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next vehicle.

a Don’t overtake a slowly moving vehicle too rapidly

Even though the brake lamps are not flashing, it may be slowing down or starting to turn. If you’re being passed, make it easy for the following driver to get ahead of you. Perhaps you can ease a little to the right.

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Loss of Control Let’s review what driving experts say about what happens when the three control systems (brakes, steering and acceleration) don’t have enough friction where the tires meet the road to do what the driver has asked. In any emergency, don’t give up. Keep trying to steer and constantly seek an escape route or area of less danger. Skidding In a skid, a driver can lose control of the vehicle. Defensive drivers avoid most skids by taking reasonable care suited to existing conditions, and by not “overdriving” those conditions. But skids are always possible. The three types of skids correspond to your vehicle’s three control systems. In the braking skid, your wheels aren’t rolling. In the steering or cornering skid, too much speed or steering in a curve causes tires to slip and lose cornering force. And in the acceleration skid, too much throttle causes the driving wheels to spin. A cornering skid is best handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal. If you have the Enhanced Traction System, remember: It helps avoid only the acceleration skid. If you do not have the Enhanced Traction System, or if the transaxle is not in AUTOMATIC OVERDRIVE (D), then an acceleration skid is also best handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal.

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If your vehicle starts to slide, ease your foot off the accelerator pedal and quickly steer the way you want the vehicle to go. If you start steering quickly enough, your vehicle may straighten out. Always be ready for a second skid if it occurs. Of course, traction is reduced when water, snow, ice, gravel or other material is on the road. For safety, you’ll want to slow down and adjust your driving to these conditions. It is important to slow down on slippery surfaces because stopping distance will be longer and vehicle control more limited. While driving on a surface with reduced traction, try your best to avoid sudden steering, acceleration or braking (including engine braking by shifting to a lower gear). Any sudden changes could cause the tires to slide. You may not realize the surface is slippery until your vehicle is skidding. Learn to recognize warning clues - such as enough water, ice or packed snow on the road to make a “mirrored surface” - and slow down when you have any doubt. If you have the anti-lock braking system, remember: It helps avoid only the braking skid. If you do not have anti-lock, then in a braking skid (where the wheels are no longer rolling), release enough pressure on the brakes to get the wheels rolling again. This restores steering control. Push the brake pedal down steadily when you have to stop suddenly. As long as the wheels are rolling, you will have steering control.

Driving at Night

Night driving is more dangerous than day driving. One reason IS that some drivers are iiiteiy IO be impaired - by alcohol or drugs, with night vision problems, or by fatigue. Here are some tips on night driving.

Drive defensively.

0 Don’t drink and drive.

Adjust your inside rearview mirror to reduce the glare from headlamps behind you.

Since you can’t see as well, you may need to slow down and keep more space between you and other vehicles.

0 Slow down, especially on higher speed roads. Your headlamps can light up only so much road ahead. In remote areas, watch for animals. If you’re tired, pull off the road in a safe place and rest.

No one can see as well at night as in the daytime. But as we get older these differences increase. A 50-year-old driver may require at least twice as much light to see the same thing at night as a 20-year-old. What you do in the daytime can also affect your night vision. For example, if you spend the day in bright sunshine you are wise to wear sunglasses. Your eyes will have less trouble adjusting to night. But if you’re driving, don’t wear sunglasses at night. They may cut down on glare from headlamps, but they also make a lot of things invisible.

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You can be temporarily blinded by approaching headlamps. It can take a second or two, or even several seconds, for your eyes to readjust to the dark. When you are faced with severe glare (as from a driver who doesn’t lower the high beams, or a vehicle with misaimed headlamps), slow down a little. Avoid staring directly into the approaching headlamps. Keep your windshield and all the glass on your vehicle clean - inside and out. Glare at night is made much worse by dirt on the glass. Even the inside of the glass can build up a film caused by dust. Dirty glass makes lights dazzle and flash more than clean glass would, making the pupils of your eyes contract repeatedly. Remember that your headlamps light up far less of a roadway when you are in a turn or curve. Keep your eyes moving; that way, it’s easier to pick out dimly lighted objects. Just as your headlamps should be checked regularly for proper aim, so should your eyes be examined regularly. Some drivers suffer from night blindness - the inability to see in dim light - and aren’t even aware of it.

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Driving in Rain and on Wet Roads

Rain and wet roads can mean driving trouble. On a wet road, you can’t stop, accelerate or turn as well because your tire-to-road traction isn’t as good as on dry roads. And, if your tires don’t have much tread left, you’ll get even less traction. It’s always wise to go slower and be cautious if rain starts to fall while you are driving. The surface may get wet suddenly when your reflexes are tuned for driving on dry pavement.

The heavier the rain, the harder it is to see. Even if your windshield wiper blades are in good shape, a heavy rain can make it harder to see road signs and traffic signals, pavement markings, the edge of the road and even people walking. It’s wise to keep your windshield wiping equipment in good shape and keep your windshield washer tank filled with washer fluid. Replace your windshield wiper inserts when they show signs of streaking or missing areas on the windshield, or when strips of rubber start to separate from the inserts.

Driving too fast through large water puddles or even going through some car washes can cause problems, too. The water may affect your brakes. Try to avoid puddles. But if you can’t, try to slow down before you hit them.

Wet brakes can ca e accidents. They won’t work as well in a quick stop and may cause pulling to one side. You could lose control of the vehicle. After driving through a large puddle of water or a car wash, apply your brake pedal lightly until your brakes work normally.

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Hydroplaning Hydroplaning is dangerous. So much water can build up under your tires that they can actually ride on the water. This can happen if the road is wet enough and you’re going fast enough. When your vehicle is hydroplaning, it has little or no contact with the road. Hydroplaning doesn’t happen often. But it can if your tires do not have much tread or if the pressure in one or more is low. It can happen if a lot of water is standing on the road. If you can see reflections from trees, telephone poles or other vehicles, and raindrops “dimple” the water’s surface, there could be hydroplaning. Hydroplaning usually happens at higher speeds. There just isn’t a hard and fast rule about hydroplaning. The best advice is to slow down when it is raining. Driving Through Deep Standing Water

Notice: If you drive too quickly through deep puddles or standing water, water can come in through your engine’s air intake and badly damage your engine. Never drive through water that is slightly lower than the underbody of your vehicle. If you can’t avoid deep puddles or standing water, drive through them very slowly.

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?r creates strong

Flowing or rushin! rces. If you try to drive tnrough flowing water, as you might at a low water crossing, your vehicle can be carried away. As little as six inches of flowing water can carry away a smaller vehicle. If this happens, you and other vehicle occupants could drown. Don’t ignore police warning signs, and otherwise be very cautious about trying to drive through flowing water.

Some Other Rainy Weather Tips

Besides slowing down, allow some extra following distance. And be especially careful when you pass another vehicle. Allow yourself more clear room ahead, and be prepared to have your view restricted by road spray. Have good tires with proper tread depth. See Tires on page 5-51.

City Driving

Here are ways to increase your safety in city driving:

Know the best way to get to where you are going. Get a city map and plan your trip into an unknown part of the city just as you would for a cross-country trip. Try to use the freeways that rim and crisscross most large cities. You’ll save time and energy. See the next part, “Freeway Driving.” Treat a green light as a warning signal. A traffic light is there because the corner is busy enough to need it. When a light turns green, and just before you start to move, check both ways for vehicles that have not cleared the intersection or may be running the red light.

One of the biggest problems with city streets is the amount ot trattlc on tnem. Vou7i want to waicn our ior what the other drivers are doing and pay attention to traffic signals.

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The most important advice on freeway driving is: Keep up with traffic and keep to the right. Drive at the same speed most of the other drivers are driving. Too-fast or too-slow driving breaks a smooth traffic flow. Treat the left lane on a freeway as a passing lane. At the entrance, there is usually a ramp that leads to the freeway. If you have a clear view of the freeway as you drive along the entrance ramp, you should begin to check traffic. Try to determine where you expect to blend with the flow. Try to merge into the gap at close to the prevailing speed. Switch on your turn signal, check ~OLII mirrors and glance over your shoulder as often as necessary. Try to blend smoothly with the traffic flow. Once you are on the freeway, adjust your speed to the posted limit or to the prevailing rate if it’s slower. Stay in the right lane unless you want to pass. Before changing lanes, check your mirrors. Then use your turn signal. Just before you leave the lane, glance quickly over your shoulder to make sure there isn’t another vehicle in your “blind” spot.

