Besides slowing down, allow some extra following distance. And be

especially careful when you pass another vehicle. Allow yourself more clear room ahead, and be prepared to have your view restricted by road spray. Have good tires with proper tread depth. (See “Tires” in the Index.)

City Driving

One of the biggest problems with city streets is the amount of traffic on them. You’ll want to watch out for what the other drivers are doing and pay attention to traffic signals. Here are ways to increase your safety in city driving:

Know the best way to get to where you are going. Get a city map and plan your trip into an unknown part of the city just as you would for a cross-country trip. Try to use the freeways that rim and crisscross most large cities. You’ll save time and energy. (See the next part, “Freeway Driving.”) Treat a green light as a warning signal. A traffic light is there because the corner is busy enough to need it. When a light turns green, and just before you start to move, check both ways for vehicles that have not cleared the intersection or may be running the red light.


Freeway Driving

Mile for mile, freeways (also called thruways, parkways, expressways, turnpikes, or superhighways) are the safest of all roads. But they have their own special rules. The most important advice on freeway driving is: Keep up with traffic and keep to the right. Drive at the same speed most of the other drivers are driving. Too-fast or too-slow driving breaks a smooth traffic flow. Treat the left lane on a freeway as a passing lane. At the entrance there is usually a ramp that leads to the freeway. If you have a clear view of the freeway as you drive along the entrance ramp, you should begin to check traffic. Try to determine where you expect to blend with the flow. Try to merge into the gap at close to the prevailing speed. Switch on your turn signal, check your mirrors and glance over your shoulder as often as necessary. Try to blend smoothly with the traffic flow. Once you are on the freeway, adjust your speed to the posted limit or to the prevailing rate if it’s slower. Stay in the right lane unless you want to pass. Before changing lanes, check your mirrors. Then use your turn signal. Just before you leave the lane, glance quickly over your shoulder to make sure there isn’t another vehicle in your “blind” spot. Once you are moving on the freeway, make certain you allow a reasonable following distance. Expect to move slightly slower at night. When you want to leave the freeway, move to the proper lane well in advance. If you m i s s your exit do not, under any circumstances, stop and back up. Drive on to the next exit. The exit ramp can be curved, sometimes quite sharply. The exit speed is usually posted. Reduce your speed according to your speedometer, not to your sense of motion. After driving for any distance at higher speeds, you may tend to think you are going slower than you actually are.


Before Leaving on a Long Trip Make sure you’re ready. Try to be well rested. If you must start when you’re not fresh - such as after a day’s work - don’t plan to make too many miles that first part of the journey. Wear comfortable clothing and shoes you can easily drive in. Is your vehicle ready for a long trip? If you keep it serviced and maintained, it’s ready to go. If it needs service, have it done before starting out. Of course, you’ll find experienced and able service experts in GM dealerships all across North America. They’ll be ready and willing to help if you need it. Here are some things you can check before a trip:

Windshield Washer Fluid: Is the reservoir full? Are all windows clean inside and outside? Wiper Blades: Are they in good shape?

0 Fuel, Engine Oil, Other Fluids: Have you checked all levels? 0 Lights: Are they all working? Are the lenses clean?

Tires: They are vitally important to a safe, trouble-free trip. Is the tread good enough for long-distance driving? Are the tires all inflated to the recommended pressure?

0 Weather Forecasts: What’s the weather outlook along your route?

Should you delay your trip a short time to avoid a major storm system? Maps: Do you have up-to-date maps?

Highway Hypnosis Is there actually such a condition as “highway hypnosis”? Or is it just plain falling asleep at the wheel? Call it highway hypnosis, lack of awareness, or whatever. There is something about an easy stretch of road with the same scenery, along with the hum of the tires on the road, the drone of the engine, and the rush of the wind against the vehicle that can make you sleepy. Don’t let it happen to you! If it does, your vehicle can leave the road in less than a second, and you could crash and be injured. What can you do about highway hypnosis? First, be aware that it can happen.


Then here tire some tips: 0 Make sure your vehicle is well ventilated, with a comfortably cool


0 Keep your eyes moving. Scan the‘road ahead and to the sides. Check

your mirrors and your instruments frequently. If you get sleepy, pull off the road into a rest, service, or parking area and take a nap, get some exercise, or both. For safety, treat drowsiness on the highway as an emergency.

Hill and Mountain Roads

from driving in flat or

Driving on steep hills or mountains is different rolling terrain. If you drive regularly in steep country, or if you’re planning to visit there, here are some tips that can make your trips safer and more enjoyable. (See “Off-Road Driving” in the Index for information about driving off-road.) Keep your vehicle in good shape. Check all fluid levels and also the brakes, tires, cooling system and transmission. These parts can work hard on mountain roads.

0 Know how to go down hills. The most important thing to know is this:

let your engine do some of the slowing down. Shift to a lower gear when you go down a steep or long hill.



Know how to go uphill. You may want to shift down to a lower gear. The lower gears help cool your engine and transmission, and you can climb the hill better. Stay in your own lane when driving on two-lane roads in hills or mountains. Don’t swing wide or cut across the center of the road. Drive at speeds that let you stay in your own lane. As you go over the top of a hill, be alert. There could be something in your lane, like a stalled car or an accident. You may see highway signs on mountains that warn of special problems. Examples are long grades, passing or no-passing zones, a falling rocks area, or winding roads. Be alert to these and take appropriate action.


Winter Driving

Here are some tips for winter driving:

Have your vehicle in good shape for winter. Be sure your engine coolant mix is correct. You may want to put winter emergency supplies in your vehicle. Include an ice scraper, a small brush or broom, a supply of windshield washer fluid, a rag, some winter outer clothing, a small shovel, a flashlight, a red cloth, and a couple of reflective warning triangles. And, if you will be driving under severe conditions, include a small bag of sand, a piece of old carpet or a couple of burlap bags to help provide traction. Be sure you properly secure these items in your vehicle. Driving on Snow or Ice Most of the time, those places where your tires meet the road probably have good traction. road, you can However, if there is snow or ice between your tires and the have a very slippery situation. You’ll have a lot less traction or “grip” and will need to be very careful.


