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while braking hard.

Let’s say the road is wet and you’re driving safely. Suddenly, an animal jumps out in front of you. You slam on the brakes and continue braking. Here’s what happens with ABS: A computer senses that wheels are slowing down. If one of the wheels is about to stop rolling, the computer will separately work the brakes at each wheel.


As you brake, your computer keeps receiving updates on wheel speed and controls braking pressure accordingly.

Remember: Anti-lock doesn’t change the time you need to get your foot up to the brake pedal or always decrease stopping distance. If you get too close to the vehicle in front of you, you won’t have time to apply your brakes if that vehicle suddenly slows or stops. Always leave enough room up ahead to stop, even though you have anti-lock brakes. Using Anti-Lock Don’t pump the brakes. Just hold the brake pedal down firmly and let anti-lock work for you. You may feel a slight brake pedal pulsation or notice some noise, but this is normal. Braking in Emergencies Ai some time, nearly every driver gets into a siiuation that requires hard braking. If you have anti-lock, you can steer and brake at the same time. However, if you don’t have anti-lock, your first reaction - to hit the brake pedal hard and

hold it down - may be the wrong thing to do. Your wheels can stop rolling. Once they do, the vehicle can’t respond to your steering. Momentum will carry it in whatever direction it was headed when the wheels stopped rolling. That could be off the road, into the very thing you were trying to avoid, or into traffic. If you don’t have anti-lock, use a “squeeze” braking technique. This will give you maximum braking while maintaining steering control. You can do this by pushing on the brake pedal with steadily increasing pressure. In an emergency, you will probably want to squeeze the brakes hard without locking the wheels. If you hear or feel the wheels sliding, ease off the brake pedal. This will help you retain steering control. If yolr do have anti-lock, it’s different. See “Anti-Lock Brakes.” In many emergencies, steering can help you more than even the very best braking.


Enhanced Traction System (ETS) Your vehicle may have an Enhanced Traction System (ETS) that limits wheel spin. This is especially useful in slippery road conditions. The system operates only if it senses that one or both of the front wheels are spinning or beginning to lose traction. When this happens, the system reduces engine power and may also upshift the transaxle to limit wheel spin.


This light will come on when your Enhanced Traction System is limiting wheel spin. See Enhanced Traction System Warning Light on page 3-33.

You may feel or hear the system working, but this is normal. If your vehicle is in cruise control when the enhanced traction system begins to limit wheel spin, the cruise control will automatically disengage. When road conditions allow you to safely use it again, you may re-engage the cruise control. See ‘Cruise Control” under Turn Signal/Multifunction Lever on page 3-5.

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The Enhanced Traction System operates in THIRD (3) and OVERDRIVE (@). If you are in THIRD (3), the

system can upshift the transaxle to OVERDRIVE (a).

The Enhanced Traction System is turned off in SECOND (2) or FIRST (1) gear. See Automatic Transaxle Operation on page 2-23.

When the system is on, this warning light will come on to let you know if there’s a problem.


See Enhanced Traction System Warning Light on page 3-33. When this warning light is on, the system will not limit wheel spin. Adjust your driving accordingly. To limit wheel spin, especially in slippery road conditions, you should always leave the Enhanced Traction System on. But you can turn the system off if you ever need to. You should turn the system off if your vehicle ever gets stuck in sand, mud or snow and rocking the vehicle is required. See “Rocking Your Vehicle To Get It Out” under If You Are Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow on page 4-31.

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To turn the system off, your gear shift lever must be in FIRST (1) or SECOND (2) gear. See “Rocking Your Vehicle To Get It Out” under If You Are Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow on page 4-31. When you turn the system off, the Enhanced Traction System warning light will come on and stay on. If the Enhanced Traction System is limiting wheel spin when you turn the system off, the warning light will come on - but the system won’t turn off right away. It will wait until there’s no longer a current need to limit wheel spin. Also, if you set the parking brake, the system will turn off. You can turn the system back on at any time by shifting to OVERDRIVE (@) or THIRD (3). The Enhanced Traction System warning light should go off.

Steering Power Steering If you lose power steering assist because the engine stops or the system is not functioning, you can steer but it will take much more Steering Tips Driving on Curves It’s important to take curves at a reasonable speed. A lot of the “driver lost control” accidents mentioned on the news happen on curves. Here’s why: Experienced driver or beginner, each of us is subject to the same laws of physics when driving on curves. The traction of the tires against the road surface makes it possible for the vehicle to change its path when you turn the front wheels. If there’s no traction, inertia will keep the vehicle going in the same direction. If you’ve ever tried to steer a vehicle on wet ice, you’ll nnderst2nd this. The traction you can get in a curve depends on the condition of your tires and the road surface, the angle at which the curve is banked, and your speed. While you’re in a curve, speed is the one factor you can control.

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Suppose you’re steering through a sharp curve. Then you suddenly accelerate. Both control systems - steering and braking - have to do their work where the tires meet the road. Unless you have four-wheel anti-lock brakes, adding the hard braking can demand too much of those places. You can lose control. The same thing can happen if you’re steering through a sharp curve and you suddenly accelerate. Those two control systems - steering and acceleration - can overwhelm those places where the tires meet the road and make you lose control. See Enhanced Traction System (ETS) on page 4- IO. What should you do if this ever happens? Ease up on the brake or accelerator pedal, steer the vehicle the way you want it to go, and slow down. Speed limit signs near curves warn that you should adjust your speed. Of course, the posted speeds are based on good weather and road conditions. Under less favorable conditions you’ll want to go slower. If you need to reduce your speed as you approach a curve, do it before you enter the curve, while your front wheels are straight ahead.

Try to adjust your speed so you can “drive” through the curve. Maintain a reasonable, steady speed. Wait to accelerate until you are out of the curve, and then accelerate gently into the straightaway. Steering in Emergencies There are times when steering can be more effective than braking. For example, you come over a hill and find a truck stopped in your lane, or a car suddenly pulls out from nowhere, or a child darts out from between parked cars and stops right in front of you. You can avoid these problems by braking - if you can stop in time. But sometimes you can’t; there isn’t room. That’s the time for evasive action - steering around the problem. Your vehicle can perform very well in emergencies like these. First apply your brakes - but, unless you have anti-lock, not enough to lock your wheels. See Braking on page 4-6. It is better to remove as much speed as you can from a possible collision. Then steer around the problem, to the left or right depending on the space available.

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Off -Road Recovery

You may find that your right wheels have dropped off the edge of a road onto the shoulder while you’re driving.

An emergency like this requires close attention and a quick decision. If you are holding the steering wheel at the recommended 9 and 3 o’clock positions, you can turn it a full 180 degrees very quickly without removing either hand. But you have to act fast, steer quickly, and just as quickly straighten the wheel once you have avoided the object. The fact that such emergency situations are always possible is a good reason to practice defensive driving at all times and wear safety belts properly.

If the level of the shoulder is only slightly below the pavement, recovery should be fairly easy. Ease off the accelerator and then, if there is nothing in the way, steer so that your vehicle straddles the edge of the pavement. You can turn the steering wheel up to one-quarter turn until the right front tire contacts the pa?/ement edge. The!? turn ynllr steering ?nthee! to go straight down the roadway.

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Passing The driver of a vehicle about to pass another on a two-lane highway waits for just the right moment, accelerates, moves around the vehicle ahead, then goes back into the right lane again. A simple maneuver? Not necessarily! Passing another vehicle on a two-lane highway is a potentially dangerous move, since the passing vehicle occupies the same lane as oncoming traffic for several seconds. A miscalculation, an error in judgment, or a brief surrender to frustration or anger can suddenly put the passing driver face to face with the worst of all traffic accidents - the head-on collision. So here are some tips for passing:

“Drive ahead.” Look down the road, to the sides and to crossroads for situations that might affect your passing patterns. If you have any doubt whatsoever about making a successful pass, wait for a better time. Watch for traffic signs, pavement markings and lines. If you can see a sign up ahead that might indicate a turn or an intersection, delay your pass. A broken center line usually indicates it’s all right to pass (providing the road ahead is clear). Never cross a solid line on your side of the lane or a double solid line, even if the road seems empty of approaching traffic.