Freeway Driving

Mile for mile, freeways (also called thruways, parkways, expressways, turnpikes or superhighways) are the safest of all roads. But they have their own special rules.


freeway, make certain you

Once you are moving on the allow a reasonable following distance. Expect to move slightly slower at night. When you want to leave the freeway, move to the proper lane well in advance. If you miss your exit, do not, under any circumstances, stop and back up. Drive on to the next exit. The exit ramp can be curved, sometimes quite sharply. The exit speed is usually posted. Reduce your speed according to your speedometer, not to your sense of motion. After driving for any distance at higher speeds, you may tend to think you are going slower than you actually are. Before Leaving on a Long Trip Make sure you’re ready. Try to be well rested. If you must start when you’re not fresh - such as after a day’s work - don’t plan to make too many miles that first part of the journey. Wear comfortable clothing and shoes yuu c;arl easily 6Iivt: ii-1.

Is your vehicle ready for a long trip? If you keep it serviced and maintained, it’s ready to go. If it needs service, have it done before starting out. Of course, you’ll find experienced and able service experts in dealerships all across North America. They’ll be ready and willing to help if you need it. Here are some things you can check before a trip: 0 Windshield Washer Fluid: Is the reservior full? Are

all windows clean inside and outside? Wiper Blades: Are they in good shape? Fuel, Engine Oil, Other Fluids: Have you checked all levels? Lamps: Are they all working? Are the lenses clean? Tires: They are vitally important to a safe, trouble-free trip. Is the tread good enough for long-distance driving? Are the tires all inflated to the recommended pressure? Weather Forecasts: What’s the weather outlook s!cnn~ p I r r ~ ~ ! t p ? r-i~lay ymlr trip a short time to avoid a major storm system? Maps: Do you have up-to-date maps?

S h n 1 . 1 1 c i y n ~ . ~


Hill and Mountain Roads

Driving on steep hills or mountains is different from driving in flat or rolling terrain.

Highway Hypnosis Is there actually such a condition as “highway hypnosis”? Or is it just plain falling asleep at the wheel? Call it highway hypnosis, lack of awareness, or whatever. There is something about an easy stretch of road with the same scenery, along with the hum of the tires on the road, the drone of the engine, and the rush of the wind against the vehicle that can make you sleepy. Don’t let it happen to you! If it does, your vehicle can leave the road in less than a second, and you could crash and be injured. What can you do about highway hypnosis? First, be aware that it can happen. Then here are some tips:

Make sure your vehicle is well ventilated, with a comfortably cool interior. Keep your eyes moving. Scan the road ahead and to the sides. Check your rearview mirrors and your instruments frequently. If you get sleepy, pull off the road into a rest, service or parking area and take a nap, get some exercise, or both. For safety, treat drowsiness on the highway as an emergency.


If you drive regularly in steep country, or planning to visit there, here are some tips that can make your trips safer and more enjoyable.

if you’re

Keep your vehicle in good shape. Check all fluid levels and also the brakes, tires, cooling system and transaxle. These parts can work hard on mountain roads. Know how to go down hills. The most important thing to know is this: let your engine do some of the slowing down. Shift to a lower gear when you go down a steep or long hill.

If you don’t shift dowl., yol.. .)rakes c - so hot that they wouldn’t work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Shift down to let your engine assisi your brakes on a sieep downhill slope.

Id get

Coas ....g downhill in NEUTRA- :N) or wit-- fhe ignition off is dangerous. Your brakes will have to do all the work of slowing down. They could get so hot that they wouldn’t work well. You would then have poor braking or even none going down a hill. You could crash. Always have your engine running and your vehicle in gear when you go downhill.

Know how to go uphill. You may want to shift down to a lower gear. The lower gears help cool your engine and transaxle, and you can climb the hill better. Stay in your own lane when driving on two-lane roads in hills or mountains. Don’t swing wide or cut across the center of the road. Drive at speeds that let you stay in your own lane. As you go over ine ‘rop oi a iliii, ut: aier i. Ti lele Cuuid be something in your lane, like a stalled car or an accident. You may see highway signs on mountains that warn of special problems. Examples are long grades, passing or no-passing zones; a falling rocks area or winding roads. Be alert to these and take appropriate action.


Winter Driving

Here are some tips for winter driving:

Have your vehicle in good shape for winter. YOU may want to put winter emergency supplies in your trunk.

Include an ice scraper, a small brush or broom, a supply of windshield washer fluid, a rag, some winter outer clothing, a small shovel, a flashlight, a red cloth and a couple of reflective warning triangles. And, if you will be driving under severe conditions, include a small bag of sand, a piece of old carpet or a couple of burlap bags to help provide traction. Be sure you properly secure these items in your vehicle.


Driving on Snow or Ice Most of the time, those places where your tires meet the road probably have good traction. However, if there is snow or ice between your tires and the road, you can have a very slippery situation. You’ll have a lot less traction or “grip” and will need to be very careful.

What’s the worst time for this? “Wet ice.” Very cold snow or ice can be slick and hard to drive on. But wet ice can be even more trouble because it may offer the least traction of all. You can get wet ice when it’s about freezing (32°F; OOC) and freezing rain begins to fall. Try to avoid driving on wet ice until salt and sand crews can get there. Whatever the condition - smooth ice, packed, blowing or loose snow - drive with caution. If you have the Enhanced Traction System, keep the transaxle shift lever in the AUTOMATIC OVERDRIVE (D) position so the system will be able to operate. It will improve your ability to accelerate when driving on a slippery road. Even though your vehicle has this system, you’ll want io slow down and adjust your driving to the road conditions. See Enhanced Traction System (ETS) on page 4-8.


If you don’t have the Enhanced Traction System, accelerate gently. Try not to break the fragile traction. If you accelerate too fast, the drive wheels will spin and polish the surface under the tires even more. Unless you have the anti-lock braking system, you’ll want to brake very gently, too. (If you do have anti-lock, see Braking on page 4-6. This system improves your vehicle’s stability when you make a hard stop on a slippery road.) Whether you have the anti-lock braking system or not, you’ll want to begin stopping sooner than you would on dry pavement. Without anti-lock brakes, if you feel your vehicle begin to slide, let up on the brakes a little. Push the brake pedal down steadily to get the most traction you can.

Remember, unless you have anti-lock, if you brake so hard that your wheels stop rolling, you’ll just slide. Brake so your wheels always keep rolling and you can still steer.

Whatever your braking system, allow greater following distance on any slippery road. Watch for slippery spots. The road might be fine until you hit a spot that’s covered with ice. On an otherwise clear road, ice patches may appear in shaded areas where the sun can’t reach: around clumps of trees, behind buildings or under bridges. Sometimes the surface of a curve or an overpass may remain icy when the surrounding roads are clear. If you see a patch of ice ahead of you, brake before you are on it. Try not to brake while you’re actually on the ice, and avoid sudden steering maneuvers.


If You’re Caught in a Blizzard

Here are some things to do to summon help and keep yourself and your passengers safe: Turn on your hazard flashers.

0 Tie a red cloth to your vehicle to alert police that

you’ve been stopped by the snow. Put on extra clothing or wrap a blanket around you. If you have no blankets or extra clothing, make body insulators from newspapers, burlap bags, rags, floor mats - anything you can wrap around yourself or tuck under your clothing to keep warm.

If you are stopped by heavy snow, you could be in a serious situation. You should probably stay with your vehicle unless you know for sure that you are near help and you can hike through the snow.


Snow can trap exhaust gases under your vehicle. This can cause deadly CO (carbon monoxide) gas to get inside. CO could overcome you and kill you. You can’t see it or smell it, so you might not know it is in your vehicle. Clear away snow from around the base of your vehicle, especially any that is blocking your exhaust pipe. And check around again from time to time to be sure snow doesn’t collect there. Open a window just a little on the side of the vehicle that’s away from the wind. This will help keep CO out.

You can run the engine to keep warm, but be careful.


Run your engine only as long as you must. This saves fuel. When you run the engine, make it go a little faster than just idle. That is, push the accelerator slightly. This uses less fuel for the heat that you get and it keeps the battery charged. You will need a well-charged battery to restart the vehicle, and possibly for signaling later on with your headlamps. Let the heater run for a while. Then, shut the engine off and close the window almost all the way to preserve the heat. Start the engine again and repeat this only when you feel really uncomfortable from the cold. But do it as little as possible. Preserve the fuel as long as you can. To help keep warm, you can get out of the vehicle and do some fairly vigorous exercises every half hour or so until help comes.