What’s the worst time for this? “Wet ice.” Very cold snow or ice can be slick and hard to drive on. But wet ice can be even more trouble because it may offer the least traction of all. You can get “wet ice” when it’s about freezing (32°F; 0°C) and freezing rain begins to fall. Try to avoid driving on wet ice until salt and sand crews can get there. Whatever the condition - smooth ice, packed, blowing or loose snow - drive with caution. Accelerate gently. Try not to break the fragile traction. If you accelerate too fast, the dkve wheels will spin and polish the surface under the tires even more. Your anti-lock brakes improve your ability to make a hard stop on a slippery road. Even though you have an anti-lock braking system, you’ll want to begin stopping sooner than you would on dry pavement. See “Anti-Lock” in the Index.

Allow greater following distance on any slippery road. Watch for slippery spots. The road might be fine until you hit a spot that’s covered with ice. On an otherwise clear road, ice patches may appear in shaded areas where the sun can’t reach: around clumps of trees, behind buildings, or under bridges. Sometimes the surface of a curve or an overpass may remain icy when the surrounding roads are clear. If you see a patch of ice ahead of you, brake before you are on it. Try not to brake while you’re actually on the steering maneuvers.

ice, and avoid sudden


If You’re Caught in a Blizzard

If you are stopped by heavy snow, you could be in a serious situation. You should probably stay with your vehicle unless you know for sure that you are near help and you can hike through the snow. Here are some things to do to summon help and keep yourself and your passengers safe: Turn on your hazard flashers. Tie a red cloth to your vehicle to alert police that you’ve been stopped by the snow. Put on extra clothing or wrap a blanket around you. If you have no blankets or extra clothing, make body insulators from newspapers, burlap bags, rags, floor mats - anything you can wrap around vourself or tuck under your clothing to keep warm. IOU can run the engine to keep warm, but be careful.


Run your engine only as long as you must. This saves fuel. When you run the engine, make it go a little faster than just idle. That is, push the accelerator slightly. This uses less fuel for the heat that you get and it keeps the battery charged. You will need a well-charged battery to restart the vehicle, and possibly for signaling later on with your headlights. Let the heater run for awhile. Then, shut the engine off and close the window almost all the way to preserve the heat. Start the engine again and repeat this only when you feel really uncomfortable from the cold. But do it as little as possible. Preserve the fuel as long as you can. To help keep warm, you can get out of the vehicle and do some fairly vigorous exercises every half hour or so until help comes. Power Winches If you wish to use a power winch on your vehicle, only use it when your vehicle is stationary or anchored.

NOTICE: Operating a power winch with an automatic transmission in PARK (P) or a manual transmission in gear may damage the transmission. Always put the transmission in a Neutral position while operating a power winch.

Use the regular brakes, set the parking brake or block the wheels to keep your vehicle from rolling. If your vehicle is equipped with an airbag, see "Adding Equipment to Your Air Bag-Equipped Vehicle" in the Index.


Recreational Vehicle Towing (Four- Wheel Drive Only) If your vehicle has four-wheel drive, you may tow it behind another vehicle providing it does not have the optional electronic shift transfer case or all-wheel drive. Do not tow the vehicle by the rear bumper bar.

NOTICE: Recreational vehicle towing is not recommended for vehicles with the optional electronic shift transfer case or all-wheel drive because the transfer cases have no neutral position.

Before towing, you should: 1. Set the parking brake firmly. 2. Place the automatic transmission in PARK (P) or the manual

transmission in the lowest gear (FIRST).

3. Firmly attach the vehicle being towed to the tow vehicle. Refer

to the

hitch manufacturer’s instructions.

4. Place the transfer case shift lever in NEUTRAL (N).

NOTICE: Removal of either propeller shaft is unnecessary.



1. Release the parking brake only after the vehicle being towed is firmly

attached to the tow vehicle.


2. Insert the ignition key into the ignition switch and turn it one notch

forward of the LOCK position. This places the key into the OFF position, which unlocks the steering column while preventing battery drain. Unlocking the steering column will allow for proper movement of the front wheeldtires during towing.

I NOTICE: I You should exercise extra care whenever towing another vehicle.

Loading Your Vehicle

The CertificationEire label also tells you the maximum weights for the front and rear axles, called Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR). To find out the actual loads on your front and rear axles, you need to go to a weigh station and weigh your vehicle. Your dealer can help you with this. Be sure to spread out your load equally on both sides of the centerline. Never exceed the GVWR for your vehicle, or the Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) for either the front or rear axle. And, if you do have a heavy load, you should spread it out. Similar appearing vehicles may have different GVWR’s and Payloads. Please note the CertificationEire label of your truck or consult your dealer for additional details.


Using heavier suspension components to get added durability might not change your weight ratings. Ask your dealer to help you load your vehicle the right way.

NOTICE: Your warranty does not cover parts or components that fail because of overloading.

If you put things inside your vehicle - like suitcases, tools, packages, or anything else - they will go as fast as the vehicle goes. If you have to stop or turn quickly, or if there is a crash, they’ll keep going.

There‘s also important loading information for off-road driving in this manual. See “Loading Your Vehicle” in the Index.


Payload The Payload Capacity is shown on the CertificatiodTire label. This is the maximum load capacity that your vehicle can carry. Be sure to include the weight of the people inside as part of your load. If you added any accessories or equipment after your vehicle left the factory, remember to subtract the weight of these things from the payload. Your dealer can help you with this. Trailering Package If your vehicle comes with the Trailering Package, there is also a load rating which includes the weight of the vehicle and the trailer it tows. This rating is called the Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR). When you weigh your trailer, be sure to include the weight of everything you put in it. And, remember to figure the weight of the people inside as part of your load. Your dealer can help you determine your GCWR.

Add-on Equipment When you carry removable items, you may need to put a limit on how many people you carry inside your vehicle. Be sure to weigh your vehicle before you buy and install the new equipment.