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Do not get too close to the vehicle you want to pass while you’re awaiting an opportunity. For one thing, following too closely reduces your area of vision, especially if you’re following a larger vehicle. Also, you won’t have adequate space if the vehicle ahead suddenly slows or stops. Keep back a reasonable distance. When it looks like a chance to pass is coming up, start to accelerate but stay in the right lane and don’t get too close. Time your move so you will be increasing speed as the time comes to move into the other lane. If the way is clear to pass, you will have a “running start” that more than makes up for the distance you would lose by dropping back. And if something happens to cause you to cancel your pass, you need only slow down and drop back again and wait for another opportunity. If other vehicles are lined up to pass a slow vehicle, wait your turn. But take care that someone isn’t trying to pass you as you pull out to pass the slow vehicle. Remember to glance over your shoulder and check the blind spot.


Check your mirrors, glance over your shoulder, and start your left lane change signal before moving out of the right lane to pass. When you are far enough ahead of the passed vehicle to see its front in your inside mirror, activate your right lane change signal and move back into the right lane. (Remember that your right outside mirror is convex. The vehicle you just passed may seem to be farther away from you than it really is.) Try not to pass more than one vehicle at a time on two-lane roads. Reconsider before passing the next vehicle. Don’t overtake a slowly moving vehicle too rapidly. Even though the brake lamps are not flashing, it may be slowing down or starting to turn. If you’re being passed, make it easy for the following driver to get ahead of you. Perhaps you can ease a little to the right.

Loss of Control Let’s review what driving experts say about what happens when the three control systems (brakes, steering and acceleration) don’t have enough friction where the tires meet the road to do what the driver has asked.

In any emergency, don’t give up. Keep trying to steer and constantly seek an escape route or area of less danger. Skidding

In a skid, a driver can lose control of the vehicle. Defensive drivers avoid most skids by taking reasonable care suited to existing conditions, and by not “overdriving” those conditions. But skids are always possible. The three types of skids correspond to your vehicle’s three control systems. In the braking skid, your wheels aren’t rolling. In the steering or cornering skid, too much speed or steering in a curve causes tires to slip and lose cornering force. And in the acceleration skid, too much throttle causes the driving wheels to spin. A cornering skid and an acceleration skid are best handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal. If your vehicle starts to slide, ease your foot off the accelerator pedal and quickly steer the .way you want the vehicle to go. If you start steering quickly enough, your vehicle may straighten out. Always be ready for a second skid if it occurs.

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Of course, traction is reduced when water, snow, ice, gravel or other material is on the road. For safety, you’ll want to slow down and adjust your driving to these conditions. It is important to slow down on slippery surfaces because stopping distance will be longer ana vehicle control more limited. While driving on a surface with reduced traction, try your best to avoid sudden steering, acceleration or braking (including engine braking by shifting to a lower gear). Any sudden changes could cause the tires to slide. You may not realize the surface is slippery until your vehicle is skidding. Learn to recognize warning clues - such as enough water, ice or packed snow on the road to make a “mirrored surface” - and slow down when you have any doubt. If you have the anti-lock braking system, remember: It helps avoid only the braking skid. If you do not have anti-lock, then in a braking skid (where the wheels are no longer rolling), release enough pressure on the brakes to get the wheels rolling again. This restores steering control. Push the brake pedal down steadily when you have to stop suddenly. As long as the wheels are rolling, you will have steering control.

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Driving at Night

Night driving is more dangerous than day driving. One reason is that some drivers are likely to be impaired - by alcohol or drugs, with night vision problems, or by fatigue. Here are some tips on night driving.

Drive defensively. Don’t drink and drive.


Adjust your inside rearview mirror to reduce the glare from headlamps behind you. Since you can’t see as well, you may need to slow down and keep more space between you and other vehicles. Slow down, especially on higher speed roads. Your headlamps can light up only so much road ahead. In remote areas, watch for animals. If you’re tired, pull off the road in a safe place and rest.

No one can see as well at night as in the daytime. But as we get older these differences increase. A 50-year-old driver may require at least twice as much light to see the same thing at night as a 20-year-old. What you do in the daytime can also affect your night vision. For example, if you spend the day in bright sunshine you are wise to wear sunglasses. Your eyes will have less trouble adjusting to night. But if ynltre drivincj; don’t wear slmcjlasses at night. They may cut down on glare from headlamps, but they also make a lot of things invisible.

You can be temporarily blinded by approaching headlamps. It can take a second or two, or even several seconds, for your eyes to readjust to the dark. When you are faced with severe glare (as from a driver who doesn’t lower the high beams, or a vehicle with misaimed headlamps), slow down a little. Avoid staring directly into the approaching headlamps. Keep your windshield and all the glass on your vehicle clean - inside and out. Glare at night is made much worse by dirt on the glass. Even the inside of the glass can build up a film caused by dust. Dirty glass makes lights dazzle and flash more than clean glass would, making the pupils of your eyes contract repeatedly. Remember that y w r headfamps light LIP far !ess of a roadway when you are in a turn or curve. Keep your eyes moving; that way, it’s easier to pick out dimly lighted objects. Just as your headlamps should be checked regularly for proper aim, so should your eyes be examined regularly. Some drivers suffer from night blindness -the even aware of it.

inability to see in dim light - and aren’t

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Driving in Rain and on Wet Roads

And, if your tires don’t have much tread left, you’ll get even less traction. It’s always wise to go slower and be cautious if rain starts to fall while you are driving. The surface may get wet suddenly when your reflexes are tuned for driving on dry pavement. The heavier the rain, the harder it is to see. Even if your windshield wiper blades are in good shape, a heavy rain can make it harder to see road signs and traffic signals, pavement markings, the edge of the road and even people walking. It’s wise to keep your windshield wiping equipment in good shape and keep your windshield washer tank filled with washer fluid. Replace your windshield wiper inserts when they show signs of streaking or missing areas on the windshield, or when strips of rubber start to separate from the inserts.

Rain and wet roads can mean driving trouble. On a wet road, you can’t stop, accelerate or turn as well because your tire-to-road traction isn’t as good as on dry roads.

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Driving too fast through large water puddles or even going through some car washes can cause problems, too. The water may affect your brakes. Try to avoid - . , J A I L - D . . + :g .,^.. --.-,A ~ U U U I G D . uul 1 1 y w u G a l I L, L I Y LW DIUVV UUVVI hit them.

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Wet brakes can cause ac,,dents. They won’t work as well in a quick stop and may cause pulling to one side. You could lose control of the vehicle. After driving through a large puddle of water or a car wash, apply your brake pedal lightly until your brakes work normally.

Hydroplaning - Hydroplaning is dangerous. So much water can build up under your tires that they can actually ride on the water. This can happen if the road is wet enough and you’re going fast enough. When your vehicle is hydroplaning, it has little or no contact with the road.

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Hydroplaning doesn’t happen often. But it can if your tires do not have much tread or if the pressure in one or more is low. It can happen if a lot of water is standing on the road. If you can see reflections from trees, telephone poles or other vehicles, and raindrops “dimple” the water’s surface, there could be hydroplaning. Hydroplaning usually happens at higher speeds. There just isn’t a hard and fast rule about hydroplaning. The best advice is to slow down when it is raining. Driving Through Deep Standing Water Nofice: If you drive too quickly through deep puddles or standing water, water can come in through your engine’s air intake and badly damage your engine. Never drive through water that is slightly lower than the underbody of your vehicle. If you can’t avoid deep puddles or standing water, drive through them very slowly.

Driving Through Flowing Water

Flov ....g or rushing water creates strc.., .,rces. If you try to drive through flowing water, as you might at a low water crossing, your vehicle can be carried away. As little as six inches of flowing water can carry away a smaller vehicle. If this happens, you and other vehicle occupants could drown. Don’t ignore police warning signs, and otherwise be very cautious about trying to drive through flowing water.

Some Other Rainy Weather Tips

Besides slowing down, allow some extra following distance. And be especially careful when you pass another vehicle. Allow yourself more clear room ahead, and be prepared to have your view restricted by road spray. Have good tires with proper tread depth. See Tires on page 5-57.


City Driving

One of the biggest problems with city streets is the ^_^.._ & ^Z L..-ff:- Q1IIUUIIL U I LICLIIIL U I I Lllelll. I U U II W d l I l tu W d l t i I I vu1 IUI -..l r - . . what the other drivers are doing and pay attention to traffic signals.