If You Are Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow

In order to free your vehicle when it is stuck, you will need to spin the wheels, but you don’t want to spin your wheels too fast. The method known as “rocking” can help you get out when you’re stuck, but you must use caution.

,ires s, ... ,I


speed, they

If you let y--. can explode, and you or others could be injured. And, the transaxle or other parts of thevehicle can overheat. That could cause an engine compartment fire or other damage. When you’re stuck, spin the wheels as little as possible. Don’t spin the wheels above 35 mph (55 km/h) as shown on the speedometer.

Notice: Spinning your wheels can destroy parts of your vehicle as well as the tires. If you spin the wheels too fast while shifting your transaxle back and forth, you can destroy your transaxle. See “Rocking Your Vehicle To Get It Out.” For information about using tire chains on your vehicle, see Tire Chains on page 5-59.


Rocking Your Vehicle To Get It Out First, turn your steering wheel left and right. That will clear the area around your front wheels. Then shift back and forth between REVERSE (R) and a forward gear (or with a manual transaxle, between FIRST (1) or SECOND (2) and REVERSE (R)), spinning the wheels as little as possible. Release the accelerator pedal

while you shift, and press lightly on the accelerator pedal when the transaxle is in gear. By slowly spinning your wheels in the forward and reverse directions, you will cause a rocking motion that may free your vehicle. If that doesn’t get you out after a few tries, you may need to be towed out. If you do need to be towed out, see “Towing Your Vehicle” following.



Towing Your Vehicle Consult your dealer or a professional towing service if you need to have your disabled vehicle towed. See Roadside Assistance Program on page 7-6. If you want to tow your vehicle behind another vehicle for recreational purposes (such as behind a motorhome), see “Recreational Vehicle Towing” following. Recreational Vehicle Towing Recreational vehicle towing means towing your vehicle behind another vehicle - such as behind a motorhome. The two most common types of recreational vehicle towing are known as “dinghy towing” (towing your vehicle with all four wheels on the ground) and “dolly towing” (towing your vehicle with two wheels on the ground and two wheels up on a device known as a “dolly”). With the proper preparation and equipment, many vehicles can be towed in these ways. See “Dinghy Towing” and “Dolly Towing,” following.

Here are some important things to consider before you do recreational vehicle towing:

What’s the towing capacity of the towing vehicle? Be sure you read the tow vehicle manufacturer’s recommendations. How far will you tow? Some vehicles have restrictions on how far and how long they can tow. Do you have the proper towing equipment? See your dealer or trailering professional for additional advice and equipment recommendations. Is your vehicle ready to be towed? Just as you would prepare your vehicle for a long trip, you’ll want to make sure your vehicle is prepared to be towed. See Before Leaving on a Long Trip on page 4-2 I .

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Dinghy Towing You may dinghy tow your vehicle from the front following these steps:

1. Set the parking brake. 2. Turn the ignition key to OFF to unlock the steering


3. Shift your transaxle to NEUTRAL (N). 4. Release the parking brake Notice: Make sure that the towing speed does not exceed 65 mph (110 km/h), or your vehicle could be badly damaged.


Notice: Do not tow your vehicle from the rear. Your vehicle could be badly damaged and the repairs would not be covered by your warranty. Dolly Towing Your vehicle cannot be dolly towed, but can be dinghy towed. See “Dinghy Towing” earlier in this section. Notice: Dolly towing with one end of the vehicle elevated may cause damage to occur because of reduced ground clearance.


Loading Your Vehicle


















Two labels on your vehicle show how much weight it may properly carry. The Tire-Loading Information label found on the rear edge of the driver’s door tells you the proper size, speed rating and recommended inflation pressures for the tires on your vehicle. It also gives you important information about the number of people that can be in your vehicle and the total weight that you can carry. This weight is called the Vehicle Capacity Weight, and includes the weight of all occupants, cargo and all nonfactory-installed options.


The other label is the Certification label, found on the rear edge of the driver’s door. It tells you the gross weight capacity of your vehicle, called the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR). The GVWR includes the weight of the vehicle, all occupants, fuel and cargo. Never exceed the GVWR for your vehicle, or the Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) for either the front or rear axle. And, if you do have a heavy load, you should spread it out. Don’t carry more than 132 Ibs. (60 kg) in your trunk.

Do not load your vehicle any heavier than the GVWR, or either the maximum front or rear GAWR. If you do, parts on your vehicle can break, and it can change the way your vehicle handles. These could cause you to lose control and crash. Also, overloading can shorten the life of your vehicle.

If you put things inside your vehicle - like suitcases, tools, packages, or anything else - they will go as fast as the vehicle goes. If you have to stop or turn quickly, or if there is a crash, they’ll keep going.

Th,,,gs you put inside your vehicle can strike and injure people in a sudden stop or turn, or in a crash.

0 Put things in the trunk or rear area of your vehicle. In a trunk, put them as far forward as you can. Try to spread the weight evenly. If you have fold-down rear seats, you’ll find four anchors on the back wall of your trunk. You can use these anchors to tie down lighter loads. They’re not strong enough for heavy things, howewer, so put them as far forward as you can in the trunk or rear area.

0 Never stack heavier things, like suitcases,

inside the vehicle so that some of them are above the tops of the seats. Don’t leave an unsecured child restraint in your vehicle. When you carry something inside the vehicle, secure it whenever you can. Don’t leave a seat folded down unless you need to.


Towing a Trailer (Automatic Transaxle)

t use

? correct equipment and

If you drive properly, you can lose control when you pull a trailer. For example, if the trailer is too heavy, the brakes may not work well -- or even at all. You and your passengers could be seriously injured. You may also damage your vehicle; the resulting repairs would not be covered by your warranty. Pull a trailer only if you have followed all the steps in this section. Ask your dealer for advice and information about towing a trailer with your vehicle.

Your vehicle can tow a trailer if it is equipped with an automatic transaxle and the proper trailer towing equipment. If your vehicle is not equipped as stated above, do not tow a trailer. To identify what the vehicle trailering capacity is for your vehicle, you should read the information in “Weight of the Trailer’’ that appears later in this section. But trailering is different than just driving your vehicle by itself. Trailering means changes in handling, durability and fuel economy. Successful, safe trailering takes correct equipment, and it has to be used properly. That’s the reason for this part. In it are many time-tested, important trailering tips and safety rules. Many of these are important for your safety and that of your passengers. So please read this section carefully before you pull a trailer. Load-pulling components such as the engine, transaxle, wheel assemblies and tires are forced to work harder against the drag of the added weight. The engine is required to operate at relatively higher speeds and under greater loads, generating extra heat. What’s more, the trailer adds considerably to wind resistance, increasing the pulling requirements.


If You Do Decide To Pull A Trailer If you do, here are some important points:

There are many different laws, including speed limit restrictions, having to do with trailering. Make sure your rig will be legal, not only where you live but also where you’ll be driving. A good source for this information can be state or provincial police.

0 Consider using a sway control. You can ask a hitch

dealer about sway controls. Don’t tow a trailer at all during the first 1,000 miles (1 600 km) your new vehicle is driven. Your engine, axle or other parts could be damaged.

* Then, during the first 500 miles (800 km) that you

tow a trailer, don’t drive over 50 mph (80 km/h) and don’t make starts at full throttle. This helps your engine and other parts of your vehicle wear in at the heavier loads. Obey speed limit restrictions when towing a trailer. Don’t drive faster than the maximum posted speed for trailers, or no more than 55 mph (90 km/h), to save wear on your vehicle’s parts.

0 Do not tow when the outside air temperature is

above 100°F (38°C).