NOTICE: fail Your warranty doesn’t cover parts or components that because of overloading.


Towing a Trailer

NOTICE: Pulling a trailer improperly can damage your vehicle and result in costly repairs not covered by your warranty. To pull a trailer correctly, follow the advice in this part, and see your GM dealer for important information about towing a trailer with your vehicle.

Most vehicles are ready for some trailer towing. If yours was built with trailering options, as many are, it’s ready for heavier trailers. But trailering is different than just driving your vehicle by itself. Trailering means changes in handling, durability, and fuel economy. Successful, safe trailering takes correct equipment, and it has to be used properly. That’s the reason for this part. In it are many time-tested, important trailering tips and safety rules. Many of these are important for your safety and that of your passengers. So please read this section carefully before you pull a trailer. If You Do Decide To Pull A Trailer If you do, here are some important points.

0 There are many different laws, including speed limit restrictions,

having to do with trailering. Make sure your rig will be legal, not only where you live but also where you’ll be driving. A good source for this information can be state or provincial police.

0 Consider using a sway control if your trailer will weigh 2,000 pounds if your trailer

(900 kg) or less. You should always use a sway control will weigh more than 2,000 pounds (900 kg). You can ask a hitch dealer about sway controls.



Don’t tow a trailer at all during the first 500 miles (800 km) your new vehicle is driven. Your engine, axle or other parts could be damaged. Then, during the first 500 miles (800 km) that you tow a trailer, don’t drive over 50 mph (80 k d h ) and don’t make starts at full throttle. This helps your engine and other parts of your vehicle wear in at the heavier loads, If you have an automatic transmission, you should use DRIVE (D) (or, as you need to, a lower gear) when towing a trailer. Operating your vehicle in DRIVE (D) when towing a trailer will minimize heat build-up and extend the life of your transmission. If you have a manual transmission and you are towing a trailer, it’s better not to use FIFTH (5) gear. Just drive in FOURTH (4) gear (or, as you need to, a lower gear).

Three important considerations have to do with weight:

Weight of the Traikr How heavy can a trailer safely be? It depends on how you plan to use your rig. For example, speed, altitude, road grades, outside temperature and how much your vehicle is used to pull a trailer are all important. And, it can also depend on any special equipment that you have on your vehicle. You can ask your dealer for our trailering information or advice, or you can write us at the address listed in your Warranty and Owner Assistance Information booklet. In Canada, write to: General Motors of Canada Limited Customer Assistance Center 1908 Colonel Sam Drive Oshawa, Ontario L1H 8W Weight of the Trailer Tongue The tongue load (A) of any trailer is an important weight to measure because it affects the total or gross weight of your vehicle. The gross vehicle weight (GVW) includes the curb weight of the vehicle, any cargo you may carry in it, and the people who will be riding in the vehicle. And if you will tow a trailer, you must add the tongue load to the GVW because your vehicle will be carrying that weight, too. See “Loading Your Vehicle” in the Index for more information about your vehicle’s maximum load capacity.



If you’re using a “dead-weight” hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 10% of the total loaded trailer weight (B). If you have a “weight-distributing” hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 12% of the total loaded trailer weight (B). After you’ve loaded your trailer, weigh the trailer and then the tongue, separately, to see if the weights are proper. If they aren’t, you may be able to get them right simply by moving some items around in the trailer. Total Weight on Your Vehicle’s Tires Be sure your vehicle’s tires are inflated to the limit for cold tires. You’ll find these numbers on the Certification label on the driver’s door lock pillar or see “Tire Loading” in the Index. Then be sure you don’t go over the GVW limit for your vehicle, including the weight of the trailer tongue.

Hitches It’s important to have the correct hitch equipment. Crosswinds, large trucks going by, and rough roads are a few reasons why you’ll need the right hitch. Here are some rules to follow:

0 If you’ll be pulling a trailer that, when loaded, will weigh more than

2,000 pounds (900 kg), be sure to use a properly mounted, weight-distributing hitch and sway control of the proper size. This equipment is very important for proper vehicle loading and good handling when you’re driving.

0 Will you have to make any holes in the body of your vehicle when you

install a trailer hitch? If you do, then be sure to seal the holes later when you remove the hitch. If you don’t seal them, deadly carbon monoxide (CO) from your exhaust can get into your vehicle (see “Carbon Monoxide” in the Index). Dirt and water can, too.


Safety Chains You should always attach chains between your vehicle and your trailer. Cross the safety chains under the tongue of the trailer so that the tongue will not drop to the road if it becomes separated from the hitch. Instructions about safety chains may be provided by the hitch manufacturer or by the trailer manufacturer. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendation for attaching safety chains and do not attach them to the bumper. Always leave just enough slack so you can turn with your rig. And, never allow safety chains to drag on the ground. Trailer Brakes If your trailer weighs more than 1,000 pounds (450 kg) loaded, then it needs its own brakes - and they must be adequate. Be sure to read and follow the instructions for the trailer brakes so you’ll be able to install, adjust and maintain them properly. Your trailer brakes system can tap into vehicle’s hydraulic brake system except: Don’t tap into your vehicle’s brake system if the trailer’s brake system will use more than 0.02 cubic inch ( 0 . 3 ~ ~ ) of fluid from your vehicle’s master cylinder. If it does, both braking systems won’t work well. You could even lose your brakes. Will the trailer parts take 3,000 psi (20 650 kPa) of pressure? If not, the trailer brake system must not be used with your vehicle. If everything checks out this far, then make the brake fluid tap at the port on the master cylinder that sends fluid to the rear brakes. But don’t use copper tubing for this. If you do, it will bend and finally break off. Use steel brake tubing.