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Here are ways to increase your safety in city driving:

Know the best way to get to where you are going. Get a city map and plan your trip into an unknown part of the city just as you would for a cross-country trip. Try to use the freeways that rim and crisscross most large cities. You’ll save time and energy. See the next part, “Freeway Driving.” Treat a green light as a warning signal. A traffic light is there because the corner is busy enough to need it. When a light turns green, and just before you start to move, check both ways for vehicles that have not cleared the intersection or may be running the red light.

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Freeway Driving

Mile for mile, freeways (also called thruways, parkways, expressways, turnpikes or superhighways) are the safest of all roads. But they have their own special rules.


The most important advice on freeway driving is: Keep up with traffic and keep to the right. Drive at the same speed most of the other drivers are driving. Too-fast or too-slow driving breaks a smooth traffic flow. Treat the left lane on a freeway as a passing lane. At the entrance, there is usually a ramp that leads to the freeway. If you have a clear view of the freeway as you drive along the entrance ramp, you should begin to check traffic. Try to determine where you expect to blend with the flow. Try to merge into the gap at close to the prevailing speed. Switch on your turn signal, check your mirrors and glance over your shoulder as often as necessary. Try to blend smoothly with the traffic flow. Once you are on the freeway, adjust your speed to the posted limit or to the prevailing rate if it’s slower. Stay in the right lane unless you want to pass. Before changing lanes, check your mirrors. Then use your turn signal. Just before you leave the lane, glance quickly over your shoulder to make sure there isn’t another vehicle in your “blind” spot.

Once you are moving on the freeway, make certain you allow a reasonable following distance. Expect to move slightly slower at night. When you want to leave the freeway, move to the proper lane well in advance. If you miss your exit, do not, under any circumstances, stop and back up. Drive on to the next exit. The exit ramp can be curved, sometimes quite sharply. The exit speed is usually posted. Reduce your speed according to your speedometer, not to your sense of motion. After driving for any distance at higher speeds, you may tend to think you are going slower than you actually are. Before Leaving on a Long Trip Make sure you’re ready. Try to be well rested. If you must start when you’re not fresh - such as after a day’s work - don’t plan to make too many miles that first part of the journey. Wear comfortable clothing and shoes you can easily drive in. Is your vehicle ready for a long trip? If you keep it serviced and maintained, it’s ready to go. If it needs service, have it done before starting out. Of course,

you’ll find experienced and able service experts in dealerships all across North America. They’ll be ready and willing to help if you need it. Here are some things you can check before a trip: Windshield Washer Fluid: Is the reservior full? Are all windows clean inside and outside? Wiper Blades: Are they in good shape? Fuel, Engine Oil, Other Fluids: Have you checked all levels? Lamps: Are they all working? Are the lenses clean? Tires: They are vitally important to a safe, trouble-free trip. Is the tread good enough tor long-distance driving? Are the tires all inflated to the recommended pressure? Weather Forecasts: What’s the weather outlook along your route? Should you delay your trip a short time to avoid a major storm system? Maps: Do you have up-to-date maps?


Hill and Mountain Roads

Driving on steep hills or mountains is different from driving in flat or rolling terrain.

Highway Hypnosis Is there actually such a condition as “highway hypnosis”? Or is it just plain falling asleep at the wheel? Call it highway hypnosis, lack of awareness, or whatever. There is something about an easy stretch of road with the same scenery, along with the hum of the tires on the road, the drone of the engine, and the rush of the wind against the vehicle that can make you sleepy. Don’t let it happen to you! If it does, your vehicle can leave the road in less than a second, and you could crash and be injured. What can you do about highway hypnosis? First, be aware that it can happen. Then here are some tips:

Make sure your vehicle is well ventilated, with a comfortably cool interior. Keep your eyes moving. Scan the road ahead and to the sides. Check your rearview mirrors and your instruments frequently. If you get sleepy, pull off the road into a rest, service or parking area and take a nap, get some exercise, or both. For safety, treat drowsiness on the highway as an emergency.


If you drive regularly in steep country, or if you’re planning to visit there, here are some tips that can make your trips safer and more enjoyable.

Keep your vehicle in good shape. Check all fluid levels and also the brakes, tires, cooling system and transaxle. These parts can work hard on mountain roads. Know how to go down hills. The most important thing to know is this: let your engine do some of the slowing down. Shift to a lower gear when you go down a steep or long hill.

If you don’t -..... down, your brakes could get so hot that they wouldn’t work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Shift down to let your engine assist your brakes on a steep aownniii slope.

Coasting downhi,, In hLJTRAL (N) or with the ignition off is dangerous. Your brakes will have to do all the work of slowing down. They could get so hot that they wouldn’t work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Always have your engine running and your vehicle in gear when you go downhill.

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to a lower gear. The lower gears help cool your engine and transaxle, and you can climb the hill better.

0 Stay in your own lane when driving on two-lane roads in hills or mountains. Don’t swing wide or cut across the center of the road. Drive at speeds that let you stay in your own lane.


Winter Driving

As you go over the top of a hill, be alert. There could be something in vour lane, like a stalled car or an accident. You may see highway signs on mountains that warn of special problems. Examples are long grades, passing or no-passing zones, a falling rocks area or winding roads. Be alert to these and take appropriate action.

Here are some tips for winter driving:

Have your vehicle in good shape for winter.

0 You may want to put winter emergency supplies in

your trunk.


Driving on Snow or Ice Most of the time, those places where your tires meet the road probably have good traction. However, if there is snow or ice between your tires and the road, you can have a very slippery situation. You’ll have a lot less traction or “grip” and will need to be very careful.

Include an ice scraper, a small brush or broom, a supply of windshield washer fluid, a rag, some winter outer clothing, a small shovel, a flashlight, a red cloth and a couple of reflective warning triangies. Ana, ii you will be driving under severe conditions, include a small bag of sand, a piece of old carpet or a couple of burlap bags to help provide traction. Be sure you properly secure these items in your vehicle.


What’s the worst time for this? “Wet ice.” Very cold snow or ice can be slick and hard to drive on. But wet ice can be even more trouble because it may offer the least traction of all. You can get wet ice when it’s about freezing (32°F; OOC) and freezing rain begins to fall. Try to avoid driving on wet ice until salt and sand crews can get there. Whatever the condition - smooth ice, packed, blowing or loose snow - drive with caution. If your vehicle has the Enhanced Traction System, keep the system on. It will improve your ability to accelerate when driving on a slippery road. Even though your vehicle has this system, you’ll want to slow down and adjust your driving to the road conditions. See Enhanced Traction System (ETS) on page 4- 10. Unless you have the anti-lock braking system, you’ll want to brake very gently, too. If you do have anti-lock, see Braking on page 4-6. This system improves your vehicle’s stability when you make a hard stop on a slippery road.) Whether you have the anti-lock braking system or not, you’ll want to begin stopping sooner than you would on dry pavement. Without anti-lock brakes,

if you feel your vehicle begin to slide, let up on the brakes a little. Push the brake pedal down steadily to get the most traction you can. Remember, unless you have anti-lock, if you brake so hard that your wheels stop rolling, you’ll just slide. Brake so your wheels always keep rolling and you can still steer.

Whatever your braking system, allow greater following distance on any slippery road. Watch for slippery spots. The road might be fine until you hit a spot that’s covered with ice. On an otherwise clear road, ice patches may appear in shaded areas where the sun can’t reach: around clumps of trees, behind buildings or under bridges. Sometimes the surface of a curve or an overpass may remain icy when the surrounding roads are clear. If you see a patch of ice ahead of you, brake before you are on it. Try not to brake while you’re actually on the ice, and avoid sudden steering maneuvers.


If You’re Caught in a Blizzard

Put on extra clothing or wrap a blanket around you. If you have no blankets or extra clothing, make body insulators from newspapers, burlap bags, rags, floor mats - anything you can wrap around yourself or tuck under your clothing to keep warm.

If you are stopped by heavy snow, you could be in a e $ r i n ~ ~it~?t]nn. VQIJ S ~ Q I J ! ~ prnhahly stay with your vehicle unless you know for sure that you are near help and you can hike through the snow. Here are some things to do to summon help and keep yourself and your passengers safe: 0 Turn on your hazard flashers.

Tie a red cloth to your vehicle to alert police that you’ve been stopped by the snow.

You can run the engine to keep warm, but be careful.


Snow can trap exhaust gases under your vehicle. This can cause deadly CO (carbon monoxide) gas to get inside. CO could overcome you and kill you. You can’t see it or smell it, so you might not know it is in your vehicle. Clear away snow from around the base of your vehicle, especially any that is blocking your exhaust pipe. And check around again from time to time to be sure snow doesn’t collect there. Open a window just a little on the side of the vehicle that’s away from the wind. This will help keep CO out.