0 Do not tow more

per year.

than 1,000 miles (1 600 km)

Three important considerations have to do with weight:

the weight of the trailer, the weight of the trailer tongue

0 and the total weight on your vehicle’s tires. Weight of the Trailer How heavy can a trailer safely be? It should never weigh more than 1,000 Ibs. (450 kg). Bui even that can be too heavy. It depends on how you plan to use your rig. For example, speed, altitude, road grades, outside temperature and how much your vehicle is used to pull a trailer are all important. And, it can also depend on any special equipment that you have on your vehicle You can ask your dealer for our trailering information or advice, or you can write us at: Chevrolet Motor Division CI!+L!cfCImer .A.cckt?.nrP center P.O. Box 33170 Detroit, MI 48232-51 70 In Canada write to: General Motors of Canada Limited CLlstGme: Czmmunicatlzn Centre, 163-005 1908 Colonel Sam Drive Oshawa, Ontario, L I H 8P7


Weight of the Trailer Tongue The tongue load (A) of any trailer is an important weight to measure because it affects the total or gross weight of your vehicle. The Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) includes the curb weight of the vehicle, any cargo you may carry in it, and the people who will be riding in the vehicle. And if you tow a trailer, you must add the tongue load to the GVW because your vehicle will be carrying that weight, too. See Loading Your Vehicle on page 4-34 for more information about your vehicle’s maximum load capacity.

If you’re using a weight-carrying hitch or a weight-distributing hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 10-1 5 percent of the total loaded trailer weight (B). After you’ve loaded your trailer, weigh the trailer and then the tongue, separately, to see if the weights are proper. If they aren’t, you may be able to get them right simply by moving some items around in the trailer. Total Weight on Your Vehicle’s Tires Be sure your vehicle’s tires are inflated to the upper limit for cold tires. You’ll find these numbers on the Tire-Loading Information Label at the rear edge of the driver’s door, or see Loading Your Vehicle on page 4-34. Then be sure you don’t go over the GVW limit for your vehicle, including the weight of the trailer tongue.


Hitches It’s important to have the correct hitch equipment. Crosswinds, large trucks going by and rough roads are a few reasons why you’ll need the right hitch. Here are some rules to follow: 8 The rear bumper on your vehicle is not intended for

hitches. Do not attach rental hitches or other bumper-type hitches to it. Use only a frame-mounted hitch that does not attach to the bumper. Will you have to make any holes in the body of your vehicle when you install a trailer hitch? If you do, then be sure to seal the holes later when you remove the hitch. If you don’t seal them, deadly carbon monoxide (CO) from your exhaust can get into your vehicle. See Engine Exhaust on page 2-31. Dirt and water can, too.

Safety Chains You should always attach chains between your vehicle and your trailer. Cross the safety chains under the tongue of the trailer so that the tongue will not drop to the road if it becomes separated from the hitch. Instructions about safety chains may be provided by the hitch manufacturer or by the trailer manufacturer.

Follow the manufacturer’s recommendation for attaching safety chains and do not attach them to the bumper. Always leave just enough slack so you can turn with your rig. And, never allow safety chains to drag on the ground. Trailer Brakes Does your trailer have its own brakes? Be sure to read and follow the instructions for the trailer brakes so you’ll be able to install, adjust and maintain them properly. Do not try to tap into your vehicle’s brake system. If you do, both brake systems won’t work well, or at all. Driving with a Trailer Towing a trailer requires a certain amount of experience. Before setting out for the open road, you’ll want to get to know your rig. Acquaint yourself with the feel of handling and braking with the added weight of the trailer. And always keep in mind that the vehicle you are driving is now a good deal longer and not nearly as responsive as your venicie is by iiseii.


Before you start, check the trailer hitch and platform (and attachments), safety chains, electrical connector, lamps, tires and mirror adjustment. If the trailer has electric brakes, start your vehicle and trailer moving and then apply the trailer brake controller by hand to be sure the brakes are working. This lets you check your electrical connection at the same time. During your trip, check occasionally to be sure that the load is secure, and that the lamps and any trailer brakes are still working. Following Distance Stay at least twice as far behind the vehicle ahead as you would when driving your vehicle without a trailer. This can help you avoid situations that require heavy braking and sudden turns. Passing You’ll need more passing distance up ahead when you’re towing a trailer. And, because you’re a good deal longer, you’ll need to go much farther beyond the passed vehicle before you can return to your lane. Backing Up Hold the bottom of the steering wheel with one hand. Then, to move the trailer to the left, just move that hand to the left. To move the trailer to the right, move your hand to the right. Always back up slowly and, if possible, have someone guide you.


Making Turns Notice: Making very sharp turns while trailering could cause the trailer to come in contact with the vehicle. Your vehicle could be damaged. Avoid making very sharp turns while trailering. When you’re turning with a trailer, make wider turns than normal. Do this so your trailer won’t strike soft shoulders, curbs, road signs, trees or other objects. Avoid jerky or sudden maneuvers. Signal well in advance. Turn Signals When Towing a Trailer When you tow a trailer, your vehicle may need a different turn signal flasher and/or extra wiring. Check with your dealer. The arrows on your instrument panel will flash whenever you signal a turn or lane change. Properly hooked up, the trailer lamps will also flash, telling other drivers you’re about to turn, change lanes or stop. When towing a trailer, the arrows on your instrument panel will flash for turns even if the bulbs on the trailer are burned out. Thus, you may think drivers behind you are seeing your signal when they are not. It’s important to check occasionally to be sure the trailer bulbs are still working.

Driving on Grades Notices Do not tow on steep continuous grades exceeding 6 miles (9.6 km). Extended, higher than normal engine and transaxle temperatures may result and damage your vehicle. Frequent stops are very important to allow the engine and transaxle to cool. Reduce speed and shift to a lower gear before you start down a long or steep downgrade. If you don’t shift down, you might have to use your brakes so much that they would get hot and no longer work well. On a long uphill grade, shift down and reduce your speed to around 45 mph (70 km/h) to reduce the possibility of engine and transaxle overheating. Pay attention to the engine coolant gage. If the indicator is in the red area, turn off the air conditioning to reduce engine load. See Engine Overheating on page 5-25.

Parking on Hills


,)ark y

r vehicle, with a You reall) hould trailer attached, on a hill. If something goes wrong, your rig could start to move. People can be injured, and both your vehicle and the trailer can be damaged.

But if you ever have to park your rig on a hill, here’s how to do it: 1. Apply your regular brakes, but don’t shift into

PARK (P) yet. When parking uphill, turn your wheels away from the curb. When parking downhill, turn your wheels into the curb.

2. Have someone place chocks under the trailer


3. When the wheel chocks are in place, release the regular brakes until the chocks absorb the load.

4. Reapply the regular brakes. Then apply your

parking brake, and then shift to PARK (P).

5. F?e!ease the regu!ar brakes.


When You Are Ready to Leave After Parking on a Hill 1. Apply your regular brakes and hold the pedal down

while you:

start your engine, shift into a gear, and release the parking brake. 2. Let up on the brake pedal. 3. Drive slowly until the trailer is clear of the chocks. 4. Stop and have someone pick up and store the


Maintenance When Trailer Towing Your vehicle will need service more often when you’re pulling a trailer. See Part A: Scheduled Maintenance Services on page 6-4 for more on this. Things that are especially important in trailer operation are automatic transaxle fluid (don’t overfill), engine oil, drive belt, cooling system and brake system. Each of these is covered in this manual, and the Index will help you find them quickly. If you’re trailering, it’s a good idea to review this information before you start your trip. Check periodically to see that all hitch nuts and bolts are tight. Engine Cooling When Trailer Towing Your cooling system may temporarily overheat during severe operating conditions. See Engine Overheating on page 5-25. Towing a Trailer (Manual Transaxle) Do not tow a trailer if your vehicle is equipped with a manual transaxle.


Section 5

Service and Appearance Care

Service ............................................................ 5.3 Doing Your Own Service Work ......................... 5.4 Adding Equipment to the Outside of Your

Fuel ................................................................