Driving with a Trailer

lowing a trailer requires a certain amount of experience. Before setting out for the open road, you’ll want to get to know your rig. Acquaint yourself with the feel of handling and braking with the added weight of the trailer. And always keep in mind that the vehicle you are driving is now a good deal longer and not nearly as responsive as your vehicle is by itself. Before you start, check the trailer hitch and platform (and attachments), safety chains, electrical connector, lights, tires and mirror adjustment. If the trailer has electric brakes, start your vehicle and trailer moving and then apply the trailer brake controller by hand to be sure the brakes are working. This lets you check your electrical connection at the same time. During your trip, check occasionally to be sure that the load is secure, and that the lights and any trailer brakes are still working. Following Distance Stay at least twice as far behind the vehicle ahead as you would when driving your vehicle without a trailer. This can help you avoid situations that require heavy braking and sudden turns.


Passing You’ll need more passing distance up ahead when you’re towing a trailer. And, because you’re a good deal longer, you’ll need to go much farther beyond the passed vehicle before you can return to your lane. Backing Up Hold the bottom of the steering wheel with one hand. Then, to move the trailer to the left, just move that hand to the left. To move the trailer to the right, move your hand to the right. Always back up slowly and, if possible, have someone guide you. Making Turns

NOTICE: Making very sharp turns while trailering could cause the trailer to come in contact with the vehicle. Your vehicle could be damaged. Avoid making very sharp turns while trailering.

When you’re turning with a trailer, make wider turns than normal. Do this so your trailer won’t strike soft shoulders, curbs, road signs, trees, or other objects. Avoid jerky or sudden maneuvers. Signal well in advance. Turn Signals When Towing a Trailer When you tow a trailer, your vehicle has to have extra wiring and a heavy-duty turn signal flasher (included in the optional trailering package). The green arrows on your instrument panel will flash whenever you signal a turn or lane change. Properly hooked up, the trailer lamps will also flash, telling other drivers you’re about to turn, change lanes or stop. When towing a trailer, the green arrows on your instrument panel will flash for turns even if the bulbs on the trailer are burned out. Thus, you may think drivers behind you are seeing your signal when they are not. It’s important to check occasionally to be sure the trailer bulbs are still working.

Driving On Grades Reduce speed and shift to a lower gear before you start down a long or steep downgrade. If you don’t shift down, you might have to use your brakes so much that they would get hot and no longer work well. On a long uphill grade, shift down and reduce your speed to around 45 mph (70 W h ) to reduce the possibility of engine and transmission overheating.



When towing at high altitude on steep uphill grades, consider the following: Engine coolant will boil at a lower temperature than at normal altitudes. you turn your engine off immediately after towing at high altitude on steep uphill grades, your vehicle may show signs similar to engine overheating. To avoid this, let the engine run while parked (preferably on level ground) with the automatic transmission in PARK (P) (or the manual transmission out of gear and the parking brake applied) for a few minutes before turning the engine off. If you do get the overheat warning, see “Engine Overheating” in the Index. Parking on Hills You really should not park your vehicle, with a trailer attached, on a hill. If something goes wrong, your rig could start to move. People can be injured, and both your vehicle and the trailer can be damaged. But if you ever have to park your rig on a hill, here’s how to do it:

1. Apply your regular brakes, but don’t shift into PARK (P) yet, or into

gear for a manual transmission. Then turn your wheels into the curb if facing downhill or into traffic if facing uphill.

2. Have someone place chocks under the trailer wheels. 3. When the wheel chocks are in place, release the regular brakes until the

chocks absorb the load.

4. Reapply the regular brakes. Then apply your parking brake, and then

shift into PARK (P), or REVERSE (R) for a manual transmission. 5. If you have a four-wheel-drive vehicle with a manual transfer case

shift lever, be sure the transfer case is in a drive gear - not in NEUTRAL (N).

6. Release the parking brake.


When You Are Ready to Leave After Parking on a Hill 1. Apply your regular brakes and hold the pedal down while you:

Start your engine;

0 Shift into a gear; and

Release the parking brake.

2 . Let up on the brake pedal. 3. Drive slowly until the trailer is clear of the chocks. 4. Stop and have someone pick up and store the chocks. Maintenance When Trailer Towing Your vehicle will need service more often when you’re pulling a trailer. See the Maintenance Schedule for more on this. Things that are especially important in trailer operation are automatic transmission fluid (don’t overfill), engine oil, axle lubricant, belt, cooling system, and brake adjustment. Each of these is covered in this manual, and the Index will help you find them quickly. If you’re trailering, it’s a good idea to review these sections before you start your trip. Check periodically to see that all hitch nuts and bolts are tight. Trailer Lighting Systems Wiring See “Trailer Wiring Harness” in the Index.




Problems on the Road


Here you’ll find what to do about some problems that can occur on the road. Hazard Warning Flashers

Your hazard warning flashers let you warn others. They also let police know you have a problem. Your front and rear turn signal lights will flash on and off.


, Push the button on top i of the steering column all the way down to make your front and rear turn signal lights flash on and off. Your hazard warning flashers work no matter what position your key is in, and even if the key isn’t in.

To turn off the flashers, push the button until the first click and release. When the hazard warning flashers are on, your turn signals won’t work. The flashers will stop if you step on the brake. Other Warning Devices If you carry reflective triangles, you can set one up at the side of the road about 300 feet (100 m) behind your vehicle.


Jump Starting If your battery has run down, you may want to use another vehicle and some jumper cables to start your vehicle. But please follow the steps below it safely.

to do

NOTICE: Ignoring these steps could result vehicle that wouldn’t be covered by your warranty. Trying to start your vehicle by pushing or pulling it could damage your vehicle, even if you have a manual transmission. And if you have an automatic transmission, it won’t start that way.

in costly damage to your

To Jump Start Your Vehicle: 1. Check the other vehicle. It must have a 12-volt battery with a negative

ground system.

NOTICE: If the other system isn’t a 12-volt system with a negative ground, both vehicles can be damaged.

2. Get the vehicles close enough so the jumper cables can reach, but be

sure the vehicles aren’t touching each other. If they are, it could cause a ground connection you don’t want. You wouldn’t be able to start your vehicle, and the bad grounding could damage the electrical systems.