Run your engine only as long as you must. This saves fuel. When you run the engine, make it go a little faster than just idle. That is, push the accelerator slightly. This uses less fuel for the heat that you get and it keeps the battery charged. You will need a well-charged battery to restart the vehicle, and possibly for signaling later on with your headlamps. Let the heater run for a while. Then, shut the engine off and close the window almost all the way to preserve the heat. Start the engine again and repeat this only when you feel really uncomfortable from the cold. But do it as little as possible. Preserve the fuel as long as you can. To help keep warm, you can get out of the vehicle and do some fairly vigorous exercises every half hour or so until help comes.


If You Are Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow In order to free your vehicle when it is stuck, you will need to spin the wheels, but you don’t want to spin your wheels too fast. The method known as “rocking” can help you get out when you’re stuck, but you must use caution.

If you let your tires spin at high speed, ,.ley can explode, and you or others could be injured. And, the transaxle or other parts of the vehicle can overheat. That could cause an engine compartment fire or other damage. When you’re stuck, spin the wheels as little as possible. Don’t spin the wheels above 35 mph (55 km/h) as shown on the speeaomeier.

Notice: Spinning your wheels can destroy parts of your vehicle as well as the tires. If you spin the wheels too fast while shifting your transaxle back and forth, you can destroy your transaxle. See “Rocking Your Vehicle To Get It Out.” For information about using tire chains on your vehicle. see Tire Chains on page 5-66. Rocking Your Vehicle To Get It Out First, turn your steering wheel left and right. That will clear the area around your front wheels. If you have the Enhanced Traction System, you should turn the system off. See Enhanced Traction System (ETS) on page 4-70. Then shift back and forth between REVERSE (F?) yrl F!RST (1) or SECOND (2) gear. The Enhanced Traction System will be turned off in FIRST (1) or SECOND (2) gear. Spin the wheels as little as possible. Release the accelerator pedal while you shift, and press lightly on the accelerator pedal when the transaxle is in gear. By slowly spinning your wheels in the forward and reverse directions, you will cause a .-- -- --. . rnntinn th-t m-11 fraa I I A I I ~ \~nhipln !f that rlnpcn’f v~-l,;-- I U~I\lllLJ I I l U L l V l I ,I , u s 8 I vuy I , ”V y vu. .”I I ‘ V I V . get you out after a few tries, you may need to be towed out. If you do need to be towed out, see “Towing Your Vehicle” following.


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Towing Your Vehicle Consult your dealer or a professional towing service if you need to have your disabled vehicle towed. See Roadside Assistance Program on page 7-5. If you want to tow your vehicle behind another vehicle for recreational purposes (such as behind a motorhome), see “Recreational Vehicle Towing” following. Recreational Vehicle Towing Recreational vehicle towing means towing your vehicle behind another vehicle - such as behind a motorhome. The two most common types of recreational vehicle towing are known as “dinghy towing” (towing your vehicle with all four wheels on the ground) and “dolly towing” (towing your vehicle with two wheels on the ground and two wheels up on a device known as a “dolly”). With the proper preparation and equipment, many vehicles can be towed in these ways. See “Dinghy Towing” and “Dolly Towing,” following.

Here are some important things to consider before you do recreational vehicle towing:

What’s the towing capacity of the towing vehicle? Be sure you read the tow vehicle manufacturer’s recommendations. How far will you tow? Some vehicles have restrictions on how far and how long they can tow. Do you have the proper towing equipment? See your dealer or trailering professional for additional advice and equipment recommendations. Is your vehicle ready to be towed? Just as you would prepare your vehicle for a long trip, you’ll want to make sure your vehicle is prepared to be towed. See Before Leaving on a Long Trip on page 4-23.

Dinghy Towing Notice: Towing your vehicle with all four wheels on the ground will damage drivetrain components. Your vehicle was not designed to be towed with all four wheels on the ground. If your vehicle must be towed, you should use a dolly. See “Dolly Towing” following for more information.


Dolly Towing

Loading Your Vehicle





KW 4


Your vehicle can be towed using a dolly. To tow your vehicle using a dolly, follow these steps:

1. Put the front wheels on the dolly. 2. Put the vehicle in PARK (Pi. 3. Set the parking brake and then remove the key. 4. Clamp the steering wheel in a straight-ahead


5. Release the parking brake.

Two labels on your vehicle show how much weight it may properly carry. The Tire-Loading Information label is inside the trunk lid. The label tells you the proper size, speed rating and recommended inflation pressures for the tires on your vehicle. It also gives you important information about the number of people that can be in your vehicle and the total weight you can carry. This weight is called the vehicle capacity weight and includes the weight of all occupants, cargo and all irnPtnIIAA An?t.;nnc I IUI l l a u u l y-II I a L a : # G u u p r l v l i r 3 .

- , . m f n n t n W n #


1 s]




nEIl m


k T l d

The other label is the Certification label, found on the rear edge of the driver’s door. It tells you the gross weight capacity of your vehicle, called the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR). The GVWR includes the weight of the vehicle, all occupants, fuel and cargo. Never exceed the GVWR for your vehicle or the Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) for either the front or rear axle. If you do have a heavy load, spread it out. Don’t carry more than 167 Ibs (75 kg) in your trunk.


Do not load your vehicle any heavier than the GVWR, or either the maximum front or rear GAWR. If you do, parts on your vehicle can break, and it can change the way your vehicle handles. These could cause you to lose control and crash. Also, overloading can shorten the life of your vehicle.

Notice: Your warranty does not cover parts or components that fail because of overloading. If you put things inside your vehicle - like suitcases, tools, packages or anything else - they will go as fast as the vehicle goes. If you have to stop or turn quickly, or if there is a crash, they’ll keep going.

Things you put inside your vehicle can strike and injure people in a sudden stop or turn, or in a crash.

0 Put things in the trunk of your vehicle. In a trunk, put them as far forward as you can. Try to spread the weight evenly. Never stack heavier things, like suitcases, inside the vehicle so that some of them are above the tops of the seats.

0 Don’t leave an unsecured child restraint in

your vehlcie.

0 When you carry something inside the vehicle, secure it whenever you can.

0 Don’t leave a seat folded down unless you

need to.

Towing a Trailer

the correct equipment and

If you don’t u drive properly, you can lose control when you pull a trailer. For example, if the trailer is too heavy, the brakes may not work well -- or even at all. You and your passengers could be seriously injured. You may also damage your vehicle; the resulting repairs would not be covered by your warranty. Pull a trailer only if you have foilowed aii the steps in this sectioii. Ask your dealer for advice and information about towing a trailer with your vehicle.

Your vehicle can tow a trailer if it is equipped with the proper trailer towing equipment. To identify what ine venicie iraiieriny c;apac;iiy is iur yuur vt.ikIick, YOU should read the information in “Weight of the Trailer” that appears later in this section. But trailering is different than just driving your vehicle by itself. Trailering means changes in handling, durability and fuel economy. Successful, safe trailering takes correct equipment, and it has to be used properly.


That’s the reason for this part. In it are many time-tested, important trailering tips and safety rules. Many of these are important for your safety and that of your passengers. So please read this section carefully before you pull a trailer. Load-pulling components such as the engine, transaxle, wheel assemblies and tires are forced to work harder against the drag of the added weight. The engine is required to operate at relatively higher speeds and under greater loads, generating extra heat. What’s more, the trailer adds considerably to wind resistance, increasing the pulling requirements. If You Do Decide To Pull A Trailer If you do, here are some important points:

There are many different laws, including speed limit restrictions, having to do with trailering. Make sure your rig will be legal, not only where you live but also where you’ll be driving. A good source for this information can be state or provincial police. Consider using a sway control. You can ask a hitch dealer about sway controls. Don’t tow a trailer at all during the first 1,000 miles (1 600 km) your new vehicle is driven. Your engine, axle or other parts could be damaged.

Then, during the first 500 miles (800 km) that you tow a trailer, don’t drive over 50 mph (80 km/h) and don’t make starts at full throttle. This helps your engine and other parts of your vehicle wear in at the heavier loads.

0 Obey speed limit restrictions when towing a trailer. Don’t drive faster than the maximum posted speed for trailers, or no more than 55 mph (90 km/h), to save wear on your vehicle’s parts.