Vehicle ...................................................... 5.4 5.5 ............................................ 5.5 Gasoline Octane Gasoline Specifications .................................... 5.5 California Fuel ............................................... 5.6 Additives ....................................................... 5.6 Fuels in Foreign Countries ............................... 5.7 Filling Your Tank ............................................ 5-7 Filling a Portable Fuel Container .................... 5.9

Checking Things Under

the Hood .................................................... 5.10 Hood Release .............................................. 5.10 Engine Compartment Overview ....................... 5.12 Engine Oil ................................................... 5.14 Engine Air CleanedFilter ................................ 5.18 Automatic Transaxle Fluid .............................. 5.20 Manual Transaxle Fluid .................................. 5.20 Hydraulic Clutch ........................................... 5.21 Engine Coolant ............................................. 5.22 Coolant Surge Tank Pressure Cap .................. 5-24 Engine Overheating ....................................... 5.25 Cooling System ............................................ 5.27

................. 5-33 Power Steering Fluid ......... Windshield Washer Fluid ............................... 5-34 . . . . . . . . . 5-35 Brakes .................................... Battery ........................................ ..... 5-39 Jump Starting ............................................... 5-40 Bulb Replacement .......................................... 5-45 Halogen Bulbs .............................................. 5-45 Headlamps .................................................. 5-45 Front Turn Signal and Parking Lamps .............. 5-47 Taillamps and Turn Signal Lamps ................... 5-48 Back-up Lamps ............................................ 5-49 Replacement Bulbs ....................................... 5-49 .............. 5-50 Windshield Wiper Blade Replacement Tires .............................................................. 5-51 Inflation - Tire Pressure ................................ 5-52 Tire Inspection and Rotation ........................... 5-53 When It Is Time for New Tires ....................... 5-54 Buying New Tires ......................................... 5-55 Uniform Tire Quality Grading .......................... 5-56 Wheel Alignment and Tire Balance .................. 5-57 Wheel Replacement ...................................... 5-57 Tire Chains .................................................. 5-59 If a Tire Goes Flat ........................................ 5-60 Changing a Flat Tire ..................................... 5-60 Compact Spare Tire ...................................... 5-70

5- 1

Section 5 Service and Appearance Care

Electrical System ............................................ 5.81 Add-on Electrical Equipment .......................... 5.81 Headlamp Wiring .......................................... 5-81 Windshield Wiper Fuses ................................ 5-81 Power Windows and Other

Power Options .......................................... 5-81 Fuses and Circuit Breakers ............................ 5-81 Capacities and Specifications .......................... 5-85 Normal Maintenance Replacement Parts .......... 5.86 .......... 5.86

Normal Maintenance Replacement Parts

Appearance Care ............................................ 5.71 Cleaning the Inside of Your Vehicle ................. 5-71 Care of Safety Belts ...................................... 5.74 Weatherstrips .............................................. 5.74 Cleaning the Outside of Your Vehicle ................. 5-74 Sheet Metal Damage ..................................... 5.77 Finish Damage ............................................. 5.77 ................................ 5.77 Underbody Maintenance Chemical Paint Spotting ................................. 5.78 GM Vehicle Care/Appearance Materials ........... 5.78 Vehicle Identification ...................................... 5.80 Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) ................. 5-80 Service Parts Identification Label ..................... 5.80


Service Your dealer knows your vehicle best and wants you to be happy with it. We hope you'll go to your dealer for all your service needs. You'll get genuine GM parts and GM-trained and supported service people. We hope you'll want to keep your GM vehicle all GM. Genuine GM parts have one of these marks:

7 -


Doing Your Own Service Work

If you want to do some of your own service work, you’ll want to use the proper service manual. It tells you much more about how to service your vehicle than this manual can. To order the proper service manual, see Service Publications Ordering information on page 7-1 1. Your vehicle has an air bag system. Before attempting to do your own service work, see Servicing Your Air Bag-Equipped Vehicle on page 1-60. You should keep a record with all parts receipts and list the mileage and the date of any service work you perform. See Part E: Maintenance Record on page 6-26.


You can be injured and your vehicle could be damaged if you try to do service work on a vehicle without knowing enough about it.

Be sure you have sufficient knowledge, experience, the proper replacement parts and tools before you attempt any vehicle maintenance task. Be sure to use the proper nuts, bolts and other fasteners. “English” and “metric” fasteners can be easily confused. If you use the wrong fasteners, parts can later break or fall off. You could be hurt.

Adding Equipment to the Outside of Your Vehicle Things you might add to the outside of your vehicle can affect the airflow around it. This may cause wind noise and affect windshield washer performance. Check with your dealer before adding equipment to the outside of your vehicle.

Fuel Use of the recommended fuel is an important part of the proper maintenance of your vehicle. Gasoline Octane Use regular unleaded gasoline with a posted octane of 87 or higher. If the octane is less than 87, you may get a heavy knocking noise when you drive. If this occurs, use a gasoline rated at 87 octane or higher as soon as possible. Otherwise, you might damage your engine. A little pinging noise when you accelerate or drive uphill is considered normal. This does not indicate a problem exists or that a higher-octane fuel is necessary. If you are using 87 octane or higher-octane fuel and hear heavy knocking, your engine needs service.

Gasoline Specifications

It is recommended that gasoline meet specifications which were developed by the American Automobile Manufacturers Association and endorsed by the Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers Association for better vehicle performance and engine protection. Gasoline meeting these specifications could provide improved driveability and emission control system performance compared to other gasoline.

In Canada, look for the “Auto Makers’ Choice” label on the pump.

Canada Only


California Fuel If your vehicle is certified to meet California Emission Standards (see the underhood emission control label), it is designed to operate on fuels that meet California specifications. If this fuel is not available in states adopting California emissions standards, your vehicle will operate satisfactorily on fuels meeting federal specifications, but emission control system performance may be affected. The malfunction indicator lamp may turn on (see Malfunction Indicator Lamp on page 3-30 ) and your vehicle may fail a smog-check test. If this occurs, return to your authorized GM dealer for diagnosis. If it is determined that the condition is caused by the type of fuel used, repairs may not be covered by your warranty. Additives To provide cleaner air, all gasolines in the United States are now required to contain additives that will help prevent engine and fuel system deposits from forming, allowing your emission control system to work properly. You should not have to add anything to your fuel.

Gasolines containing oxygenates, such as ethers and ethanol, and reformulated gasolines may be available in your area to contribute to clean air. General Motors recommends that you use these gasolines, particularly if they comply with the specifications described earlier. Notice: Your vehicle was not designed for fuel that contains methanol. Don’t use fuel containing methanol. It can corrode metal parts in your fuel system and also damage the plastic and rubber parts. That damage wouldn’t be covered under your warranty. Some gasolines that are not reformulated for low emissions may contain an octane-enhancing additive called methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT); ask the attendant where you buy gasoline whether the fuel contains MMT. General Motors does not recommend the use of such gasolines. Fuels containing MMT can reduce the life of spark plugs and the performance of the emission control system may be affected. The malfunction indicator lamp may turn on. If this occurs, return to your authorized GM dealer for service.


Fuels in Foreign Countries

If you plan on driving in another country outside the United States or Canada, the proper fuel may be hard to find. Never use leaded gasoline or any other fuel not recommended in the previous text on fuel. Costly repairs caused by use of improper fuel wouldn’t be covered by your warranty. To check the fuel availability, ask an auto club, or contact a major oil company that does business in the country where you’ll be driving.

Filling Your Tank

Fuel !--&or is highl, _____ imable. It burns violently, and that can cause very bad injuries. uon’t smoke it you’re near tuei or retueiing your vehicle. Keep sparks, flames and smoking materials away from fuel.

The fuel cap is located behind a hinged door on the passenger’s side of your vehicle.


If you get fuel on yourself and then something ignites it, you could be badly burned. Fuel can spray out on you if you open the fuel cap too quickly. This spray can happen if your tank is nearly full, and is more likely in hot weather. Open the fuel cap slowly and wait for any “hiss” noise to stop. Then unscrew the cap all the way.

Be careful not to spill fuel. Clean fuel from painted surfaces as soon as possible. See Cleaning the Outside of Your Vehicle on page 5-74.

While refueling, hang the fuel cap inside the fuel door by placing the fuel cap tether in the hanger. To remove the fuel cap, turn it slowly to the left (counterclockwise). The fuel cap has a spring in it; if you let go of the cap too soon, it will spring back to the right.


When you put the fuel cap back on, turn it to the right (clockwise) until you hear a clicking sound. Make sure you fully install the cap. The diagnostic system can determine if the fuel cap has been left off or improperly installed. This would allow fuel to evaporate into the atmosphere. See Malfunction Indicator Lamp on page 3-30.

Notice: If you need a new fuel cap, be sure to get the right type. Your dealer can get one for you. If you get the wrong type, it may not fit properly. This may cause your malfunction indicator lamp to light and may damage your fuel tank and emissions system. See “Malfunction Indicator Lamp” in the Index.

Filling a r Irt



II a port; e fuel

ainer while it

Nevel is in your vehicle. Static electricity discharge from the container can ignite the gasoline vapor. You can be badly burned and your vehicle damaged if this occurs. To help avoid injury to you and others:

0 Dispense gasoline only into approved


0 Do not fill a container while it is inside a

vehicle, in a vehicle’s trunk, pickup bed or on any surface other than the ground. Bring the fill nozzle in contact with the inside of the fill opening before operating the nozzle. Contact should be maintained until the filling is complete. Don’t smoke while pumping gasoline.