You could be injured if the vehicles roll. Set the parking brake firmly on each vehicle. Put an automatic transmission in PARK (P) or a manual transmission in NEUTRAL (N). If you have a four-wheel-drive vehicle with a manual transfer case shift lever, be sure the transfer case is not in NEUTRAL (N).

3. Turn off the ignition on both vehicles. Turn off all lights that aren’t

needed, and radios. This will avoid sparks and help save both batteries And it could save your radio!

NOTICE: If you leave your radio on, it could be badly damaged. The repair wouldn’t be covered by your warranty.


4. Open both hoods and locate the batteries. Find the positive (+) and

negative (-) terminals on each battery.

5. Check that the jumper cables don’t have loose or missing insulation. If

they do, you could get a shock. The vehicles could be damaged too. Before you connect the cables, here are some basic things you should know. Positive (+) will go to positive (+) and negative (-) will go to negative (-) or a metal engine part. Don’t connect (+) to (-) or you’ll get a short that would damage the battery and maybe other parts too.


6. Connect the red positive (+) cable to the positive (+) terminal of the

vehicle with the dead battery.

Dead Battery (+)

Good Battery (+)

7. Don’t let the other end touch metal. Connect it to the positive (+)

terminal of the good battery.

8. Now connect the black negative (-) cable to the good battery’s negative

(-) terminal. Don’t let the other end touch anything until the next step. The other end of the negative cable doesn’t go to the dead battery. It goes to a heavy unpainted metal art on the engine of the vehicle with the dead battery.


Good Battery (-)

Heavy Metal Engine Part

9. Attach the cable at least 18 inches (45 cm) away from the dead battery, but not near engine parts that move. The electrical connection is just as is much good there, but the chance of sparks getting back to the battery less.

10. Now start the vehicle with the good battery and run the engine for a


11. Try to start the vehicle with the dead battery. If it won’t start after a few

tries make sure all connections are good. If it still won’t start, it probably needs service.

12. Remove the cables in reverse order to prevent electrical shorting. Take

care that they don’t touch each other or any other metal.

Remove Cables In This Order:

2 2

1. Heavy Metal Engine Part

2. Good Battery (-) 3. Good Battery (+) 4. Dead Battery (+)


Towing Your Vehicle Try to have a GM dealer or a professional towing service tow your vehicle. They can provide the right equipment and know how to tow it without damage. If your vehicle has been changed since it was factory-new by adding things like fog lamps, aero skirting, or special tires and wheels, these things could be damaged during towing. Before you do anything, turn on the hazard warning flashers. When you call, tell the towing service:

Whether your vehicle has rear-wheel drive, four-wheel drive or all-wheel drive. The make, model, and year of your vehicle. Whether you can move the shift lever for the transmission and shift the transfer case, if you have one. If there was an accident, what was damaged.


When your vehicle is being towed, have the ignition key off. The steering wheel should be clamped in a straight-ahead position with a clamping device designed for towing service. Do not use the vehicle’s steering column lock for this. The transmission (either automatic or manual) should be in NEUTRAL (N) and the transfer case (either manual shift or electronic shift), if you have one, should be in 2HI. The parking brake should be released. Don’t have your vehicle towed on the rear wheels, unless you have to. If the velucle must be towed on the rear wheels, don’t go more than 35 mph (56 M h ) or farther than 50 miles (80 km) or your transmission will be damaged. If these limits must be exceeded, then the rear drive wheels have to be supported on a dolly. Don’t have your vehicle towed with the wheels in contact with the ground if it has all-wheel drive. If your vehicle has the all-wheel-drive option, it can only be towed with all four wheels off the ground. If the vehicle must be towed with wheel lift equipment, then either the front or rear wheels must be supported on a dolly or the vehicle must be transported on a flatbed carrier.


Towing From the Front (Except All- Wheel-Drive)

NOTICE: Do not tow with sling-type equipment or the front bumper system will be damaged. Use wheel lift or car-carrier equipment. Additional ramping may be required for car-carrier equipment. Use safety chains and wheel straps. If your vehicle has the four-wheel drive option, a dolly MUST be used under the rear wheels when towing from the front.


Towing From the Rear (Except A//' Wheel-Drive)

NOTICE: Do not tow with sling-type equipment or the rear bumper system will be damaged. Use wheel lift or car-carrier equipment. Additional ramping may be required for car-carrier equipment. Use safety chains and wheel straps. If your vehicle has the four-wheel drive option, a dolly MUST be used under the front wheels when towing from the rear.


Towing From the Front (All- Wheel-Drive)

NOTICE: Do not tow with sling-type equipment or the front bumper system will be damaged. Use wheel lift or car-carrier equipment. Additional ramping may be required for car-carrier equipment. Use safety chains and wheel straps. If your vehicle has the all-wheel-drive option, a dolly MUST be used under the rear wheels when towing from the front.


Towing From the Rear (All- Wheel-Drive)

NOTICE: Do not tow with sling-type equipment or the rear bumper system will be damaged. Use wheel lift or car-carrier equipment. Additional ramping may be required for car-carrier equipment. Use safety chains and wheel straps. If your vehicle has the all-wheel-drive option, a dolly MUST be used under the front wheels when towing from the rear.


Engine Overheating You will find a coolant temperature gage on your vehicle’s instrument panel. If Steam Is Coming From Your Engine

NOTICE: If your engine catches fire because you keep driving with no coolant, your vehicle can be badly damaged. The costly repairs would not be covered by your warranty.


If No Steam IS Coming From Your Engine If you get the overheat warning but see or hear no steam, the problem may not be too serious. Sometimes the engine can get a little too hot when you:

0 Climb a long hill on a hot day. 0 Stop after high speed driving. 0 Idle for long periods in traffic. e Tow a trailer. See "Driving on Grades" in the Index.

If YOU get the overheat warning with no sign of steam, try this for a minute or so: 1. Turn off your air conditioner. 2. Turn on your heater to full hot at the highest fan speed and open the

window as necessary.