Three important considerations have to do with weight:

the weight of the trailer, the weight of the trailer tongue and the total weight on your vehicle’s tires.

Weight of the Trailer How heavy can a trailer safely be? It should never weigh more than 1,000 Ibs (450 kg). But even that can be too heavy. It depends on how you plan to use your rig. For example, speed, altitude, road grades, outside temperature and how much your vehicle is used to pull a trailer are all important. And, it can also depend on any special equipment that you have on your vehicle.


You can ask your dealer for our trailering information or advice, or you can write us at: Buick Customer Assistance Center P.O. Box 33136 Detroit, MI 48232-51 36 In Canada, write to: General Motors of Canada Limited Customer Communication Centre, 163-005 1908 Colonel Sam Drive Oshawa, Ontario L1 H 8P7 Weight of the Trailer Tongue The tongue lead (A) ef any trai!er is ar! important weight to measure because it affects the total or gross weight of your vehicle. The Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) includes the curb weight of the vehicle, any cargo you may carry in it, and the people who will be riding in the vehicle. And if you tow a trailer, you must add the tongue load to the GVW because your vehicle will be carrying that weight, too. See Loadmg Your Vehicle on page 4-33 for more information about your vehicle’s maximum load capacity.

If you’re using a weight-carrying hitch or a weight-distributing hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 10-15 percent of the total loaded trailer weight (6). After you’ve loaded your trailer, weigh the trailer and then the tongue: separately, to see if the weights are proper. If they aren’t, you may be able to get them right simply by moving some items around in the trailer.


Safety Chains You should always attach chains between your vehicle and your trailer. Cross the safety chains under the tongue of the trailer so that the tongue will not drop to the road if it becomes separated from the hitch. Instructions about safety chains may be provided by the hitch manufacturer or by the trailer manufacturer. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendation for attaching safety chains and do not attach them to the bumper. Always leave just enough slack so you can turn with your rig. And, never allow safety chains to drag on the ground. Trailer Brakes Because you have anti-lock brakes, do not try to tap into your vehicle’s brake system. If you do, both brake systems won’t work well, or at all.

Total Weight on Your Vehicle’s Tires Be sure your vehicle’s tires are inflated to the upper limit for cold tires. You’ll find these numbers on the Tire-Loading Information label (found inside the trunk lid) or see Loading Your Vehicle on page 4-33. Then be sure you don’t go over the GVW limit for your vehicle, including the weight of the trailer tongue. Hitches It’s important to have the correct hitch equipment. Crosswinds, large trucks going by and rough roads are a few reasons why you’ll need the right hitch. Here are some rules to follow:

The rear bumper on your vehicle is not intended for hitches. Do not attach rental hitches or other bumper-type hitches to it. Use only a frame-mounted hitch that does not attach to the bumper. Will you have to make any holes in the body of your vehicle when you install a trailer hitch? If you do, then be sure to seal the holes later when you remove the hitch. If you don’t seal them, deadly carbon monoxide (CO) from your exhaust can get into your vehicle. See Engine Exhaust on page 2-30. Dirt and water can, too.


Driving with a Trailer

Towing a trailer requires a certain amount of experience. Before setting out for the open road, you’ll want to get to know your rig. Acquaint yourself with the feel of handling and braking with the added weight of the trailer. And always keep in mind that the vehicle you are driving is now a good deal longer and not nearly as responsive as your vehicle is by itself. Before you start, check the trailer hitch and platform (and attachments), safety chains, electrical connector, lamps, tires and mirror adjustment. If the trailer has electric brakes, start your vehicle and trailer moving and then apply the trailer brake controller by hand to be sure the brakes are working. This lets you check your electrical connection at the same time. During your trip, check occasionally to be sure that the load is secure, and that the lamps and any trailer brakes are still working. Foiiowing uIsLarlce n!-l-._ - - Stay at least twice as far behind the vehicle ahead as you would when driving your vehicle without a trailer. This can help you avoid situations that require heavy braking and sudden turns.

Passing You’ll need more passing distance up ahead when you’re towing a trailer. And, because you’re a good deal longer, you’ll need to go much farther beyond the passed vehicle before you can return to your lane. Backing Up Hold the bottom of the steering wheel with one hand. Then, to move the trailer to the left, just move that hand to the left. To move the trailer to the right, move your hand to the right. Always back up slowly and, if possible, have someone guide you. Making Turns Notice: Making very sharp turns while trailering could cause the trailer to come in contact with the vehicle. Your vehicle could be damaged. Avoid making very sharp turns while trailering. When you’re turning with a trailer, make wider turns than normal. Do this so your trailer won’t strike soft shoulders, curbs, road signs, trees or other objects. Avoid jerky or sudden maneuvers. Signal well in advance.


If you are towing a trailer, you may want to drive in THIRD (3) instead of AUTOMATIC OVERDRIVE Shift to a lower gear as needed.


You really should not park your vehicle, with a trailer attached, on a hill. If something goes wrong, your rig could start to move. People can be injured, and both your vehicle and the trailer can be damaged.

But if you ever have to park your rig on a hill, here's how to do it: 1. Apply your regular brakes, but don't shift into

PARK (P) yet.

2. Have someone place chocks under the trailer's


Turn Signals When Towing a Trailer When you tow a trailer, your vehicle may need a different turn signal flasher and/or extra wiring. Check with your dealer. The arrows on your instrument panel will flash whenever you signal a turn or lane change. Properly hooked up, the trailer lamps will also flash, telling other drivers you're about to turn, change lanes or stop. When towing a trailer, the arrows on your instrument panel will flash for turns even if the bulbs on the trailer are burned out. Thus, you may think drivers behind you are seeing your signal when they are not. It's important to check occasionally to be sure the trailer bulbs are still working. Driving On Grades Reduce speed and shift to a lower gear before you start down a long or steep downgrade. If you don't shift down, you might have to use your brakes so much that they would get hot and no longer work well. On a long uphill grade, shift down and reduce your speed to around 45 mph (70 km/h) to reduce the possibility of engine and transaxle overheating.


3. When the wheel chocks are in place, release the regular brakes until the chocks absorb the load.

4. Reapply the regular brakes. Then apply your

parking brake, and shift to PARK (P).

5. Release the regular brakes. When You Are Ready to Leave After Parking on a Hill 1. Apply your regular brakes and hold the pedal down

while you: e start your engine,

shift into a gear, and

e release the parking brake.

2. Let up on the brake pedal. 3. Drive slowly until the trailer is clear of the chocks. 4. Stop and have someone pick up and store the


Maintenance When Trailer Towing Your vehicle will need service more often when you’re pulling a trailer. See the Maintenance Schedule for more on this. Things that are especially important in trailer operation are automatic transaxle fluid (don’t overfill), engine oil, drive belt, cooling system and brake system. Each of these is covered in this manual, and the Index will help you find them quickly. If you’re trailering, it’s a good idea to review this information before you start your trip. Check periodically to see that all hitch nuts and bolts are tight. Engine Cooling When Trailer Towing Your cooling system may temporarily overheat during severe operating conditions. See Engine Overheating on page 5-25.

4-4 1


Section 5

Service and Appearance Care

Service ...........................................

Doing Your Own Service Work Adding Equipment to the Outside of


...... 5.3 ..... 5.4


Your Vehicle .............................................. 5-4 fuel ............................................................... -5-5 Gasoline Octane ............................................ 5-5 Gasoline Specifications .................................... 5.5 California Fuel ............................................... 5.6 Additives ....................................................... 5.6 Fuels in Foreign Countries ............................... 5.7 Filling Your Tank ............................................ 5.7 Filling a Portable Fuei Container

3-3 r n Checking Things Under the Hood .................... 5-10 Hood Release .............................................. 5-11 Engine Compartment Overview ....................... 5-12 Engine Oil .................................................. -5-1 3 Engine Air Cleaner/Filter ................................ 5-18 Automatic Transaxle Fluid .............................. 5.19 Engine Coolant ............................................. 5.22 Radiator Pressure Cap .................................. 5-25 Engine Overheating ....................................... 5-25 Cooling System ............................................ 5-28 Power Steering Fluid .................................... 5 3 5 .- 6-37 Windshield Washer !=!L!id ............................... Brakes .................................................... 5.38

Battery ....................................................... -5-42 Jump Starting ............................................... 5-43 Headlamp Aiming ........................................... 5-49 Bulb Replacement ... ................................ 5.5 1 Halogen Bulbs .............................................. 5-51 Headlamps .................................................. 5.51 Front Turn Signal and Parking Lamps .............. 5-52 Center High-Mounted Stoplamp (CHMSL) ......... 5.53 Taillamps, Turn Signal, and Stoplamps ............ 5.54 Back-up Lamps ............................................ 5-55 Replacement Bulbs ....................................... 5.55 Windshield Wiper Blade Replacement .............. 5.56 Tires .............................................................. 5.57 Inflation .. Tire Pressure ................................ 5.57 Tire Pressure Monitor System ......................... 5.58 Tire Inspection and Rotation ........................... 5.60 When It ......... 5.61 ..... K X 3 Ru\\'inn " " L Uniform Tire Quality Grading .......... ..... 5.63 Wheel Alignment and Tire Balance .................. 5-64 Wheel Replacement ...................................... 5.64 Tire Chains .................................................. 5-66 If a Tire Goes Flat ........................................ 5.66 Changing a Flat Tire ..................................... i)-u/ K C 7 Compact Spare Tire ...................................... 5.78

Tires ... J " 3 ?!e?.! Tires ..........................