Checking Things Under the Hood

Hood Release To open the hood, do the following.

1. Pull the handle located

inside the vehicle on the driver’s side under the instrument panel.

An electric fan under the hood can start up and injure you even when the engine is not running. Keep hands, clothing and tools away from any underhood electric fan.


Things that burn can get on hot and start a fire. These include liquids like fuel, oil, coolant, brake fluid, windshield washer and other fluids, and plastic or rubber. You or others could be burned. Be careful not to drop or spill things that will burn onto a hot engine.


5-1 0

2. Then go to the front of the vehicle and lift up on the secondary hood release lever. The secondary hood release lever is located near the front center of the hood toward the driver’s side.

are on properly. Then lift the hood to relieve pressure on the hood prop. Remove the hood prop from the slot in the hood and return the prop to its retainer. Lower the hood 8 to 10 inches (20 to 25 cm) above the vehicle and release it to latch fully. Check to make sure the hood is C!QSPc! 2nd repe2t the prnresc if necessary

5-1 1

Engine Compartment Overview When you open the hood on the engine, you’ll see the following:

5-1 2

A. Coolant Surge Tank 6. Engine Oil Dipstick C. Engine Oil Fill Cap D. Brake Fluid Reservoir E. Power Steering Fluid Reservoir

F. Clutch Master Cylinder Reservoir

(If Equipped) (Not Shown)

G. Battery H. Engine Air Cleaner/Filter I. Windshield Washer Fluid Reservoir

5-1 3

Engine Oil

If the oil pressure light appears on the instrument cluster, it means you need to check your engine oil level right away.

For more information, see Oil Pressure Light on page 3-33. YOU should check your engine oil level regularly; this is an added reminder.

Checking Engine Oil It’s a good idea to check your engine oil every time you get fuel. In order to get an accurate reading, the oil must be warm and the vehicle must be on level ground.

Check the oil here. The dipstick’s handle will be a yellow ring. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5- 12 for more information.

Turn off the engine and give the oil several minutes to drain back into the oil pan. If you don’t, the oil dipstick might not show the actual level. Pull out the dipstick and clean it with a paper towel or cloth, then push it back in all the way. Remove it again, keeping the tip down, and check the level.

5-1 4

When to Add Engine Oil If the oil is at or below the MIN mark, then you’ll need to add at least one quart of oil. But you must use the right kind. This part explains what kind of oil to use. For engine oil crankcase capacity, see Capacities and Specifications on page 5-85. Notice: Don’t add too much oil. If your engine has so much oil that the oil level gets above the upper mark that shows the proper operating range, your engine could be damaged.

This is where you add oil. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12 for more information on location. Be sure to fill it enough to put the level somewhere in the proper operating range. Push the dipstick all the way back in when you’re through.

5-1 5

What Kind of Engine Oil to Use Oils recommended for your vehicle can be identified by looking for the starburst symbol. This symbol indicates that the oil has been certified by the American Petroleum Institute (API). Do not use any oil which does not carry this starburst symbol.

If you choose to perform the engine oil change service yourself, be sure the oil you use has the starburst symbol on the front of the oil container. If you have your oil changed for you, be sure the oil put into your engine is American Petroleum Institute certified for gasoline engines.

You should also use the proper viscosity oil for your vehicle, as shown in the viscosity chart.

5-1 6









As in the chart shown previously, SAE 5W-30 is the only viscosity grade recommended for your vehicle. You should look for atid use only oils which have the API Starburst symbol and which are also identified as SAE 5W-30. If you cannot find such SAE 5W-30 oils, you can use an SAE IOW-30 oil which has the API Starburst symbol, if it's going to be 0°F (-18°C) or above. Do not use other viscosity grade oils, such as SAE IOW-40 or SAE 20W-50 under any conditions. Nofice: Use only engine oil with the American Petroleum Institute Certified For Gasoline Engines starburst symbol. Failure to use the recommended oil can result in engine damage not covered by your warranty. GM Goodwrench@ oil meets all the requirements for your vehicle. If you are in an area of extreme cold, where the temperature falls below -20°F (-29"C), it is recommended that you use either an SAE 5W-30 synthetic oil or an SAE OW-30 oil. Both will provide at extremely low temperatures. Engine Oil Additives Don't add anything to your oil. The recommended oils with the starburst symbol are all you will need for good performance and engine protection.

C Z ! ~ ~ts,r?iz:n, zzd beiier pmtecti~n f9r \ r n l

3" . - J - - ' lr ennino

When to Change Engine Oil If any one of these are true for you, use the short tripkity maintenance schedule:

Most trips are less than 5 miles (8 km). This is particularly important when outside temperatures are below freezing. Most trips include extensive idling (such as frequent driving in stop-and-go traffic). You frequently tow a trailer or use a carrier on top of your vehicle. The vehicle is used for delivery service, police, taxi or other commercial application.

Driving under these conditions causes engine oil to break down sooner. If any one of these is true for your vehicle, then you need to change your oil and filter every 3,000 miles (5 000 km) or 3 months - whichever occurs first . If none of them is true, use the long trip/highway maintenance scneauie. Cnange ine oii and iiiier every 7,500 miles (1 2 500 km) or 12 months - whichever occurs first. Driving a vehicle with a fully warmed engine under highway conditions will cause engine oil to break down slower.

5-1 7

Engine Air CleaneVFilter

I :, + . < , ;i :., i. ; ",,i ''I

. ,' i'.

The engine air cleanedfilter is located on the driver's side of the engine compartment near the battery. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12 for more information on location.

Your vehicle has a unique oil filter element. When installing the filter cap do not exceed 18 Ib-ft (25 Nsm ). Inspect the condition of the O-ring and replace if damaged. See your dealer for additional information. What to Do with Used Oil Used engine oil contains certain elements that may be unhealthy for your skin and could even cause cancer. Don't let used oil stay on your skin for very long. Clean your skin and nails with soap and water, or a good hand cleaner. Wash or properly dispose of clothing or rags containing used engine oil. See the manufacturer's warnings about the use and disposal of oil products. Used oil can be a threat to the environment. If you change your own oil, be sure to drain all the oil from the filter before disposal. Never dispose of oil by putting it in the trash, pouring it on the ground, into sewers, or into streams or bodies of water. Instead, recycle it by taking it to a place that collects used oil. If you have a problem properly disposing of your used oil, ask your dealer, a service station or a local recycling center for help.

5-1 8

To check or replace the filter, remove the screws that hold the cover on and lift off the cover. Be sure to reinstall the cover tightly. Refer to the Maintenance Schedule to determine when to replace the air filter. see Pan A: Scneauiea iviainsenance Services on page 6-4.

5-1 9

Automatic Transaxle Fluid It is not necessary to check the transaxle fluid level. A transaxle fluid leak is the only reason for fluid loss. If a leak occurs, take the vehicle to the dealership service department and have it repaired as soon as possible. You may also have your fluid level checked by your dealer or service center when you have your oil changed. Change both the fluid and filter every 50,000 miles (83 000 km) if the vehicle is mainly driven under one or more of these conditions:

In heavy city traffic where the outside temperature regularly reaches 90°F (32°C) or higher. In hilly or mountainous terrain. When doing frequent trailer towing. Uses such as found in taxi, police or delivery service.

If you do not use your vehicle under any of these conditions, the fluid and filter do not require changing.

Notice: We recommend you use only fluid labeled DEXRON@-Ill, because fluid with that label is made especially for your automatic transaxle. Damage caused by fluid other than DEXRON@-Ill is not covered by your new vehicle warranty. Manual Transaxle Fluid It is not necessary to check the transaxle fluid level. A transaxle fluid leak is the only reason for fluid loss. If a leak occurs, take the vehicle to the dealership service department and have it repaired as soon as possible. You may also have your fluid level checked by your dealer or service center when you have your oil changed. See Part D: Recommended Fluids and Lubricants on page 6-24 for the proper fluid to use.


When to Check and What to Use

Hydraulic Clutch The hydraulic clutch linkage in your vehicle is self-adjusting. The master cylinder reservoir is filled with hydraulic fluid. It is not necessary to regularly check the fluid unless you suspect there is a leak in the system. Adding fluid won’t correct a leak. A fluid loss in this system could indicate a problem. Have the system inspected and repaired.