3. If you're in a traffic jam, shift to NEUTRAL (N); otherwise, shift to the

highest gear while driving - AUTOMATIC OVERDRIVE (@) or DRIVE (D) for automatic transmissions.

If you no longer have the overheat warning, you can drive. Just to be safe, drive slower for about ten minutes. If the warning doesn't come back on, you can drive normally. If the warning continues, pull over, stop, and park your vehicle right away. If there's still no sign of steam, push the accelerator until the engine speed is about twice as fast as normal idle speed. Bring the engine speed back to normal idle speed after two or three minutes. Now see if the warning stops. But then, if you still have the warning, turn oflthe engine and get everyone out of the vehicle until it cools down. You may decide not to lift the hood but to get service help right away.

When you decide it's safe to lift the hood, here's what you'll see: A. Coolant recovery


B. Radiator pressure


C. Engine fan

i c i


If the coolant inside the coolant recovery tank is boiling, don’t do anything else until it cools down.

The coolant level should be at the ADD mark. If it isn’t, you may have a leak in the radiator hoses, heater hoses, radiator, water pump or somewhere else in the cooling system.

NOTICE: Engine damage from running your engine without coolant isn’t covered by your warranty.

If there seems to be no leak, start the engine again. See if the fan speed increases when idle speed is doubled by pushing the accelerator pedal down. If it doesn’t, your vehicle needs service. Turn off the engine.


How to Add Coolant to the Coolant Recovery Tank ADD, add a If you haven’t found a problem yet, but the coolant level isn’t at 50/50 mixture of clean water (preferably distilled) and a proper antifreeze at the coolant recovery tank. (See “Engine Coolant’’ in the Index for more information about

the proper coolant



NOTICE: In cold weather, water can freeze and crack the engine, radiator,

heater core and other parts. Use the recommended coolant. 1


When the coolant in the coolant recovery tank is at ADD, start your vehicle. If the overheat warning continues, there’s one more thing you can try. You can add the proper coolant mix directly to the radiator but be sure the cooling system is cool before you do it.


How to Add Coolant to the Radiator

1. You can remove the radiator pressure cap when the cooling system,

including the radiator pressure cap and upper radiator hose, is no longer hot. Turn the pressure cap slowly to the left until it first stops. (Don't press down while turning the pressure cap.) If you hear a hiss, wait for that to stop. A hiss means there is still some pressure left.

as you turn it. Remove the pressure cap.

.. "


3. Fill the radiator with the proper mix, up to the base of the filler neck.

4. Then fill the

coolant recovery tank to the ADD mark.

5. Put the cap back

on the coolant recovery tank, but leave the radiator pressure cap off.


6. Start the engine

and let it run until you can feel'the upper radiator hose getting hot. Watch out for the engine fan.

7. By this time the coolant level inside the filler neck may be lower. If the

level is lower, add more of the proper mix through the filler neck until the level reaches the base of the filler neck.

8. Then replace the pressure cap. At any time during this procedure if coolant begins to flow out of the filler neck, reinstall the pressure cap. Be sure the arrows on the pressure cap line up like this.

Engine Fan Noise This vehicle has a clutched engine cooling fan. When the clutch is engaged, the fan spins faster to provide more air to cool the engine. In most every day driving conditions the clutch is not engaged. This improves fuel economy and reduces fan noise. Under heavy vehicle loading, trailer towing and/or high outside temperatures, the fan speed increases when the clutch engages. So you may hear an increase in fan noise. This is normal and should not be mistaken as the transmission slipping or making extra shifts. It is merely the cooling system functioning properly. The fan will slow down when additional cooling is not required and the clutch disengages. You may also hear this fan noise when you start the engine. It will go away as the fan clutch disengages.


If a Tire Goes Flat It’s unusual for a tire to “blow out” while you’re driving, especially if you maintain your tires properly. If air goes out of a tire, it’s much more likely to leak out slowly. But if you should ever have a “blowout,” here are a few tips about what to expect and what to do: If a front tire fails, the flat tire will create a drag that pulls the vehicle toward that side. Take your foot off the accelerator pedal and grip the steering wheel firmly. Steer to maintain lane position, then gently brake to a stop well out of the traffic lane. A rear blowout, particularly on a curve, acts much like a skid and may require the same correction you’d use in a skid. In any rear blowout, remove your foot from the accelerator pedal. Get the vehicle under control by steering the way you want the vehicle to go. It may be very bumpy and noisy, but you can still steer. Gently brake to a stop, well off the road if possible. If a tire goes flat, the next part shows how to use your jacking equipment to change a flat tire safely. Changing a Flat Tire If a tire goes flat, avoid further tire and wheel damage by driving slowly to a level place. Turn on your hazard warning flashers.


A. Flat Tire B . Blocked Tire

The following steps will tell you how to use the jack and change a tire. Your vehicle is equipped with work gloves and a plastic ground mat to assist in the changing of a flat tire. Jacking Equipment Storage The jacking equipment you’ll need is stored along the driver’s rear wall. In some cases, you may have to remove the spare tire in order to reach the jack.

To remove your jack cover, pull up on the latch. Pull the wheel blocks, jack and wheel wrench off.


Jacking Equipment

r A

A. Retainer B. Rubber Band

C. Work Gloves D. Mat E. Jack Storage Cover

E Wheel Blocks G. Hub Cap Removal Tool (Some


H. Wheel Wrench I. Jack J. Jacking Instructions

Spare Tire Your spare tire is in your vehicle's rear area, either mounted inside to the driver's wall or outside to the endgate, or stowed under the vehicle. If you have an inside-mounted spare tire, the tire must be removed in order to have access to the jack storage. To Remove the Inside-Mounted Spare Tire

Reach into your tire's cover and unscrew the wingnut at the center of the wheel. Remove it and the retainer. Unhook the tire from the mounting bracket and remove the cover.


To Remove the Rear-Mounted Spare Tire Make sure the carrier arm is fully latched to the endgate. Remove the tire's cover.