Is Time for New

5- 1

Section 5

Service and Appearance Care

Appearance Care .................................... Cleaning the Inside of Your Vehicle ......... Care of Safety Belts .............................. Weatherstrips ....................................... Cleaning the Outside of Your Vehicle ...... Sheet Metal Damage ............................. Finish Damage ..................................... Underbody Maintenance ........................ Chemical Paint Spotting ......................... GM Vehicle Care/Appearance Materials ...

Vehicle Identification


Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) ......... Service Parts Identification Label .............

Electrical System ...........................................

-5-88 Add-on Electrical Equipment .......................... 5-88 Headlamp Wiring .......................................... 5-88 ................................ 5-88 Windshield Wiper Fuses ....... 5-88 Power Windows and Other Power Options Fuses and Circuit Breakers ............................ 5-89 ...... 5-94 Capacities and Specifications ..................... 5-94

Capacities and Specifications ............

Normal Maintenance Replacement Parts .......... 5.95 .......... 5.95

Normal Maintenance Replacement Parts

..... 5.79 ..... 5.79 ..... 5.82 ..... 5.82 ..... 5.82 ..... 5.84 ..... 5.84 ..... 5.85 ..... 5.85 ..... 5.85 ..... 5.87 .... -5-87 ..... 5.87


Service Your dealer knows your vehicle best and wants you to be happy with it. We hope you’ll go to your dealer for all your service needs. You’ll get genuine GM parts and GM-trained and supported service people.

We hope you’ll want to keep your GM vehicle all GM. Genuine GM parts have one of these marks:


Doing Your Own Service Work If you want to do some of your own service work, you’ll want to use the proper service manual. It tells you much more about how to service your vehicle than this manual can. To order the proper service manual, see Service Publications Ordering Information on page 7- IO. Your vehicle has an air bag system. Before attempting to do your own service work, see Servicing Your Air Bag-Equipped Vehicle on page 1-62. You should keep a record with all parts receipts and list the mileage and the date of any service work you perform. See Part E: Maintenance Record on page 6- 17.


You can be injured and your vehicle could be damaged if you try to do service work on a vehicle without knowing enough about it.

Be sure you have sufficient knowledge, experience, the proper replacement parts and tools before you attempt any vehicle maintenance task. Be sure to use the proper nuts, bolts and other fasteners. “English” and “metric” fasteners can be easily confused. If you use the wrong fasteners, parts can later break or fall off. You could be hurt.

Adding Equipment to the Outside of Your Vehicle Things you might add to the outside of your vehicle can affect the airflow around it. This may cause wind noise and affect windshield washer performance. Check with your dealer before adding equipment to the outside of your vehicle.

Use of the recommended fuel is an important part of the proper maintenance of your vehicle. Gasoline Octane Use regular unleaded gasoline with a posted octane of 87 or higher. If the octane is less than 87, you may get a heavy knocking noise when you drive. If this occurs, use a gasoline rated at 87 octane or higher as soon as possible. Otherwise, you might damage your engine. A little pinging noise when you accelerate or drive uphill is considered normal. This does not indicate a problem exists nr that a higher-~cfme fue! is necessary. If you are using 87 octane or higher-octane fuel and hear heavy knocking, your engine needs service.

Gasoline Specifications It is recommended that gasoline meet specifications which were developed by the American Automobile Manufacturers Association and endorsed by the Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers Association for better vehicle performance and engine protection. Gasoline meeting these specifications could provide improved driveability and emission control system performance compared to other gasoline.

In Canada, look for the "Auto Makers' Choice" label on the pump.

Canada Only


General Motors recommends that you use these gasolines, particularly if they comply with the specifications described earlier.

Notices Your vehicle was not designed for fuel that contains methanol. Don’t use fuel containing methanol. It can corrode metal parts in your fuel system and also damage the plastic and rubber parts. That damage wouldn’t be covered under your warranty. Some gasolines that are not reformulated for low emissions may contain an octane-enhancing additive called methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT); ask the attendant where you buy gasoline whether the fuel contains MMT. General Motors does not recommend the use of such gasolines. Fuels containing MMT can reduce the life of spark plugs and the performance of the emission control system may be affected. The malfunction indicator lamp may turn on. If this occurs, return to your authorized GM dealer for service.

California Fuel If your vehicle is certified to meet California Emission Standards (see the underhood emission control label), it is designed to operate on fuels that meet California specifications. If this fuel is not available in states adopting California emissions standards, your vehicle will operate satisfactorily on fuels meeting federal specifications, but emission control system performance may be affected. The malfunction indicator lamp may turn on (see Malfunction lndicator Lamp on page 3-36) and your vehicle may fail a smog-check test. If this occurs, return to your authorized GM dealer for diagnosis. If it is determined that the condition is caused by the type of fuel used, repairs may not be covered by your warranty. Additives To provide cleaner air, all gasolines in the United States are now required to contain additives that will help prevent engine and fuel system deposits from forming, allowing your emission control system to work properly. You should not have to add anything to your fuel. Gasolines containing oxygenates, such as ethers and ethanol, and reformulated gasolines may be available in your area to contribute to clean air.


Fuels in Foreign Countries If you plan on driving in another country outside the United States or Canada, the proper fuel may be hard to find. Never use leaded gasoline or any other fuel not recommended in the previous text on fuel. Costly repairs caused by use of improper fuel wouldn’t be covered by your warranty. To check the fuel availability, ask an auto club, or contact a major oil company that does business in the country where you’ll be driving. Filling Your Tank

flammable. It burns

Fuel vapor is highly violently, and that can cause very bad injuries. Don’t smoke if you’re near fuel or refueling your vehicle. Keep sparks, flames and smoking materials away from fuel.

I Turn your vehicle off to refuel.

The tethered fuel cap is located behind a hinged door on the driver’s side of your vehicle.


If you get fuel on yourself and then something ignites it, you could be badly burned. Fuel can spray out on you if you open the fuel cap too quickly. This spray can happen if your tank is nearly full, and is more likely in hot weather. Open the fuel cap slowly and wait for any “hiss” noise to stop. Then unscrew the cap all the way.

Be careful not to spill fuel. Clean fuel from painted surfaces as soon as possible. See Cleaning the Outside of Your Vehicle on page 5-82. When filling the tank do not overfill by squeezing in much more fuel after the pump shuts off.

While refueling, let the fuel cap hang by the tether below the fuel fill opening. To remove the fuel cap, turn it slowly to the left (counterclockwise). The fuel cap has a spring in it; if you let go of the cap too soon, it will spring back to the right.


When you put the fuel cap back on, turn it to the right (clockwise) until you hear a clicking sound. Make sure you fully install the cap. The diagnostic system can determine if the fuel cap has been left off or improperly installed. This would allow fuel to evaporate into the atmosphere. See Malfunction Indicator Lamp on page 3-36.

Notice: If you need a new fuel cap, be sure to get the right type. Your dealer can get one for you. If you get the wrong type, it may not fit properly. This may cause your malfunction indicator lamp to light and may damage your fuel tank and emissions system. See “Malfunction Indicator Lamp” in the Index.