How to Check and Add Fluid You do not need to check the fluid level unless you suspect a clutch problem. To check the fluid level, take the cap off. If the fluid reaches the step inside the reservoir, the fluid level is correct. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-72 for more information on location.

5-2 1

Engine Coolant The cooling system in your vehicle is filled with DEX-COOL@ engine coolant. This coolant is designed to remain in your vehicle for 5 years or 150,000 miles (240 000 km), whichever occurs first, if you add only DEX-COOL@ extended life coolant. The following explains your cooling system and how to add coolant when it is low. If you have a problem with engine overheating, see Engine Overheating on page 5-25. A 50/50 mixture of clean, drinkable water and DEX-COOL@ coolant will:

Give freezing protection down to -34°F (-37°C). Give boiling protection up to 265°F (129°C). Protect against rust and corrosion. Help keep the proper engine temperature. Let the warning lights and gages work as they should.


Notice: When adding coolant, it is important that you use only DEX-COOL@ (silicate-free) coolant. If coolant other than DEX-COOL@ is added to the system, premature engine, heater core or radiator corrosion may result. In addition, the engine coolant will require change sooner - at 30,000 miles (50,000 km) or 24 months, whichever occurs first. Damage caused by the use of coolant other than DEX-COOL@ is not covered by your new vehicle warranty. What to Use Use a mixture of one-half clean, drinkable water and one-half DEX-COOL@ coolant which won’t damage aluminum parts. If you use this coolant mixture, you don’t nee

o add an

ling else.

Adding only plain watel system can be dangerous. Plain water, or some other liquid such as alcohol, can boil before the proper coolant mixture will.

1 your cc



(Continued) I

Your vehicle’s coolant warning system is set for the proper coolant mixture. With plain water or the wrong mixture, your engine could get too hot but you wouldn’t get the overheat warning. Your engine could catch fire and you or others could be burned. Use a 50/50 mixture of clean, drinkable water and DEX-COOL@ coolant.

Notice: If you use an improper coolant mixture, your engine could overheat and be badly damaged. The repair cost wouldn’t be covered by your warranty. Too much water in the mixture can freeze and crack the engine, radiator, heater core and other parts. If you have to add coolant more than four times a year, I V pr\nl;nn r\,c)nm h n q , n ~ , n v ~ v C l n o l n v nhnrrl, ~ ~ A I I I. I I U V G y U U l UCIUICII -I I’CIut\ y v u a v v v l # # ay u y u k v ~ Notice: If you use the proper coolant, you don’t have to add extra inhibitors or additives which claim to improve the system. These can be harmful.

Checking Coolant


I..-* --- -11 -...

Turning the s 3e tank pressure cap when the

-.-^I ---I:-*-.. allu l a u l a ~ w l am= I I W L b a l l a l l u v u a L = a I I I ~ I I ~ I I I ~ and scalding liquids to blow out and burn you badly. Never turn the surge tank pressure cap - even a little - when the engine and radiator are hot.

-+ I--




The vehicle must be on a level surface. When your engine is cold, the coolant level should be at the FULL COLD mark.

If the low coolant light comes on and stays on, it means you’re low on engine coolant. See Low Coolant Warning Light on page 3-30.

Adding Coolant If you need more coolant, add the proper DEX-COOL@ coolant mixture at the surge tank, but only when the engine is cool. If the surge tank is empty, a special fill procedure is necessary. See Engine Overheating on page 5-25 for instructions on “How to Add Coolant to the Coolant Surge Tank”.

You ca.. Je ou engine parts. Coolant contains ethylene glycol, and it will burn if the engine parts are hot enough. Don’t spill coolant on a hot engine.

sp coc nt on hot

When replacing the pressure cap, make sure it is hand-tight. Coolant Surge Tank Pressure Cap

Notice: Your pressure cap is a pressure-type cap and must be tightly installed to prevent coolant loss and possible engine damage from overheating. See “Capacities and Specifications” for more information.


Engine Overheating You will find a coolant temperature gage and a low coolant warning light on your vehicle’s instrument panel. See Engine Coolant Temperature Gage on page 3-29 and Low Coolant Warning Light on page 3-30. If Steam Is Coming From Your Engine

Steam from an c - drheated engine can burn you badly, even if you just open the hood. Stay away from the engine if you see or hear steam coming from it. Just turn it off and get everyone away from the vehicle until it cools down. Wait until there is no sign of steam or coolant before you open the hood. If you keep driving when your engine is overheated, the liquids in it can catch fire. You or others could be badly burned. Stop your engine if it overheats, and get out of the vehicle until the engine is cool.

Notice: If your engine catches fire because you keep driving with no coolant, your vehicle can he had!y damaged- The costly repairs would not be covered by your warranty.


If No Steam Is Coming From Your Engine An overheat warning, along with a low coolant light, can indicate a serious problem. See Low Coolant Warning Light on page 3-30. If you get an engine overheat warning with no low coolant light, but see or hear no steam, the problem may not be too serious. Sometimes the engine can get a little too hot when you:

Climb a long hill on a hot day. Stop after high-speed driving. Idle for long periods in traffic. Tow a trailer.

If you get the overheat warning with no sign of steam, try this for a minute or so:

1. In heavy traffic, let the engine idle in NEUTRAL (N) while stopped. If it is safe to do so, pull off the road, shift to PARK (P) or NEUTRAL (N) and let the engine idle.

2. Turn on your heater to full hot at the highest fan

speed and open the window as necessary.

If you no longer have the overheat warning, you can drive. Just to be safe, drive slower for about 10 minutes. If the warning doesn’t come back on, you can drive normally. If the warning continues and you have not stopped, pull over, stop, and park your vehicle right away. If there’s still no sign of steam, you can idle the engine for three minutes while you’re parked. If you still have the warning, turn off the engine and get everyone out of the vehicle until it cools down. You may decide not to lift the hood but to get service help right away.


Cooling System

When you decide it’s safe to lift the hood, here’s what you’ll see:

An electric engine cooling fan under the hood can start up even when the engine is not running and can injure you. Keep hands, clothing and tools away from any underhood electric fan.

If the coolant inside the coolant surge tank is boiling, don’t do anything else until it cools down. The vehicle should be parked on a level surface.

A. Coolant Surge Tank with Pressure Cap 9. Electric Engine Cooling Fan


The coolant level should be at the FULL COLD mark. If it isn’t, you may have a leak at the pressure cap or in the radiator hoses, heater hoses, radiator, water pump or somewhere in the cooling system.

If there seems to be no leak, with the engine on, check to see if the electric engine cooling fan is running. If the engine is overheating, the fan should be running. If it isn’t, your vehicle needs service. Notice: Engine damage from running your engine without coolant isn’t covered by your warranty. Notice: When adding coolant, it is important that you use only DEX-COOL@ (siiicate-free) coolant. If coolant other than DEX-COOL@ is added to the system, premature engine, heater core or radiator corrosion may result. In addition, the engine coolant will require change sooner - at 30,000 miles (50 000 km) or 24 months, whichever occurs first. Damage caused by the use of coolant other than DEX-COOL@ is not covered by your new vehicle warranty.

hoses, and other eng,,,e

Heater and rac.,tor parts, can be very hot. Don’t touch them. If you do, you can be burned. Don’t run the engine if there is a leak. If you run the engine, it could lose all coolant. That could cause an engine fire, and you could be burned. Get any leak fixed before you drive the vehicle.


How to Add Coolant to the Coolant Surge Tank Notice: This vehicle has a specific coolant fill procedure. Failure to follow this procedure could cause your engine to overheat and be severely damaged. If you haven’t found a problem yet, check to see if coolant is visible in the surge tank. If coolant is visible but the coolant level isn’t at the FULL COLD mark, add a 50/50 mixture of clean, drinkable water and DEX-COOL@ coolant at the coolant surge tank, but be sure the cooling system, including the coolant surge tank pressure cap, is cool before you do it. See Engine Coolant on page 5-22 for more information. If no coolant is visible in the surge tank, add coolant as follows:

Steam and scalding liquids from a hot c ling system can blow out and burn you badly. They are under pressure, and if you turn the



Never turn the cap when the cooling system, including the coolant surge tank pressure cap, is hot. Wait for the cooling system and coolant surge tank pressure cap to cool if you ever have to turn the pressure cap.