The locking wheel nut can be removed by snapping the rubber weather cover off the face of the lock case.

Insert the key and pull the lock case straight off. It is not necessary to turn the key.

The wheel wrench can then be used to remove the lug nut.

Use the socket end of your wheel wrench to remove the wheel nuts that secure the tire to the carrier. Then, lift the tire off its mounting bracket.



To Remove the Underbody-Mounted Spare Tire (&Door Only)

NOTICE: Never remove or restow a tire frodto a stowage position under the vehicle while the vehicle is supported by a jack. Always tighten the tire fully against the underside of the vehicle when restowing.

Insert the chisel end of the wheel wrench, on an angle, into the hole in the rear bumper. Be sure the chisel end of the wheel wrench connects into the hoist shaft.

Turn the wheel wrench counterclockwise to lower the spare tire.

i Keep turning the

wheel wrench until the spare tire can be pulled out from under the vehicle.


When the tire has been completely lowered, tilt the retainer at the end of the cable and pull it through the wheel opening. Pull the tire out from under the vehicle.

NOTICE: To help avoid vehicle damage, do not drive vehicle before cable is restored.



Inside-Mounted Spare Tire (%Door Standard)

A. Spare Tire B . Retainer

(Two-wheel drive)

C. Nut D. Cover E. Retainer

(Four-wheel drive)

F. Wheel Carrier


Rear-Mounted Spare Tire (%Door Optional)

A. Wheel Carrier B. Spare Tire C. Wheel Nut and

Locking Nut Cylinder

Underbody-Mounted Spare Tire (&Door Standard)

A. Retainer B . Valve Stem

(Pointed Down)

C. Spare Tire D. Spring E. Wheel Wrench F. Lower G. Raise H. Hoist Asm

Changing the Tire Start with the jacking equipment. See “Jacking Equipment Storage” earlier in this section.


Turn the jackhandle clockwise. That will raise the jack lifthead a little.

Hub Caps and Wheel Nut Caps You will have to take off hub caps or wheel nut caps to reach your wheel nuts.

If you have individual wheel nut caps that cover each nut, they must be removed in order to get the wheel nuts. Use the socket end of the wheel wrench to remove the wheel nut caps.


Your wheel nut caps may attach your hub cap to the wheel. Remove rhese wheel nut caps before you take off the hub cap.

Some jack storage covers are equipped with a hub cap removal tool. Position the hub cap removal tool in the notch and pull straight away from the wheel to avoid potential damage to the hub cap and wheel painuwheel surface.

If you have an aluminum or plastic molded hub cap, pry it off with the chisel end of your wheel wrench.

Some of the molded plastic hub caps have imitation wheel nuts molded into them. The wheel wrench won’t fit these imitation nuts, so don’t try to remove them with the socket end of the wheel wrench.


Using the wheel wrench, loosen all the wheel nuts. Don’t remove them yet.

Do not jack up the vehicle with people in or near the vehicle. Position the jack under the vehicle.

A. Front Frame Hole B . Rear Frame Hole Your vehicle has a hole in the frame near each front wheel, as well as a hole in the spring hanger (for 4-door) and a hole in the frame (for 24oor) near each rear wheel for the jack. Fit the jack into the hole nearest the flat tire.


NOTICE: Raising your vehicle with the jack improperly positioned will damage the vehicle or may allow the vehicle to fall Be sure to fit the jack lift head into the proper location before raising your vehicle.

off the jack.


Raise the vehicle by turning the wheel wench clockwise. Raise the vehicle far enough off the ground so there is enough room for the spare tire to fit.



Take off the flat tire.

f, :

Remove any rust or dirt from the wheel bolts, mounting surfaces and spare wheel. Place the spare on the wheel mounting surface.

Put on the spare tire.


Put the nuts on by hand. Make sure the cone-shaped end is toward the wheel.

Tighten each nut by hand until the wheel is held against the hub. If a nut can’t be turned by hand, use the wheel wrench and see your dealer as soon as possible.

Lower the vehicle by turning the wheel wrench counterclockwise. Lower the jack completely.


Tightening Wheel Nut

Tightening Sequence

Use the wrench to tighten the wheel nuts firmly in a criss-cross sequence as shown. Remove the wheel blocks.

Storing the Jack and Spare Tire Return the jack, wheel wrench and wheel blocks to the proper location your vehicle’s rear area. Secure the items and replace the jack cover. Put the flat tire where the spare tire was stored. If you have the underbody carrier: 1. Put the tire on the ground at the rear of the vehicle, with the valve stem


pointed down and to the rear.

2. Pull the retaining bar through the wheel. 3. Put the chisel end of the wheel wrench, on an angle, through the hole in

the rear bumper and into the hoist shaft. Turn the wheel wrench clockwise until the tire is raised against the underside of the vehicle. You will hear two “clicks” when the tire is secure, but pull on the tire to make sure.


Reinstall the locking wheel nut using the wheel wrench. Then push the lock case onto the lug nut until it stops. The key does not have to be inserted into the lock. Push the lock case to be sure it The special lug nut and lock case is not wheel, only on the spare wheel carrier. If you have an rear-mounted spare tire carrier, tighten the nuts to 22 - 32 lb. ft. (30 - 40 N-m) torque.

is secured. intended to be used on any road

If You’re Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow What you don’t want to do when your vehicle is stuck is to spin your wheels too fast. The method known as “rocking” can help you get out when you’re stuck, but you must use caution.


NOTICE: Spinning your wheels can destroy parts of your vehicle as well as the tires. If you spin the wheels too fast while shifting your transmission back and forth, you can destroy your transmission.

see “Tire Chains”

For information about using tire chains on your vehicle, in the Index. Rocking your vehicle to get it out: First, turn your steering wheel left and right. That will clear the area around your front wheels. Then shift back and forth between REVERSE (R) and a forward gear (or with a manual transmission, between FIRST (1) or SECOND (2) gear and REVERSE), spinning the wheels as little as possible. Release the accelerator pedal while you shift, and press lightly on the accelerator pedal when the transmission is in gear. If that doesn’t get you out after a few tries, you may need to be towed out. Or, you can use your recovery hooks, if your vehicle has them. If you do need to be towed out, see “Towing Your Vehicle” in the Index. Using the Recovery Hooks

Your vehicle may be equipped with recovery hooks. The recovery hooks are provided at the front of your vehicle. You may need to use them if you’re stuck off-road and need to be pulled to some place where you can continue driving.