Filling a Portable Fuel Container

Never fill a portable fbt=l container while it is in your vehicle. Static electricity discharge from the container can ignite the gasoline vapor. You can be badly burned and your vehicle damaged if this occurs. To help avoid injury to you and others:

Dispense gasoline only into approved containers. Do not fill a container while it is inside a vehicle, in a vehicle’s trunk, pickup bed or on any surface other than the ground. Bring the fill nozzle in contact with the inside of the fill opening before operating the nozzle. Contact should be maintained 3 .- --”. Y.W.”. r_!ntil the fI!!Iy ie rnm’nh+a Don’t smoke while pumping gasoline.


Checking Things Under the Hood

An electric fan under the hood L.I start up and injure you even when the engine is not running. Keep hands, clothing and tools away from any underhood electric fan.

Things that burn can get on hot engine parts and start a fire. These include liquids like fuel, oil, coolant, brake fluid, windshield washer and other fluids, and plastic or rubber. You or others could be burned. Be careful not to drop or spill things that will burn onto a hot engine.

5-1 0

Hood Release To open the hood, do the following:

1. Pull the handle inside

the vehicle, located just below the instrument panel and to the left of the steering column.

2. Then go to the front of the vehicle and release the secondary hood release by pushing it to the right.

3. Lift the hood. Before closing the hood, be sure all of the filler caps are on properly. Then just pull the hood down and close it firmly.

A. Windshield Washer Fluid Reservoir B. Battery C. Underhood Fuse Block D. Remote Positive (+) Battery Terminal E. Radiator Pressure Cap F. Engine Coolant Recovery Tank G. Power Steering Fluid Reservoir H. Electric Engine Cooling Fan I. Engine Oil Fill Cap J. Engine Oil Dipstick K. Automatic Transaxle Fluid Dipstick L. Brake Fluid Reservoir M. Engine Air Cleaner/Filter Engine Oil


If the LOW OIL light appears on the instrument cluster, it means you need t~ check ~ I J F clnnina -. ’3” ’” oil level right away. For more information, see Low Oil Level Light on page 3-40.

You should check your engine oil level regularly; this is an added reminder.

Checking Engine Oil It’s a good idea to check your engine oil every time you get fuel. In order to get an accurate reading, the oil must be warm and the vehicle must be on level ground.

The engine oil dipstick handle is the yellow loop located near the front of the engine. See Engine Compattment Overview on page 5-12 for more information on location.

Turn off the engine and give the oil several minutes to drain back into the oil pan. If you don’t, the oil dipstick might not show the actual level. F G uui cloth, then push it back in all the way. Remove it again, keeping the tip down, and check the level.

dipsjiick ar~u ciean ii wirn a paper rowel or

5-1 3

The engine oil fill cap is located toward the front of the engine near the engine oil dipstick handle.

1 See Engine Compartment

Overview on page 5-12 for more information on location.

Be sure to fill it enough to put the level somewhere in the proper operating range in the cross-hatched area. Push the dipstick all the way back in when you’re through.

When to Add Engine Oil If the oil is at or below the cross-hatched area at the tip of the dipstick, then you’ll need to add at least one quart of oil. But you must use the right kind. This part explains what kind of oil to use. For engine oil crankcase capacity, see Capacities and Specifications on page 5-94. Nofice: Don’t add too much oil. If your engine has so much oil that the oil level gets above the cross-hatched area that shows the proper operating range, your engine could be damaged.

5-1 4

What Kind of Engine Oil to Use Oils recommended for your vehicle can be identified by looking for the starburst symbol. This symbol indicates that the oil has been certified by the American Petroleum Institute (API). Do not use any oil which does not carry this starburst symbol.

L .

If you choose to perform the engine oil change service yourself, be sure the oil you use has the starburst symbol on the front of the oil centainer. I f you have p i l r oil changed for you, be sure the oil put into your engine is American

I Petroleum Institute certified

for gasoline engines.






- t38

- t27

- + 16

- - 18

- t 4

- - 7


t 80


k 60

+ 20

SAE 5W-30





5-1 5

As in the chart shown previously, SAE 5W-30 is the only viscosity grade recommended for your vehicle. You should look for and use only oils which have the API Starburst symbol and which are also identified as SAE 5W-30. If you cannot find such SAE 5W-30 oils, you can use an SAE IOW-30 oil which has the API Starburst symbol, if it's going to be 0°F (-18°C) or above. Do not use other viscosity grade oils, such as SAE IOW-40 or SAE 20W-50 under any conditions. Notice: Use only engine oil with the American Petroleum Institute Certified For Gasoline Engines starburst symbol. Failure to use the recommended oil can result in engine damage not covered by your warranty. GM Goodwrench@ oil meets all the requirements for your vehicle. If you are in an area of extreme cold, where the temperature falls below -20°F (-29"C), it is recommended that you use either an SAE 5W-30 synthetic oil or an SAE OW-30 oil. Both will provide easier cold starting and better protection for your engine at extremely low temperatures. Engine Oil Additives Don't add anything to your oil. The recommended oils with the starburst symbol are all you will need for good performance and engine protection.


When to Change Engine Oil (GM Oil Life System) Your vehicle has a computer system that lets you know when to change the engine oil and filter. This is based on engine revolutions and engine temperature, and not on mileage. Based on driving conditions, the mileage at which an oil change will be indicated can vary considerably. For the oil life system to work properly, you must reset the system every time the oil changed. When the system has calculated that oil life has been diminished, it will indicate that an oil change is necessary. A CHANGE OIL SOON light will come on. Change your oil as soon as possible within the next two times you stop for fuel. It is possible that, if you are driving under the best conditions, the oil life system may not indicate that an oil change is necessary for over a year. However, your engine oil and filter must be changed at least once a year and at this time the system must be reset. It is also important to check your oil regularly and keep it at the proper level. If the system is ever reset accidentally, you must change your oil at 3,000 miles (5 000 km) since your last oil change. Remember to reset the oil life system whenever the oil is changed.

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How to Reset the CHANGE OIL SOON Light The GM Oil Life SystemTM calculates when to change your engine oil and filter based on vehicle use. Anytime your oil is changed, reset the system so it can calculate when the next oil change is required. If a situation occurs where you change your oil prior to a CHANGE OIL SOON light being turned on, reset the system. After changing the engine oil, reset the system by performing the following steps: 1. With the engine off, turn the ignition key to RUN. 2. Fully push and release the accelerator pedal slowly

tnree times within five seconds. If the CHANGE OIL SOON light flashes, the system is resetting.

3. Turn the key to OFF, then start the vehicle. The oil

life will change to 100 percent. If the CHANGE OIL SOON light comes back on, the system has not reset. Repeat the procedure^

What to Do with Used Oil Used engine oil contains certain elements that may be unhealthy for your skin and could even cause cancer. Don’t let used oil stay on your skin for very long. Clean your skin and nails with soap and water, or a good hand cleaner. Wash or properly dispose of clothing or rags containing used engine oil. See the manufacturer’s warnings about the use and disposal of oil products. Used oil can be a threat to the environment. If you change your own oil, be sure to drain all the oil from the filter before disposal. Never dispose of oil by putting it in the trash, pouring it on the ground, into sewers, or into streams or bodies of water. Instead, recycle it by taking it to a place that collects used oil. If you have a problem properly disposing of your used oil, ask your dealer, a sewice station or a local recycling center for help.

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Engine Air CleanedFilter The engine air cleaner/filter is located underneath a diagonal brace in the engine compartment on the driver’s side of the vehicle. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12 for more information on location. To check or replace the engine air cleanedfilter, do the following:

5. Replace the filter if needed. 6. Be sure to reinstall the filter and install the cover

tightly when you are finished.

Refer to the Maintenance Schedule to determine when to replace the air filter. See Part A: Scheduled Maintenance Services on page 6-4.

1. Loosen the screw and clamp on the air duct.

2. Lift up

11 I

the two clips

on located on the top of the filter assembly.

3. Then disconnect the duct and reposition it while

removing the side cover.

4. Pull out the filter.

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Operating the engine with the air cleaner/filter :off can cause you or others to be burned. The air cleaner not only cleans the air, it stops flame if the engine backfires. If it isn’t there and the engine backfires, you could be burned. Don’t drive with it off, and be careful working on the engine with the air cleaner/filter off.

Notice; If the air cleanedfilter is off, a backfire can cause a damaging engine fire. And, dirt can easily get into your engine, which will damage it. Always have the air cleanedfilter in place when you’re driving.