,JU spill coolant on hot

You can be burnet engine parts. Coolant contains ethylene glycol and it will burn if the engine parts are hot enough. Don’t spill coolant on a hot engine.


1. Park the vehicle on a level surface. You can remove the coolant surge tank pressure cap when the cooling system, including the coolant surge tank pressure cap and upper radiator hose, is no longer hot. Turn the pressure cap slowly counterclockwise (left) about two or two and one-half turns. If you hear a hiss, wait for that to stop. This will allow any pressure still left to be vented out the discharge hose.



1 plain vl-_er to your

Adding c system can be dangerous. Plain water, or .some other liquid such as alcohol, can boil before the proper coolant mixture will. Your vehicle’s coolant warning system is set for the proper coolant mixture. With plain water or the wrong mixture, your engine could get too hot but you wouldn’t get the overheat warning. Your engine could catch fire and you or others could be burned. Use a 50/50 mixture of clean, drinkable water and DEX COOL@ coolant.

Notice: In cold weather, water can freeze and crack the engine, radiator, heater core and other parts. Use the recommended coolant and the proper coolant mixture.


2. Then keep turning the

pressure cap slowly, and remove it.

3. Then fill the coolant surge tank with the proper

mixture, to the hash mark on the label. Wait about five minutes, then check to see if the level is below the hash mark. If the level is below the hash mark, add additional coolant to bring the level up to the hash mark. Repeat this procedure until the level remains constant at the hash mark for at least five minutes.


4. With the coolant surge tank pressure cap off, start the engine and let it run until you can feel the upper radiator hose getting hot. Watch out for the engine cooling fan

5. Then replace the

pressure cap. Be sure the pressure cap is hand-tight and fully seated. See your dealer, if necessary.

By this time, the coolant level inside the coolant surge tank may be lower. If the level is lower than the FULL COLD mark, add more of the proper mixture to the coolant surge tank until the level reaches the FULL COLD mark.


Power Steering Fluid

The power steering fluid reservoir is located toward the front of the engine compartment on the driver’s side of the vehicle. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12 for more information on location.

When to Check Power Steering Fluid

It is not necessary to regularly check power steering fluid unless you suspect there is a leak in the system or you hear an unusual noise. A fluid loss in this system could indicate a problem. Have the system inspected and repaired. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5-12 for reservoir location. How to Check Power Steering Fluid

Turn the key off, let the engine compartment cool down, wipe the cap and the top of the reservoir clean, then unscrew the cap and wipe the dipstick with a clean rag. Replace the cap and completely tighten it. Then remove the cap again and look at the fluid level on the dipstick. The level should be at the “C” mark. If necessary, add only enough fluid to bring the level up to the mark. What to Use ?c det,errmIr!e Inrh2t kind c? ?!L!id k! Recommended Fluids and Lubricants on page 6-24. Always use the proper fluid. Failure to use the proper fluid can cause leaks and damage hoses and seals.

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Windshield Washer Fluid What to Use When you need windshield washer fluid, be sure to read the manufacturer’s instructions before use. If you will be operating your vehicle in an area where the temperature may fall below freezing, use a fluid that has sufficient protection against freezing. See Engine Compartment Overview on page 5- 12 for reservoir location. Adding Washer Fluid

Open the cap with the washer symbol on it. Add washer fluid until the tank is full.


When using concentrated washer fluid, follow the manufacturer’s instructions for adding water. Don’t mix water with ready-to-use washer fluid. Water can cause the solution to freeze and damage your washer fluid tank and other parts of the washer system. Also, water doesn’t clean as well as washer fluid. Fill your washer fluid tank only three-quarters full when it’s very cold. This allows for expansion if freezing occurs, which could damage the tank if it is completely full. Don’t use engine coolant (antifreeze) in your windshield washer. It can damage your washer system and paint.


Brakes Brake Fluid

is on the driver’s

Your brake master cylinder reservoir side of the engine compartment. It is filled with DOT-3 brake tluid. See tngrne Compartment Uvervlew on page 5- 12. There are only two reasons why the brake fluid level in the reservoir might go down. The first is that the brake fluid goes down to an acceptable level during normal brake lining viear. L*Jhen new linir;gs are put in, the flllid

level goes back up. The other reason is that fluid is leaking out of the brake system. If it is, you should have your brake system fixed, since a leak means that sooner or later your brakes won’t work well, or won’t work at all. So, it isn’t a good idea to “top off” your brake fluid. Adding brake fluid won’t correct a leak. If you add fluid when your linings are worn, then you’ll have too much fluid when you get new brake linings. You should add (or remove) brake fluid, as necessary, only when work is done on the brake hydraulic system.

If you have too much brake fluid, it can spill on the engine. The fluid will burn if the engine is hot enough. You or others could be burned, and your vehicle could be damaged. Add brake fluid only when work is done on the brake h w r i r ~ u ~ l i ~ c t r c t n m ’ * J -’ --.*- - J - - “ ” ’

When your brake fluid falls to a low level, your brake warning light will come on. See Brake System Warning Light on page 3-26.


What to Add When you do need brake fluid, use only DOT-3 brake fluid. Use new brake fluid from a sealed container only. See Part D: Recommended Fluids and Lubricants on page 6-24. Always clean the brake fluid reservoir cap and the area around the cap before removing it. This will help keep dirt from entering the reservoir.

With the wrong kind of fluid ... your brake system, your brakes may not work well, or they may not even work at all. This could cause a crash. Always use the proper brake fluid.

Notice: 0 Using the wrong fluid can badly damage brake system parts. For example, just a few drops of mineral-based oil, such as engine oil, in your brake system can damage brake system parts so badly that they’ll have to be replaced. Don’t let someone put in the wrong kind of fluid. If you spill brake fluid on your vehicle’s painted surfaces, the paint finish can be damaged. Be careful not to spill brake fluid on your vehicle. If you do, wash it off immediately. See “Appearance Care” in the Index.


Brake Wear Your vehicle has front disc brakes and rear drum brakes. Disc brake pads have built-in wear indicators that make a high-pitched warning sound when the brake pads are worn and new pads are needed. The sound may come and go or be heard all the time your vehicle is moving (except when you are pushing on the brake pedal firmly).


The brake v1 Ir warning sound eans that soon your brakes won’t work well. That could lead to an accident. When you hear the brake wear warning sound, have your vehicle serviced.

Notice: Continuing to drive with worn-out brake pads could result in costlv brake repair.

Some driving conditions or climates may cause a brake squeal when the brakes are first applied or lightly applied. This does not mean something is wrong with your brakes- See CalipedKnuckle Maintenance Inspection on mae 6-23. Properly torqued wheel nuts are necessary to help prevent brake pulsation. When tires are rotated, inspect brake pads for wear and evenly tighten wheel nuts in the proper sequence to GM torque specifications. Your rear drum brakes don’t have wear indicators, but if you ever hear a rear brake rubbing noise, have the rear brake linings inspected immediately. Also, the rear brake drums should be removed and inspected each time the tires are removed for rotation or chanaina. When you have the front brake pads replaced, have the rear brakes inspected, too. Brake linings should always be replaced as complete axle sets. See Brake Svstem Inspection on page 6-23.


Brake Pedal Travel See your dealer if the brake pedal does not return to normal height, or if there is a rapid increase in pedal travel. This could be a sign of brake trouble. Brake Adjustment Every time you make a moderate brake stop, your disc brakes adjust for wear. If you rarely make a moderate or heavier stop, then your brakes might not adjust correctly. If you drive in that way, carefully - make a few moderate brake stops about every 1,000 miles (1 600 km), so your brakes will adjust properly. If your brake pedal goes down farther than normal, your rear drum brakes may need adjustment. Adjust them by backing up and firmly applying the brakes a few times.

then - very

Replacing Brake System Parts The braking system on a vehicle is complex. Its many parts have to be of top quality and work well together if the vehicle is to have really good braking. Your vehicle was designed and tested with top-quality GM brake parts. When you replace parts of your braking system -for example, when your brake linings wear down and you need new ones put in - be sure you get new approved GM replacement parts. If you don’t, your brakes may no longer work properly. For example, if someone puts in brake linings that are wrong for your vehicle, the balance between your front and rear brakes can change -for the worse. The braking performance you’ve come to expect can change in many other ways if someone puts in the wrong replacement brake parts.