Never use the recovery hooks to tow the vehicle. Your vehicle could be damaged and it would not be covered by warranty.




Service & Appearance Care


Here you will find information about the care of your vehicle. This section begins with service and fuel infomation, and then it shows how to check important fluid and lubricant levels. There is also technical information about your vehicle, and a part devoted to its appearance care. Service Your GM dealer knows your vehicle best and wants you to be happy with it. We hope you’ll go to your dealer for all your service needs. You’ll get genuine GM parts and GM-trained and supported service people. We hope you’ll want to keep your GM vehicle have one of these marks:

all GM. Genuine GM parts


Doing Your Own Service Work If you want to do some of your own service work, you’ll want to get the proper GM Service Manual. It tells you much more about how to service your vehicle than this manual can. To order the proper service manual, see “Service Publications” in the Index. You should keep a record with all parts receipts and list the mileage and the date of any service work you perform. See “Maintenance Record” in the Index.


If you try to do your own service work without knowing enough about it, your vehicle could be damaged.

Fuel Use regular unleaded gasoline rated at 87 octane or higher. Use premium unleaded gasoline rated at 91 octane or higher for high power performance, when towing a trailer or with a high payload requirement. But when operating with a light load as a normal condition, you may use middle grade or regular unleaded gasolines.


The gasoline you use should meet specifications ASTM D4814 in the United States and CGSB 3.5-92 in Canada. These fuels should have the proper additives, so you should not have to add anything to the fuel. In the United States and Canada, it’s easy to be sure you get the right kind of gasoline (unleaded). You’ll see UNLEADED right on the pump. And only unleaded nozzles will fit into your vehicle’s filler neck. Be sure the posted octane is at least 91 for premium, 89 for middle grade and 87-for regular. If the octane is less than 87, you may get a heavy knocking noise when you drive. If it’s bad enough, it can damage your engine. If you’re using fuel rated at 91 octane or higher and you still hear heavy knocking, your engine needs service. But don’t worry if you hear a little pinging noise when you’re accelerating or driving up a hill. That’s normal, and you don’t have to buy a higher octane fuel to get rid of it. It’s the heavy, constant knock that means you have a problem. What about gasoline with blending materials that contain oxygen (oxygenates), such as MTBE or alcohol? MTBE is “methyl tertiary-butyl ether.” Fuel that is no more than 15% MTBE is fine for your vehicle. Ethanol is ethyl or grain alcohol. Properly-blended fuel that is no more than 10% ethanol is fine for your vehicle. Methanol is methyl or wood alcohol.

NOTICE: 1 Fuel that is more than 5% methanol is bad for your vehicle. I Don’t use it. It can corrode metal parts’in your fuel system and 1 also damage plastic and rubber parts. That damage wouldn’t be 1 covered under your warranty. And even at 5% or less, there

must be “cosolvents” and corrosion preventers in this fuel to help avoid these problems.


for cleaner air.

if their gasolines contain

Gasolines for Cleaner Air Your use of gasoline with deposit control additives will help prevent deposits from forming in your engine and fuel system. That helps keep your engine in tune and your emission control system working properly. It’s good for your vehicle, and you’ll be doing your part Many gasolines are now blended with oxygenates. General Motors recommends that you use gasolines with these blending materials, such as MTBE and ethanol. By doing so, you can help clean the air, especially in those parts of the country that have high carbon monoxide levels. In addition, some gasoline suppliers are now producing reformulated gasolines. These gasolines are specially designed to reduce vehicle emissions. General Motors recommends that you use reformulated gasoline. By doing so, you can help clean the air, especially in those parts of the country that have high ozone levels. You should ask your service station operators deposit control additives and oxygenates, and if they have been reformulated to reduce vehicle emissions. Fuels in Foreign Countries If you plan on driving in another country outside the U.S. or Canada, unleaded fuel may be hard to find. Do not use leaded gasoline. If you use even one tankful, your emission controls won’t work well or at all. With continuous use, spark plugs can get fouled, the exhaust system can corrode, and your engine oil can deteriorate quickly. Your vehicle’s oxygen sensor will be damaged. All of that means costly repairs that wouldn’t be covered by your warranty. To check on fuel availability, ask an auto club, or contact a major oil company that does business in the country where you’ll be driving. You can also write us at the following address for advice. Just tell us where you’re going and give your Vehicle Identification Number (VIN). General Motors Overseas Distribution Corporation North American Export Sales (NAES) 1908 Colonel Sam Drive Oshawa, Ontario L1H 8P7


Filling Your Tank I The fuel cap is behind a hinged door on the driver’s side of your vehicle.

While refueling, hang the cap inside the fuel door.

To take off the cap, turn it slowly to the left (counterclockwise).


Be careful not to spill gasoline. Clean gasoline from painted surfaces as soon as possible. See “Cleaning the Outside of Your Vehicle” in the Index.

NOTICE: If you need a new cap, be sure to get the right type. Your dealer can get one for you. If you get the wrong type, have proper venting, and your fuel tank and emissions system might be damaged.

it may not fit or

Checking Things Under the Hood To open the hood, first pull the handle inside the vehicle on the lower driver’s side of the instrument panel.

. ..


Then go to the front of the vehicle and release the secondary hood release.

Lift the hood, release the hood prop from its retainer and put the hood prop into the slot in the hood. You may have a light that comes on when you lift the hood.

Before closing the hood, be sure all the filler caps are on properly. Then lift the hood to relieve pressure on the hood Prop.


from the slot in the hood and return the