Automatic Transaxle Fluid When to Check and Change A good time to check your automatic transaxle fluid level is when the engine oil is changed. Change both the fluid and filter every 50,000 miles (83 000 km) if the vehicle is mainly driven under one or more of these conditions:

the outside temperature

In heavy city traffic where regularly reaches 90°F (32°C) or higher. In hilly or mountainous terrain. When doing frequent trailer towing. Uses such as found in taxi, police or delivery service.

If you do not use your vehicle under any of these conditions, change the fluid and filter at 100,000 miles (166 000 km). .%p Pat? A . S ~ h ~ r i l d e d Maintenance Services on page 6-4.

How to Check Because this operation can be a little difficult, you may choose to have this done at the dealership service department. If you do it yourself, be sure to follow all the instructions here, or you could get a false reading on the dipstick. Notice: Too much or too little fluid can damage your transaxle. Too much can mean that some of the fluid could come out and fall on hot engine or exhaust system parts, starting a fire. Too little fluid could cause the transaxle to overheat. Be sure to get an accurate reading if you check your transaxle fluid. Wait at least 30 minutes before checking the transaxle fluid level if you have been driving:

When outside temperatures are above 90°F (32°C) At high speed for quite a while. In heavy traffic - especially in hot weather.


rL.- i - 1 . . : 2

T - _ . ^ I X I - -

0 While pulling a trailer. - L - . . l J L, ^I. I u yet 11 l e I IYI I L I~CIUII IY, LI IC IIUIU 31 IUUIU uc at normal operating temperature, which is 180°F to 200°F (82°C to 93°C). Get the vehicle warmed up by driving about 15 miles (24 km) when outside temperatures are above 50°F (10°C). If it’s colder than 50°F (IOOC), you may have to drive longer.

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Checking the Fluid Level Prepare your vehicle as follows:

Then, without shutting off the engine, follow these steps:

1 The automatic transaxle

Park your vehicle on a level place. Keep the engine running.

a With the parking brake applied, place the shift lever

in PARK (P). With your foot on the brake pedal, move the shift lever through each gear range, pausing for about three seconds in each range. Then, position the shift lever in PARK (P). Let the engine run at idle for three to five minutes.

fluid dipstick handle is the black loop located toward the rear of the engine. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12 for more information on location.

1. Pull out the dipstick and wipe it with a clean rag or

paper towel.

2. Push it back in all the way, wait three seconds and

then pull it back out again.


If the fluid level is low, add only enough of the proper fluid to bring the level into the cross-hatched area on the dipstick.

1. Pull out the dipstick. 2. Using a long-neck funnel, add enough fluid at the

dipstick hole to bring it to the proper level. It doesn’t take much fluid, generally less than one pint (0.5 L). Don’t ovetfj//.

Notice: We recommend you use only fluid labeled DEXRON@-Ill, because fluid with that label is made especially for your automatic transaxle. Damage caused by fluid other than DEXRON@-Ill is not covered by your new vehicle warranty. 3. After adding fluid, recheck the fluid level as

described under “How to Check,” earlier in this section.

4. When the correct fluid level is obtained, push the

dipstick back in all the way.

3. Check both sides of the dipstick, and read the

lower level. The fluid level must be in the cross-hatched area.

4. If the fluid level is in the acceptable range,

push the dipstick back in all the way.

How to Add Fiuiu Refer to the Maintenance Schedule to determine what kind of transaxle fluid to use. See Part D: Recommended Fluids and Lubricants on page 6-16.

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Engine Coolant The cooling system in your vehicle is filled with DEX-COOL@ engine coolant. This coolant is designed to remain in your vehicle for 5 years or 150,000 miles (240 000 km), whichever occurs first, if you add only DEX-COOL@ extended life coolant. The following explains your cooling system and how to add coolant when it is low. If you have a problem with engine overheating or if you need to add coolant to your radiator, see Engine Overheating on page 5-25. A 50/50 mixture of clean, drinkable water and DEX-COOL@ coolant will:

Give freezing protection down to -34°F (-37°C). Give boiling protection up to 265°F (129°C). Protect against rust and corrosion. Help keep the proper engine temperature. Let the warning lights and gages work as they should.

Notice: When adding coolant, it is important that you use only DEX-COOL@ (silicate-free) coolant. If coolant other than DEX-COOL@ is added to the system, premature engine, heater core or radiator corrosion may result. In addition, the engine coolant will require change sooner -- at 30,000 miles (50,000 km) or 24 months, whichever occurs first. Damage caused by the use of coolant other than DEX-COOL@ is not covered by your new vehicle warranty. What to Use Use a mixture of one-half clean, drinkable water and one-half DEX-COOL@ coolant which won’t damage aluminum parts. If you use this coolant mixture, you don’t need to add anything else.


Notice: If you use an improper coolant mixture, your engine could overheat and be badly damaged. The repair cost wouldn’t be covered by your warranty. Too much water in the mixture can freeze and crack the engine, radiator, heater core and other parts. If you have to add coolant more than four times a year, have your dealer check your cooling system. Notice: If you use the proper coolant, you don’t have to add extra inhibitors or additives which claim to improve the system. These can be harmful.

Adding only plail. .later to your cooling system can be dangerous. Plain water, or some other liquid such as alcohol, can boil before the proper coolant mixture will. Your vehicle’s coolant warning system is set for the proper coolant mixture. With plain water or the wrong mixture, your engine could get too hot but you wouldn’t get the overheat warning. Your engine could catch fire and you or others could be burned. Use a 50/50 mixture of clean, drinkable water and DiiX-C00Ls cooiant.


Checking Coolant The engine coolant recovery tank is located on the passenger’s side of the vehicle at the rear of the engine compartment. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12 for more information on location.

The vehicle must be on a level surface. When your engine is cold, the coolant level should be at the COLD mark or a little higher. When your engine is warm, the level should be up to the HOT mark or a little higher.

Adding Coolant If you need more coolant, add the proper DEX-COOL@ coolant mixture at the coolant recovery tank, but be careful not to spill it. If the coolant recovery tank is completely empty, add coolant to the radiator. See “How to Add Coolant to the Radiator” later in this section.


Turning the radiator pressure cap when the engine and radiator are hot can allow scalding liquids to blow out and burn you badly. With the coolant recovery tank, you will almost never have to add coolant at the radiator. -- even a Never turn the radiator pressure cap little -- when the engine and radiator are hot.

steam and

You can be burned if you spill coolant on hot engine parts. Coolant contains ethylene glycol, and it will burn if the engine parts are hot enough. Don’t spill coolant on a hot engine.

Occasionally check the coolant level in the radiator. For information on how to add coolant to the radiator, see Cooling System on page 5-28.

Radiator Pressure Cap

Nofice: Your radiator cap is a pressure-type cap and must be tightly installed to prevent coolant loss and possible engine damage from overheating. Be sure the arrows on the cap line up with the overflow tube on the radiator filler neck. The radiator pressure cap is located near the front of the engine compartment on the passenger’s side of the vehicle. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12 for more information on location. Engine Overheating You will find a coolant temperature gage and a hot engine warning light on your instrument panel. See Engine Coolant Temperature Gage on page 3-35 and Engine Coolant Temperature Warning Light on page 3-34.

Overheated Engine Protection Operating Mode This emergency operating mode allows your vehicle to be driven to a safe place in an emergency situation. If an overheated engine condition exists, an overheat protection mode which alternates firing groups of cylinders helps prevent engine damage. In this mode, you will notice a significant loss in power and engine performance. The low coolant light may come on and the temperature gage will indicate an overheat condition exists. Driving extended miles (km) and/or towing a trailer in the overheat protection mode should be avoided. Ndiee: After driving ir; the overhecited engine protection operating mode, to avoid engine damage, allow the engine to cool before attempting any repair. The engine oil will be severely degraded. Repair the cause of coolant loss, change the oil and reset the oil life system. See “Engine Oil” in the Index.


If Steam Is Coming From Your Engine


Steam from an overheated engine can burn you badly, even if you just open the hood. Stay away from the engine if you see or hear steam coming from it. Just turn it off and get everyone away from the vehicle until it cools down. Wait until there is no sign of steam or coolant before you open the hood. If you keep driving when your engine is overheated, the liquids in it can catch fire. You or others could be badly burned. Stop your engine if it overheats, and get out of the vehicle until the engine is cool. See “Overheated Engine Protection Operating Mode” in the Index for information on driving to a safe place in an emergency.